References of "Majerus, Steve"
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See detailFunctionally distinct contributions of parietal cortex to a numerical landmark task: an fMRI study
Sahan, Muhammet Ikbal; Majerus, Steve ULiege; Andres, Michael et al

in Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior (in press)

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See detailThe developmental neural substrates of item and serial order components of verbal working memory
Attout, Lucie ULiege; Ordonez Magro, Laura; Szmalec, Arnaud et al

in Human Brain Mapping (in press)

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See detailPreservation of Categorical Perception for Speech in Autism With and Without Speech Onset Delay
Chiodo, Liliane ULiege; Mottron, Laurent; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Autism Research (2019)

A reduced influence of prior knowledge has been considered to characterize perceptual abilities in people with autism. In this article, we examine this claim by assessing nonlinguistic and linguistic ... [more ▼]

A reduced influence of prior knowledge has been considered to characterize perceptual abilities in people with autism. In this article, we examine this claim by assessing nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory perception abilities in adults with autism, and by further distinguishing between autism with or without a history of delayed language development. We did not observe any reduced influence of prior language knowledge on the perception of speech stimuli nor did we observe any increased perceptual abilities for atypical variants of speech stimuli or nonspeech auditory stimuli, and this relative to a control group matched on age, nonverbal intellectual efficiency, and reading abilities. Our results challenge models claiming a reduced influence of prior knowledge on perception across domains in the AS. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a reduction in serial order working memory abilities in healthy aging?
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Fay, Séverine; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. Here we focused on one of the most challenging aspects of verbal working ... [more ▼]

The preservation of the ability to maintain information over the short-term in healthy aging remains a controversial question. Here we focused on one of the most challenging aspects of verbal working memory (WM), the ability to not only maintain verbal events but to also maintain their serial order of occurrence. An immediate serial recall task was administered to 30 young adults (18-30 years) and 30 older adults (60-80 years). Participants had to recall sequences of words or nonwords, from 2 to 7 items per sequence. They were matched for level of education and verbal intellectual efficiency Bayesian statistics showed moderate evidence for an absence of group effect for the total number of items recalled irrespectively of the items’ serial position (BF01 = 3,25 for words, BF01 = 1,26 for nonwords). When also scoring serial position information, we observed anecdotal evidence in favor of a group effect (BF10 = 2,9 for words; BF10 = 0,5 for nonwords). These results suggest that if there is a reduction of verbal WM abilities in healthy aging, it is very small and limited to the maintenance of serial order information. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition et Vieillissement: Point théorique et application dans une tâche de mémoire de travail.
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2019)

1/ Malgré l’importance des difficultés d’inhibition dans le vieillissement, la littérature ne nous permet pas de connaître la nature précise des difficultés d’inhibition et de leur portée, ce qui sera ... [more ▼]

1/ Malgré l’importance des difficultés d’inhibition dans le vieillissement, la littérature ne nous permet pas de connaître la nature précise des difficultés d’inhibition et de leur portée, ce qui sera développé dans la première partie de cette présentation. 2/ Dans un second temps, nous présenterons une tâche initialement développée pour examiner des dissociations entre inhibition phonologique et sémantique. Elle mesure la capacité à inhiber des informations qui sont proches d’informations cibles à maintenir. Des séries de 4 mots ou signes visuels sont présentées et doivent être mémorisées à court terme ; à la fin de la liste, un item-test est présenté. Cet item-test est soit identique à un item de la liste (pas d’inhibition), soit proche au niveau phonologique, sémantique ou visuel (selon le domaine évalué) d’un item de la liste (condition d’inhibition) [less ▲]

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See detailIs auditory localization a sign of consciousness? Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiology
Carrière, Manon ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege; Aubinet, Charlène ULiege et al

Conference (2019, March 16)

Background Auditory localization is often part of the clinical evaluation of patients recovering from coma. There is however no clear consensus whether it should be considered as a reflex or as a ... [more ▼]

Background Auditory localization is often part of the clinical evaluation of patients recovering from coma. There is however no clear consensus whether it should be considered as a reflex or as a conscious behavior. For example, auditory localisation corresponds to the diagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) in the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, while it is considered a sign of consciousness in other post-coma scales. This study aims to determine if auditory localization reflects conscious processing in patients with disorders of consciousness. Methods We first evaluated the proportion of patients with and without auditory localisation in 186 patients with severe brain injury, including 64 UWS, 28 minimally conscious minus (MCS-), 71 minimally conscious plus (MCS+), i.e., language relatively preserved) and 23 who emerged from MCS (EMCS). We then measured brain metabolism using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, functional connectivity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in patients in UWS with and without auditory localization. Findings Auditory localization was observed in 12% of patients in UWS, 46% of patients in MCS-, 62% of patients in MCS+ and 78% of patients in EMCS. Brain metabolism of patients in UWS without auditory localization was mostly restricted to primary areas, whereas a more widespread activity, including associative areas, was observed in patients in UWS with auditory localisation. Brain functional connectivity was also higher in patients in UWS with auditory localisation in the frontoparietal fMRI resting state network, along with higher EEG connectivity in alpha frequency band, compared to patients without auditory localization. Finally, differences were also found regarding the outcome, as the survival rate at two years appeared to be significantly higher in UWS patients with auditory localization as compared to those without auditory localization. Interpretation. Both clinical data in post-comatose patients and neuroimaging examinations in UWS patients with and without auditory localization support the idea that auditory localization should be considered as a sign of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une meilleure compréhension des capacités d'inhibition dans le vieillissement
Gregoire, Coline ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Diverse speeche and writing (2019)

Normal aging leads to a decline in cognitive functions including inhibition. However, despite the importance of inhibition impairment, the current lack of consensus about the nature of inhibitory ... [more ▼]

Normal aging leads to a decline in cognitive functions including inhibition. However, despite the importance of inhibition impairment, the current lack of consensus about the nature of inhibitory processeses makes it difficult to design efficient treatment strategies. The aim of this project is to conduct a multimodal and systematic investigation of the nature of inhibition impairment within different domains (verbal, visual) and subdomains (phonological versus semantics). The multimodal methodological approach of this project will allow for a particularly exhaustive exploration of inhibition impairment in healthy and brain injured older adults, by studying: 1. the inderindividual differences for different inhibitory processes in young and older healthy adults; 2. the possible dissociations regarding inhibitory process in brain injured elderly persons; and 3. the degree of specificity of the neural representations associated with different inhibitory processes. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal working memory and linguistic long-term memory: Exploring the lexical cohort effect
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Memory and Cognition (2019)

Numerous studies have shown that verbal working memory (vWM) performance is strongly influenced by linguistic knowledge, with items more familiar at sublexical, lexical and/or semantic levels leading to ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have shown that verbal working memory (vWM) performance is strongly influenced by linguistic knowledge, with items more familiar at sublexical, lexical and/or semantic levels leading to higher vWM recall performance. Among the many different psycholinguistic variables whose impact on vWM has been studied, the lexical cohort effect is one of the few effects that has not yet been explored. The lexical cohort effect reflects the fact that words sharing their first phonemes with many other words (e.g. alcove, alligator, alcohol…) are typically responded to more slowly as compared to words sharing their first phonemes with a smaller number of words. In a pilot experiment (Experiment 1), we manipulated the lexical cohort effect in an immediate serial recall task and found no effect. Experiment 2 showed that, in a lexical decision task, participants responded more quickly to items stemming from small cohorts, showing that the material used in Experiment 1 allowed for a valid manipulation of the cohort effect. Experiment 3, using stimuli from Experiment 2 associated with maximal cohort effects during lexical decision, failed again to reveal a cohort effect in an immediate serial recall task. We argue that linguistic knowledge impacts vWM performance via continuous interactive activation within the linguistic system, which is not the case for the lexical cohort variable which may influence language processing only at the initial stages of stimulus activation. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal working memory and the phonological buffer: The question of serial order.
Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior (2019)

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See detailPhonological similarity as an index of short-term memory precision in monolingual and trilingual speakers
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2018, December 16)

Short-term memory (STM) precision has been defined as the resolution with which items are maintained in STM (Joseph et al., 2015). It has to be distinguished from STM capacity, which refers to the number ... [more ▼]

Short-term memory (STM) precision has been defined as the resolution with which items are maintained in STM (Joseph et al., 2015). It has to be distinguished from STM capacity, which refers to the number of items that are recalled in STM (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2010). So far, this concept has received little interest in the verbal STM domain. In two studies, we assessed the sensitivity to different degrees of phonological similarity between memory and probe items as a potential index of verbal STM precision. In Study 1, we assessed STM precision in 60 monolingual, French-speaking young adults. In Study 2, we aimed at taking advantage from the potential differences in STM precision stemming from differing language representations in 35 speakers of German, French, and English. In both studies, participants were presented auditory lists of 6 words. After a delay, a probe was presented, and participants had to decide whether it had been in the list or not. Negative probes showed different degrees of phonological proximity with the target word in the memory list. In Study 1, the lists were presented only in French, while in Study 2, the participants carried out the task in German, French and English. We also assessed comprehension and production of these three languages. Using Bayesian repeated measures ANOVA, we observed in both studies decisive evidence for an influence of phonological proximity on STM probe recognition performance: the more similar the negative probes to the target word, the higher the rate of false recognition. Study 2 revealed additionally that this effect was maintained across languages and that performance correlated positively with language proficiency, the best scores being reached in L1. Finally, we observed significant inter-individual variability in the sensitivity to phonological proximity. These studies suggest that memory-probe phonological similarity is an important variable for the development of measures of STM precision in the verbal domain and is stable across the languages spoken at different levels of mastery. [less ▲]

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See detailPrécision phonétique et phonologique en mémoire à court terme verbale
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2018, November 29)

Peu de paradigmes évaluent la précision des représentations maintenues en mémoire à court terme (MCT), réduisant l’évaluation de la MCT à des scores dichotomiques basés sur le nombre d’items que l’on est ... [more ▼]

Peu de paradigmes évaluent la précision des représentations maintenues en mémoire à court terme (MCT), réduisant l’évaluation de la MCT à des scores dichotomiques basés sur le nombre d’items que l’on est capable de restituer, et nous informant très peu sur la nature et la qualité des représentations maintenues. L’objectif de cette étude était de développer un paradigme évaluant la précision des représentations en MCT selon un gradient phonétique-phonologique. Dans ce paradigme, nous avons présenté des listes de non-mots. A l’issue de chaque liste, un non-mot test était présenté, et les participants devaient déterminer si celui-ci avait été présent dans la liste ou non. Au niveau phonétique, nous avons présenté comme non-mot test un non-mot issu de la liste (non-mot cible) dont nous avions modifié le voice onset time (VOT) au niveau du phonème initial afin de le rendre ambigu. Au niveau phonologique, nous avons opposé, entre non-mots cibles et tests, des contrastes phonologiques proches (/p/-/b/) ou plus éloignés (/p/-/t/). Nous avons observé un effet à la fois des contrastes phonétique et phonologiques sur les performances de reconnaissance. De manière importante, l’effet du contraste phonétique ne se manifestait que pour des non-mots cibles présentés en dernière position sérielle. Ces données suggèrent que les informations en MCT sont maintenues avec des niveaux de précision et d’abstraction linguistique différents selon le moment auquel elles ont été encodées. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation du système linguistique au sein d’une architecture de mémoire de travail
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2018, November 29)

La mémoire de travail (MDT) verbale interagit fortement avec le système linguistique. Ceci est notamment montré par l’émergence d’effets psycholinguistiques en MDT : les items associés à des ... [more ▼]

La mémoire de travail (MDT) verbale interagit fortement avec le système linguistique. Ceci est notamment montré par l’émergence d’effets psycholinguistiques en MDT : les items associés à des représentations langagières plus riches ou robustes bénéficient d’un meilleur rappel en MDT. Une grande partie de ces effets peuvent conceptuellement être expliqués par des modèles langagiers de MDT considérant que l’activation au sein du système langagier se réalise par activation continue et interactive entre les différents niveaux de traitement linguistiques. Cependant, les modèles langagiers de la MDT ont rarement été implémentés sous forme de modèle connexionniste, empêchant leur mise à l’épreuve empirique. Cet exposé présentera un modèle connexionniste intégrant à la fois une architecture linguistique et une architecture de MDT. L’architecture linguistique part du modèle d’activation interactive entre niveaux phonologique, lexical et sémantique de Dell et al. (1997). L’architecture de MDT utilise un principe de marqueur positionnels (Burgess & Hitch, 2006) à travers lequel chaque item est associé à une position spécifique. Ces associations entre les items et leurs positions sont gardées en mémoire via des mécanismes d’apprentissage associatif de type Hebb. A travers une comparaison directe avec des données empiriques, nous montrons que le modèle prédit correctement deux effets psycholinguistiques d’intérêt : l’effet de similarité sémantique et l’effet d’imageabilité. De plus, il permet d’expliquer pourquoi les items entretenant des liens sémantiques forts mènent à une plus grande probabilité d’erreur de transposition (i.e. erreur ordre). [less ▲]

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See detailDéficits de la mémoire à court terme dans les troubles du langage écrit
Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2018, November 14)

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See detailEffects of semantic and temporal grouping on serial order processing
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2018, August 30)

Introduction: Temporal grouping is a benchmark effect for our understanding of serial order processing in verbal short-term memory (VSTM). However, whether other types of grouping effect also impact ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Temporal grouping is a benchmark effect for our understanding of serial order processing in verbal short-term memory (VSTM). However, whether other types of grouping effect also impact serial order processing in VSTM is largely unknown. In this study, we compared temporal and semantic grouping effects in immediate serial recall (ISR) and reconstruction tasks to assess whether semantic knowledge can also interacts with serial order processing. Method: Through 4 experiments, participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words. Verbal lists of unrelated words were directly compared with lists that were semantically related by triplets of 3 (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) or were interleaved (e.g. three, cloud, leaf, sky, branch, rain). These semantic conditions were manipulated along with two different temporal grouping effects, with verbal lists being temporally grouped with 2 groups of 3 words, or 3 groups of 2 words. In a 5th experiment, we used a visually presented order reconstruction task to further investigate the effect of interleaved semantically related lists. Results: We observed that both temporal and semantic grouping effects independently increased within-group transpositions and decreased inter-group transpositions in the grouped conditions. Interleaved semantically related lists however, did increased within-category transpositions (e.g. recalling leaf, cloud, tree, sky instead of three, cloud, leaf, sky) only in the order reconstruction task. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that semantic knowledge can also influence the pattern of transposition in serial order processing of VSTM. In addition, we show that this result can be attributed to the influence of top-down, controlled attention. [less ▲]

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