References of "Malaisse, François"
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See detailInterprétation paysagère du processus d’urbanisation à Lubumbashi (RD Congo): dynamique de la structure spatiale et suivi des indicateurs écologiques entre 2002 et 2008
Useni Sikuzani, Yannick; Andre, Marie ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege et al

in Mahy, Grégory; Colinet, Gilles; Bogaert, Jan (Eds.) Anthropisation des paysages katangais (2018)

Lubumbashi is one of the fastest growing African cities with annual population growth rates of 5 %. Its urban population growth leads to a rapid urban growth associated with several environmental problems ... [more ▼]

Lubumbashi is one of the fastest growing African cities with annual population growth rates of 5 %. Its urban population growth leads to a rapid urban growth associated with several environmental problems. This study test hypothesis that rapid built-up growth is followed by natural habitats decrease and creates favorable conditions for the spread of Tithonia diversifolia, an invasive specie. From two SPOT satellite images from 2002 and 2008 supported by field visits, seven land cover classes were obtained and the accuracy of the classification was verified. Landscape dynamic has been demonstrated through a transition matrix, by calculating spatial pattern metrics and identification of spatial transformation processes. The results obtained show that built-up covering 32 % of the landscape in 2008 against 22.6 % of the landscape in 2002. Its growth, followed by Tithonia diversifolia and anthropogenic vegetation, operates to the detriment of natural classes. The effect of human impact was translated by the increase of disturbance index which increased from 1.9 to 3.3 in six years, confirming that in the study area, natural classes are removed parallel to aggregation and creating of anthropogenic classes. The study area has undergone significant changes related to urban growth, which implies establishing efficient urban planning and management policies to reverse this trend. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the Spatial Pattern and Ecological Functionalities of Green Spaces in Lubumbashi (the Democratic Republic of Congo) in Relation With the Degree of Urbanization
Useni Sikuzani, Yannick; Sambieni, Kouagou Raoul ULiege; Maréchal, Justine et al

in Tropical Conservation Science (2018), 11

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See detailChapitre 16 : Approvisionnement en charbon de bois des ménages lushois : quantités, alternatives et conséquences
Djibu Kabulu, Jean-Pierre; Vranken, Isabelle; Bastin, Jean-François et al

in Bogaert, Jan; Colinet, Gilles; Mahy, Grégory (Eds.) Anthropisation des paysages katangais (2018)

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See detailApprovisionnement en charbon de bois des ménages lushois: quantités, alternatives et conséquences
Djibu Kabulu, Jean-Pierre; Vranken, Isabelle; Bastin, Jean-François et al

in Bogaert, Jan; Colinet, Gilles; Mahy, Grégory (Eds.) Anthropisation des paysages katangais (2018)

Artisanal exploitation of the miombo forest to cover the increased energy needs of the urban centres of the Katanga Province accelerates its regression. We tried to understand the origin of the wood-based ... [more ▼]

Artisanal exploitation of the miombo forest to cover the increased energy needs of the urban centres of the Katanga Province accelerates its regression. We tried to understand the origin of the wood-based energy consumption and have chosen to target the supply of the city of Lubumbashi. Although fuel based on wood and electric power are the two types of energy used, our results indicate that virtually all households make more use of fuel based on wood; 72% of the families only use this type of energy for their household needs. The total quantity of charcoal entering monthly in Lubumbashi in 2008 (months of June and July) by road and by different modes of transport is estimated at 805.4 tons, which corresponds to a minimum consumption of 1 bag of 50 kg of charcoal per household per year. These wood-based fuels are extracted mainly from the immediate hinterland of Lubumbashi, especially from Likasi and Kasenga situated in the north of the city, contributing to 53.5% of all entries. Our observations suggest that, together with the mining industry, the production of charcoal is a major cause of forest fragmentation and degradation in Katanga. In order to protect the forest ecosystems in the region of Lubumbashi, hope relies on electrical energy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Katanga, une mosaïque d'écosystèmes en mutation: une approche globale
Malaisse, François ULiege

in Bogaert, Jan; Colinet, Gilles; Mahy, Grégory (Eds.) Anthropisation des paysages katangais (2018)

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See detailFourteen years of anthropization dynamics in the Uapaca bojeri Baill. forest of Madagascar
de Haulleville, Thales ULiege; Rakotondrasoa, O. L.; Rakoto Ratsimba, H. et al

in Landscape and Ecological Engineering (2018), 14(1), 135-146

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of ... [more ▼]

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of deforestation are required, coupled with detailed analysis of both spatial transformation processes and forest patch geometry. We conducted such a comprehensive study in a monospecific Uapaca bojeri (Baill.) forest of Madagascar, between 1999 and 2013. A diachronic set of four maps was produced and deforestation rates were calculated. Spatial transformation processes were described using Bogaert et al. (2004) typology. Forest patch geometry was monitored using largest patch index, mean patch size, and squared mean patch size to describe patch size dynamics, mean shape index and area weighted mean shape index to describe patch compactness, and fractal dimension analysis to describe patch outline complexity. For fractal dimension analysis, an innovative segmented regression model (Muggeo 2008) was used to separately quantify fractal dimensions for multiple ranges of patch sizes. Our results showed a growing anthropization of the U. bojeri forest landscape in the area, through a strong yet decelerating deforestation (from − 59.5% year−1 between 1999 and 2005 to − 2.84% year−1 between 2009 and 2013), clear forest fragmentation, and a subtle yet growing-in-scale simplification of patch geometry for small forest patches. Deforestation was artisanal in nature and, in 2013, large patches were withdrawing to less accessible topographic features. Our results forecast a medium-term loss of resilience of the U. bojeri forest in the area, if no direct forest conservation measures are taken. © 2018, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailEntandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague (Meliaceae), une espèce ligneuse concurrentielle en Afrique centrale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tabi Eckebil, Paule ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2017), 21(1), 80-97

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ... [more ▼]

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ligneux. Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague, de son nom commercial « sapelli/sapele », de la famille des Meliaceae, illustre parfaitement cette situation. Le présent article fait un état de l’art des connaissances concernant E. cylindricum et présente quelques informations sur la chenille qui lui est inféodée. Littérature. Le sapelli est une des espèces ligneuses les plus exploitées d’Afrique centrale pour son bois d’oeuvre. Il est répandu dans la forêt dense humide semi-caducifoliée du domaine guinéo-congolais. C’est une espèce semi-héliophile, son mode de dispersion est anémochore et sa phénologie est régulière. Selon la sylviculture appliquée, sa croissance en diamètre peut atteindre jusque 0,82 cm par an. Cette essence est également l’hôte d’une espèce de chenille comestible riche en protéines, I. oyemensis Rougeot. Fortement appréciée par les populations locales, cette chenille fait également l’objet d’un commerce régional et international. Enfin, l’écorce du sapelli est reconnue pour son intérêt ethnobotanique, particulièrement en médecine traditionnelle. Conclusions. Les informations tirées de la littérature ont permis de mettre en évidence certaines lacunes relatives à l’écologie et au mode de reproduction de cette espèce et, ceci, en dépit de son importance pour le commerce du bois. De plus, les inconnues quant à la productivité et la saisonnalité des chenilles d’Imbrasia oyemensis sur cet arbre nécessitent de développer des recherches complémentaires pour garantir la durabilité de l’exploitation simultanée de la ressource ligneuse et non ligneuse et pour proposer des modes de gestion concertés entre exploitants industriels et populations locales. [less ▲]

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See detailVingt-cinq ans de monitoring de la dynamique spatiale des espaces verts en réponse á ('urbanisation dans les communes de la ville de Lubumbashi (Haut-Katanga, R.D. Congo)
Sikuzani, Y. U.; Kaleba, S. C.; Khonde, C. N. et al

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(4), 300-311

This study assessed the spatial-temporal dynamics of green spaces in response to urban growth for the seven municipalities of Lubumbashi city, Democratic Republic of the Congo between, 1989 and 2014 ... [more ▼]

This study assessed the spatial-temporal dynamics of green spaces in response to urban growth for the seven municipalities of Lubumbashi city, Democratic Republic of the Congo between, 1989 and 2014. Pattern analysis revealed that since 1989, the built-up proportion has gradually increased in all municipalities at the expense of green space area as a result of rapid demographic pressure coupled with a lack of an appropriate program for their preservation. In terms of pattern dynamics, green space extent has been dominated by attrition, fragmentation and dissection processes. This is opposed to creation and aggregation which characterized built-up areas. Our observations emphasize the need for a sustainable management of green spaces that takes into account the socio- economic context of each municipality. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rayon de déforestation autour de la ville de Lubumbashi (Haut-Katanga, R.D. Congo): Synthèse
Sikuzani, Y. U.; Malaisse, François ULiege; Kaleba, S. C. et al

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(3), 215-221

The Miombo woodland is a type of vegetation widely distributed in Zambezian Africa where it provides timber and non-timber forest products to millions of inhabitants. In Lubumbashi, the causes of its ... [more ▼]

The Miombo woodland is a type of vegetation widely distributed in Zambezian Africa where it provides timber and non-timber forest products to millions of inhabitants. In Lubumbashi, the causes of its degradation, supported by rapid population growth, are mainly: (i) agricultural development, (ii) charcoal production, (Hi) urban expansion, and (iv) mining activities. We present a meta-analysis of the studies that have defined the deforestation radius around Lubumbashi. This radius, used both to express the area (circular area), intensity and the magnitude (distance to the city) of deforestation, was determined through in situ charcoal production and remote sensing. Although the city's ecological footprint is illustrated, estimates of the resulting deforested area do not appear to be consistent because of the variability of methodological protocols within and between approaches. While studies focusing on charcoal production suggest complete Miombo woodland suppression around the city, those based on remote sensing mention the persistence of Miombo patches relatively close to the city and sometimes confuse the different levels of miombo degradation. These observations prevent the development of an appropriate policy for the conservation and sustainable use of the concerned ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la dynamique du paysage forestier de la Réserve Speciale d'Ambatovaky (Nord-Est de Madagascar)
Rakotondrasoa, L. O.; Malaisse, François ULiege; Bogaert, Jan ULiege

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(4), 312-324

Madagascar shelters a unique biodiversity that faces numerous threats, such as human activities, which cause deforestation. The objective of this study was to identify the landscape forest's dynamics of ... [more ▼]

Madagascar shelters a unique biodiversity that faces numerous threats, such as human activities, which cause deforestation. The objective of this study was to identify the landscape forest's dynamics of the Reserve Speciale d'Ambatovaky (RSA) from 1996 to 2050 based upon a first order Markov chain model. For this purpose, LANDSAT images of 1996, 2004 and 2014 were used to compose the land cover maps. A transition matrix made it possible to simulate the composition of the landscape until 2050. The results showed that the forest area of RSA decreased and is substituted by a secondary formation called "savoka" that appears several years after the end of agricultural activities. Slash-and-burn agriculture, called locally "tavy", is a common practice of farmers in the coastal areas of Madagascar. Tavy is the main reason for the decline of the forest area. [less ▲]

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See detailSpermatophyta Tecophilaeaceae
Geerinck, Daniel J. L.; Malaisse, François ULiege

Book published by M.S.M. Sosef Jardin Botanique Meise (2017)

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See detailBiodiversité et abondance des termites dans la Réserve Forestière de Yoko (Kisangani, République Démocratique du Congo)
Bakondongama Babapene, Jean; Danakibo Wassi, Michel; Juakaly Mbumba, Jean-Louis et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales (2016), 40(2), 133-144

Ce travail est une contribution à l’étude de la biodiversité et de l’abondance des termites dans la Réserve Forestière de Yoko à Kisangani. Au total six sorties de terrain ont été effectuées au cours ... [more ▼]

Ce travail est une contribution à l’étude de la biodiversité et de l’abondance des termites dans la Réserve Forestière de Yoko à Kisangani. Au total six sorties de terrain ont été effectuées au cours d’une période de 3 mois, de mars à mai 2013. Les récoltes des spécimens se sont déroulées dans trois habitats différents, à savoir, la forêt primaire, la forêt secondaire et la jachère. Nous avons utilisé la méthode standardisée proposée par Jones et Eggleton (2000), qui consiste à tracer un transect de 100 m de long et 2 m de large pour un habitat donné. Au total, 497 spécimens de termites ont été récoltés. Ils appartiennent à une famille les Termitidae, 4 sous-familles, à savoir les Termitinae, Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Nasutitermitinae, 24 espèces étant reconnues. Pour comparer la biodiversité, nous avons utilisé la méthode de Ramade (1984) où nous avons calculé les indices de biodiversité ci-après : Indice de Shannon Wienner (H’), Indice d’équitabilité (E) et Indice de Simpson (D). De la comparaison des données des trois micro-habitats, il résulte que la forêt primaire est l’habitat le plus diversifié et que la répartition des termites n’est pas équitable dans les trois micro-habitats. Parmi les espèces citées, Unguitermes acutifrons et Basidentitermes maleaensis sont récoltées et signalées pour la première fois pour la région de Kisangani. Concernant la répartition des espèces, la Réserve Forestière de Yoko héberge, dans le cadre de ce travail, 19 espèces en forêt primaire, 15 espèces en forêt secondaire et 13 espèces en jachère. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse floristique et phytogéographique de la forêt de la Djoumouna (République du Congo)
Miabangana, Edmond Sylvestre; Lubini Ayingweu, Constantin; Malaisse, François ULiege

in Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales (2016), 40(2), 175-190

La forêt de la Djoumouna est située à 24 km au sud-est de Brazzaville. Pour mieux connaître sa richesse floristique et sa position chorologique, une analyse de la florule, des spectres autoécologiques et ... [more ▼]

La forêt de la Djoumouna est située à 24 km au sud-est de Brazzaville. Pour mieux connaître sa richesse floristique et sa position chorologique, une analyse de la florule, des spectres autoécologiques et phytogéographiques des espèces a été entreprise. Cette étude a été effectuée à partir du matériel floristique provenant de différentes prospections botaniques, collection de référence déposée à l’Herbier National du Congo (IEC). Sur une superficie de 8,5 hectares prospectée, 458 espèces dont quatre nouvelles pour la République du Congo, ont été inventoriées. Elles appartiennent à 102 familles et 309 genres. Les familles des Fabaceae, des Rubiaceae, des Euphorbiaceae, des Poaceae, des Apocynaceae et des Malvaceae sont les plus diversifiées en nombre d’espèces. Les spectres écologiques mettent en évidence la forte représentativité des phanérophytes, des mésophylles, des sarcochores et des espèces de la classe des Strombosio-Parinarietea, confirmant de facto la nature et la maturité forestières du site. Sur le plan phytogéographique, la prépondérance de l’élément base décelé ainsi que la présence de deux familles et de huit genres endémiques, intègrent bien cette florule au Centre d’endémisme guinéo-congolais, au carrefour des domaines congolais et bas-guinéen. En dehors de quelques cas isolés d’impact sur la flore et la végétation, une attention particulière doit être apportée à cet écosystème fragile, en vue de son aménagement à titre conservatoire, de la sauvegarde de sa richesse floristique et comme régulateur du climat local et puits de séquestration du carbone. [less ▲]

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See detailInsectes consommés par l'Homme en Afrique occidentale francophone
Tchibozo, Séverin; Malaisse, François ULiege; Mergen, Patricia

in Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales (2016), 40(2), 105-114

Les insectes sont consommés depuis des temps ancestraux par les habitants des divers pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Les données ont été collectées au Niger, Mali, Guinée Conakry, Burkina Faso et au Bénin ... [more ▼]

Les insectes sont consommés depuis des temps ancestraux par les habitants des divers pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Les données ont été collectées au Niger, Mali, Guinée Conakry, Burkina Faso et au Bénin. Parmi les espèces inventoriées, les termites ailés, les criquets et les chenilles sont les plus utilisées dans l’alimentation humaine. Les insectes comestibles pourraient demain remplacer la viande et offrir une solution pour la sécurité alimentaire. Leur élevage produit peu de gaz à effet de serre, à l’inverse de celui des bovins. Les insectes contiennent des éléments nutritifs pour l’Homme. Ceux qui sont riches en protéines, fer et vitamine A, constitueraient une solution pour réduire les déficiences nutritionnelles aiguës des enfants de moins de cinq ans. Afin d’atteindre ce but, il est important de bien connaître les espèces concernées et d’en faire un inventaire aussi bien sur le terrain, que sur les marchés ou encore les élevages. Bien connaître la biologie des espèces ainsi que leur habitat, ainsi que par exemple établir la liste des plantes hôtes est essentiel. Ceci afin de bien évaluer les conditions d’élevage et la faisabilité pour avoir un impact réel et efficace sur les problèmes de sécurité alimentaire, tout en permettant une activité génératrice de revenus pour les populations locales, mais aussi des perspectives de commercialisation dans les pays industrialisés. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary knowledge for breeding edible caterpillars in Congo-Brazzaville
Mabossy-Mobouna, Germain; Bouyer, Thierry; Latham, Paul et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales (2016), 40(2), 145-174

Human consumption of Lepidoptera is a subject of current interest. Though basic information is presently available regarding the diversity of caterpillars eaten in Congo-Brazzaville, no robust data ... [more ▼]

Human consumption of Lepidoptera is a subject of current interest. Though basic information is presently available regarding the diversity of caterpillars eaten in Congo-Brazzaville, no robust data regarding their distribution, reference material, seasonality and life cycle, local names and host-plants is available. The purpose of this article, which also identifies areas that require further study, is to address this gap. Twenty taxa are considered, sixteen of which have been identified to species level. Only two life cycles are known at present. Eighty-nine local caterpillar names are recorded. These caterpillars feed on at least forty host plants. These plants are listed as well as the documentation sources related to them. [less ▲]

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See detailClé de détermination des chenilles de dernier stade consommées au Congo-Brazzaville
Mabossy-Mobouna, Germain; Lenga, Arsene; Latham, Paul et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales (2016), 40(2), 75-103

La consommation humaine de lépidoptères est un thème d’actualité, mais pour lequel aucune synthèse n’a été rédigée en ce qui concerne la République du Congo-Brazzaville. Les nombreuses et récentes ... [more ▼]

La consommation humaine de lépidoptères est un thème d’actualité, mais pour lequel aucune synthèse n’a été rédigée en ce qui concerne la République du Congo-Brazzaville. Les nombreuses et récentes explorations de terrain ont montré que près d’une trentaine d’espèces de chenilles sont consommées. L’établissement d’une clef de détermination soutenue par des illustrations claires et précises apporte dès lors un outil fondamental pour un inventaire ethnozoologique efficace. La clef que nous proposons dans cet article se veut simple, complète et potentiellement évolutive. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of copper-tolerant grasses to implement phytostabilisation strategies on polluted soils in South D. R. Congo: Poaceae candidates for phytostabilisation
Boisson, Sylvain ULiege; Le Stradic, Soizig ULiege; Collignon, Julien et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2016)

Phytostabilisation (i.e. using plants to immobilise contaminants) represents a well-known technology to hamper heavy metal spread across landscapes. In Katanga (D. R. Congo), Microchloa altera, a tolerant ... [more ▼]

Phytostabilisation (i.e. using plants to immobilise contaminants) represents a well-known technology to hamper heavy metal spread across landscapes. In Katanga (D. R. Congo), Microchloa altera, a tolerant grass from the copper hills, was recently identified as a candidate species to stabilise copper in the soil. More than 50 grasses compose this flora, which may be studied to implement phytostabilisation strategies. However, little is known about their phenology, tolerance, reproductive strategy or demography. The present study aims to characterize the other Poaceae that may be used in phytostabilisation purposes based on the following criteria: their ecological distribution, seed production at two times, abundance, soil coverage and the germination percentage of their seeds. We selected seven perennial Poaceae that occur on the copper hills. Their ecological distributions (i.e. species response curves) have been modelled along copper or cobalt gradients with generalized additive models using logic link based on 172 presence/absence samples on three sites. For other variables, a total of 69 quadrats (1 m2) were randomly placed across three sites and habitats. For each species, we compared the number of inflorescence-bearing stems (IBS) by plot, the percentage of cover, the number of seeds by IBS and the estimated number of seeds by plot between sites and habitat. Three species (Andropogon schirensis, Eragrostis racemosa and Loudetia simplex) were very interesting for phytostabilisation programs. They produced a large quantity of seeds and had the highest percentage of cover. However, A. schirensis and L. simplex presented significant variations in the number of seeds and the percentage of cover according to site. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper-Cobalt Flora of Upper Katanga and Copperbelt : Field Guide
Malaisse, François ULiege; Schaijes, Michel; D’Outreligne, Claire

Book published by Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2016)

The copper-cobalt outcrops of Upper Katanga and north-western Zambia host a particular flora which comprises an estimated 750 species of which more than 400 are treated in this copper-cobalt field guide ... [more ▼]

The copper-cobalt outcrops of Upper Katanga and north-western Zambia host a particular flora which comprises an estimated 750 species of which more than 400 are treated in this copper-cobalt field guide. The aim of this book, resulting from several years of intensive field work and study, is to bring together the basic knowledges permitting an easy approach to the identification of a great number of the species to be encountered. More than 400 species are illustrated with color photographs and/or drawings together with comments concerning synonyms, habit, description, ecology and distribution. Plant species are listed and colour-coded according to classification: Cyanoprocaryota, lichenized Fungi, Anthocerophyta, Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta (red edge), Lycophyta and Monilophyta (green edge), Magnoliopsida (blue edge) and Liliopsida (yellow edge). An index allows easy location either according to genus and species. An account of the research on copper-cobalt ecosystems carried out during the last ten years in southeastern D.R. Congo is also presented. The editors have spent more than twenty years in the area concerned and have collected more than 8,500 voucher specimens, including eleven species new to science (holotypes). [less ▲]

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See detailJean-Jacques Symoens, son début de carrière (1945-1972)
Malaisse, François ULiege; Compère, Pierre

Speech/Talk (2015)

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See detailCommercial farming of Leiolepis guttata in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam: implications for conservation and management
Rochette, Anne-Julie; Tran, Tinh ULiege; De Martynoff, Abigail et al

in Herpetological Conservation and Biology (2015), 10(1),

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy ... [more ▼]

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy. Commercial farms have become established since 2004 because of wild population declines and increasing demand for meat. We interviewed farmers and restaurateurs about the breeding and trade of the species to better understand the impact on wild populations. The results highlight the recent flourishing expansion of farming with rapidly increasing product prices and number of farms, as well as the ease and profitability of this activity. Wild population declines are widely acknowledged by authorities and local communities. Farms are being regarded as conservation pools to offset wild stock depletion, in addition to an important source of income. We discuss the risks associated with this trade development and we emphasize the conservation implications. Demand for lizards as founders for farms and for meat are likely to increase further, but risks exist that the development of new farms would saturate the market causing prices to ultimately fall. Habitat destruction and over-collecting severely reduce wild populations, but the high densities of farmed lizards raise serious genetic and sanitary issues. We suggest that further information should be collected to assess the sustainability of this trade. Priority should be given to the assessment of natural population densities and hunting effort. Biological patterns of this species are poorly documented and sound knowledge would enable better management of farms, and if this species is recognized as endangered could lead restrictions on harvesting of wild populations. [less ▲]

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