References of "Lebeau, Frédéric"
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See detailThe time after feeding alters methane emission kinet- ics in Holstein dry cows fed with various restricted diets
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Livestock Science (in press)

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped with activity and infrared sensors to monitor feeding behavior and CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the breath, continuously and at a frequency of 4 Hz. The second goal pursued, was to assess the methane emission estimation (CH4, L/h) by the CO2-method based on the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the exhaled air, using metabolic CO2 as a marker. All cows were fed twice a day at 12 h intervals with contrasting isoenergy diets in a cross-over design: LIN100 diet (5562 VEM, i.e. Voedereenheid Melk, Dutch energy unit for milk production, 1 VEM = 6.9 kJ net energy for lactation) composed of haylage, linseed and wheat, and HAY100 (5367 VEM) diet containing only haylage. After a 2 week adaptation period to the diets, 3 days were required for the measurements and immediately after, two additional experimental treatments were applied by reducing the feed allowance to 70% with the same diets to evaluate the impact of the dry matter intake, yielding the two additional treatments HAY70 and LIN70. In addition, two other rumen-cannulated cows were used to monitor time after feeding short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the rumen. On a daily basis, all indicators (daily CH4:CO2 ratio, eructation frequency and CH4 emission) followed the same trend and showed that cows on a hay-based diet produced more CH4 and feed restriction induced different production levels for the same type of diet. The average CH4 emission for the different diets were 6.86 L/h for HAY100 > 6.25 L/h for HAY70 > 4.26 L/h for LIN100 > 3.97 L/h LIN70 (P < 0.001). The LIN100 diet produced 38% lower daily CH4 emissions than HAY100 and reduced the eructation frequency by 44%. During feeding, the eructation frequency was higher (P<0.001) for HAY than LIN diets. This work underlines the daily CH4 emission dynamics observed using the CH4:CO2 ratio in the cow's exhaled air. Methane emissions (L/h) are strongly influenced by the time after feeding time (P < 0.001). They increased for up to 2 hours after the distribution of the meal, and then decreased until the next meal, with shifts between the maximum and the minimum emission of more than 100% for LIN100 and 22% for HAY100. Consistently, the acetate:proprionate ratio was smaller for the LIN100 diet between 2 to 5 hours after the meal (P < 0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a generic aquaponic model using object oriented programming to study the systems at the individuals level
Stalport, Benoît ULiege; Raulier, Pierre ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege et al

Poster (2019, February 04)

Aquaponics is the association of fish and plant farming, exploiting the natural phenomenon observed in aquatic ecosystems. The microbiota transforms the fish waste into different chemical forms that are ... [more ▼]

Aquaponics is the association of fish and plant farming, exploiting the natural phenomenon observed in aquatic ecosystems. The microbiota transforms the fish waste into different chemical forms that are less toxic for fish and very suited for hydroponic plants culture. Due to its recent and quick development, aquaponics can now be found in a variety of areas of interest such as personal installations, education fields, private and public research projects and reached nowadays the food production at medium and large scales industries. The diversity found in these installations makes it difficult to identify the mechanisms that rule aquaponics and to generalize the findings to other systems. Few researches established the equations that govern the behaviour of one particular system, in order to estimate the productions and to apply sensitivity analysis. These models often satisfy the goals of the developers but cannot be applied to different system setups. In this context, a generalist model is being developed for aquaponics. The equations are based on aquaculture, hydroponics and aquaponics researches and are implemented using an object-oriented programming in order to generate a completely generic model. The European Smart Aquaponics Project provides numerous systems with different architectures. All these installations are equipped with a full set of aquaponics sensors to generate a strong aquaponic database that will be used for model development. The computed outputs are various and new ones are regularly added to keep pace with the continuous development of aquaponics. In this case study, the model has been applied to an experimental setup to illustrate the basic calculated parameters such as the dynamical behaviours of the water volumes and several nutrient concentrations, the vegetal and animal biomasses, the water consumption, a few economic criteria, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping and Monitoring of Biomass and Grazing in Pasture with an Unmanned Aerial System
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2019), 11(5 473),

The tools available to farmers to manage grazed pastures and adjust forage demand to grass growth are generally rather static. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are interesting versatile tools that can ... [more ▼]

The tools available to farmers to manage grazed pastures and adjust forage demand to grass growth are generally rather static. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are interesting versatile tools that can provide relevant 3D information, such as sward height (3D structure), or even describe the physical condition of pastures through the use of spectral information. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of UAS to characterize a pasture’s sward height and above-ground biomass at a very fine spatial scale. The pasture height provided by UAS products showed good agreement (R2 = 0.62) with a reference terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) dataset. We tested the ability of UAS imagery to model pasture biomass based on three different combinations: UAS sward height, UAS sward multispectral reflectance/vegetation indices, and a combination of both UAS data types. The mixed approach combining the UAS sward height and spectral data performed the best (adj. R2 = 0.49). This approach reached a quality comparable to that of more conventional non-destructive on-field pasture biomass monitoring tools. As all of the UAS variables used in the model fitting process were extracted from spatial information (raster data), a high spatial resolution map of pasture biomass was derived based on the best fitted model. A sward height differences map was also derived from UAS-based sward height maps before and after grazing. Our results demonstrate the potential of UAS imagery as a tool for precision grazing study applications. The UAS approach to height and biomass monitoring was revealed to be a potential alternative to the widely used but time-consuming field approaches. While reaching a similar level of accuracy to the conventional field sampling approach, the UAS approach provides wall-to-wall pasture characterization through very high spatial resolution maps, opening up a new area of research for precision grazing. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring System Using Internet of Things For Potential Landslides
EL Moulat, Meryem; Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd et al

in Procedia Computer Science (2018), 134

The North-Western RIF of Morocco is considered as one of the most mountainous zone in the Middle East and North Africa. This area is more serious in the corridor faults region, where the recent ... [more ▼]

The North-Western RIF of Morocco is considered as one of the most mountainous zone in the Middle East and North Africa. This area is more serious in the corridor faults region, where the recent reactivation of those tectonic layering may greatly contribute to the triggering of landslides. The consequences of this phenomenon can be enormous property damage and human casualties. Furthermore, this disaster can disrupt progress and destroy developmental efforts of government, and often pushing nations back by many years. In our previous works of Tetouan-Ras-Mazari region, we identified the areas that are prone to landslides by different methods like Weights of Evidence (WofE) and Logistic Regression (LR). In fact, these zones are built and susceptible. Undoubtedly, the challenge to save human lives is vital. For this reason, we develop a robust monitoring model as part of an alert system to evacuate populations in case of imminent danger risks. This model is ground-based remote monitoring system consist of more than just field sensors; they employ data acquisition units to record sensor measurements, automated data processing, and display of current conditions usually via the Internet of Things (IoT). To sum up, this paper outlines a new approach of monitoring to detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid and catastrophic movement. It reports also continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring, provides prompt notification of landslide activities, advances our understanding of landslide behaviors, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailIrrigation Pivot-Center Connected At Low Cost For The Reduction Of Crop Water Requirements
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; El Moulat, Meryem; Mahmoudi, Saïd et al

Conference (2018, May 17)

Irrigation, particularly pivot-center, is widely used around the world to fill the need of crop watering. This method of irrigation has a low efficiency compared to other methods of irrigation such as ... [more ▼]

Irrigation, particularly pivot-center, is widely used around the world to fill the need of crop watering. This method of irrigation has a low efficiency compared to other methods of irrigation such as drip systems and generally they use water without consider the real need of plants. In this paper we propose an automation system based on the Internet of Things (IoT), Geographic Information System (GIS) and quasi real-time in the cloud of water requirements to improve the efficiency of water use. Indeed, each segment of the pivot-center moves at a different speed compared to others; thus, must be individually controlled to optimize the yield of irrigation. Moreover, it necessary to integrate factors such as stage of crops’ development, heterogeneity of soil, runoff, drainage, soil components, nutrients and moisture content. In this paper we develop a complete system integrating sensors, GIS, Internet of Things and cloud computing. This approach allows to automate fine-grained the consumption of water without decreasing the yield. In addition to that, the collect of data and the soil moisture measurement will allow to adapt coefficient of evapotranspiration to local weather without having to resort to lysimetric measures. The proposed architecture allows to store and treat real-time, time series data and low-priority data such as 3D images used in digital phenotyping field which are treated with batch processing. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud Services Integration For Farm Animals’ Behavior Studies Based On Smartphones As Activity Sensors
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro Lalaina Herinaina et al

in Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing (2018)

Smartphones, particularly iPhone, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhone, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users’ movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. The study of animal behavior using smartphones requires the storage of many high frequency variables from a large number of individuals and their processing through various relevant variables combinations for modeling and decision-making. Transferring, storing, treating and sharing such an amount of data is a big challenge. In this paper, a lambda cloud architecture innovatively coupled to a scientific sharing platform used to archive, and process high-frequency data are proposed to integrate future developments of the Internet of Things applied to the monitoring of domestic animals. An application to the study of cattle behavior on pasture based on the data recorded with the IMU of iPhone 4s is exemplified. Performances comparison between iPhone 4s and iPhone 5s is also achieved. The package comes also with a web interface to encode the actual behavior observed on videos and to synchronize observations with the sensor signals. Finally, the use of Edge computing on the iPhone reduced by 43.5% on average the size of the raw data by eliminating redundancies. The limitation of the number of digits on individual variable can reduce data redundancy up to 98.5%. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb Monitoring of Bee Health for Researchers and Beekeepers Based on the Internet of Things
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; El Moulat, Meryem; Mahmoudi, Saïd et al

in Procedia Computer Science (2018, April 24), 130

The Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) also entitled ‘Colony Loss’ has a significant impact on the biodiversity, on the pollination of crops and on the profitability. The Internet of Things associated with ... [more ▼]

The Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) also entitled ‘Colony Loss’ has a significant impact on the biodiversity, on the pollination of crops and on the profitability. The Internet of Things associated with cloud computing offers possibilities to collect and treat a wide range of data to monitor and follow the health status of the colon. The surveillance of the animals’ pollination by collecting data at large scale is an important issue in order to ensure their survival and pollination, which is mandatory for food production. Moreover, new network technologies like Low Power Wide Area (LPWAN) or 3GPP protocols and the appearance on the market easily programmable nodes allow to create, at low-cost, sensors and effectors for the Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose a technical solution easily replicable, based on accurate and affordable sensors and a cloud architecture to monitor and follow bees’ behavior. This solution provides a platform for researchers to better understand and measure the impacts factors which lead to the mass extinction of bees. The suggested model is also a digital and useful tool for beekeepers to better follow up with their beehives. It helps regularly inspect their hives to check the health of the colony. The massive collection of data opens new research for a better understanding of factors that influence the life of bees. [less ▲]

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See detailMécanismes de dépôts et d’impacts de gouttes de pulvérisation
Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege

in Colloque sur les techniques d'application des produits de protection des plantes (2018, March 14)

Le développement d’un modèle complet de l’application des produits de protection des plantes est une tâche complexe d’intégration des connaissances existantes et d’identification des questions ... [more ▼]

Le développement d’un modèle complet de l’application des produits de protection des plantes est une tâche complexe d’intégration des connaissances existantes et d’identification des questions scientifiques en suspens. Une approche multi-échelles de modélisation qui combine la physique sous-jacente à l’échelle de la goutte avec les échelles agronomiques et environnementales apparait judicieuse en vue de mieux guider les industriels dans leurs développements, le législateur dans ses choix réglementaires et les agriculteurs dans l’exécution de leurs traitements. La rupture des veines fluides et nappes liquides, le transport aérien au-dessus de la parcelle, le transport et l’interception par les plantes au sein de la canopée soulèvent encore des questionnements. La rétention a profité des développements théoriques qui clarifient le sort des gouttes lors de l’impact. L’intégration de l’ensemble de ces connaissances vise à mieux évaluer les impacts des choix technologiques sur l’efficacité des traitements et sur l’environnement. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Aquaponics: development of intelligent management tools for aquaponic systems adapted to professionals, urban communities and education
Stalport, Benoît ULiege; Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege; Jijakli, Haissam ULiege

Poster (2018, March)

In this project, intelligent connected aquaponic systems are developed for production and educational aims . Technological features could simplify the use, enable automation and make it possible for ... [more ▼]

In this project, intelligent connected aquaponic systems are developed for production and educational aims . Technological features could simplify the use, enable automation and make it possible for individuals from varied backgrounds (schools, entreprises and agriculture sector) to use the connected systems. Data are continuoulsy collected by sensors and sent to servers where mathematical models compute the future probable behaviors and warn the users if necessary. Users can access their system state parameters through a user-friendly interface that is also pro-vided for simple management. Simultaneously the models and the data are used to feed a serious gaming interface where users can create simulations and learn from virtual aquaponics. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud architecture for digital phenotyping and automation
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

in IEEE Cloud Computing (2018, February 08)

Digital phenotyping presents a very important tool for scientists to measure with high accuracy the effects of external phenomena on plant development. Plant phenotyping is mainly based on imaging ... [more ▼]

Digital phenotyping presents a very important tool for scientists to measure with high accuracy the effects of external phenomena on plant development. Plant phenotyping is mainly based on imaging techniques. However, the number of images and parameters used to store and treat these parameters are continuously growing. Consequently, the high-throughput of data and the need of specific treatment in real or near real-time requires a large quantity of resources. Moreover, the increasing amount of particular phenotyping case studies needs the development of specific application. Cloud architectures offers means to store a wide range of numerous data and host a large quantity of specific software to process these data. In this paper, we propose to match digital phenotyping need and cloud possibilities in a lambda cloud architecture in order to store and treat this important amount of data. We also propose a data platform allowing to host applications and access to the stored data within the lambda architecture. The present application platform allows to use several frameworks with a fine-grained resource use of the cluster. We develop then a case study in a controlled environment system (growth chamber) where we grow basil plants. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of a narrow span nozzle: a round jet impacting a disk engraved with radial grooves
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu et al

in Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene (Ed.) Aspects of Applied Biology 137, International Advances in Pesticide Application (2018, January)

The present work investigates the impact of a turbulent round jet on a motionless disk that is engraved along its circumference by a number N of radial grooves. The grooves are used to split the liquid ... [more ▼]

The present work investigates the impact of a turbulent round jet on a motionless disk that is engraved along its circumference by a number N of radial grooves. The grooves are used to split the liquid sheet into multiple jets. According to the incoming flow and to the geometry of the grooves, the number of the generated jets n correspond to: 2 N jets, N* jets (mixed zone), N jets and N/2 jets. The emitted droplets sizes are characterized. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of a round jet impacting a disk engraved with radial grooves
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege; Duchesne, Alexis ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege et al

in European Journal of Mechanics. B, Fluids (2018), 72

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See detailImprovement of battery life of iPhones Inertial Measurement Unit by using edge computing Application to cattle behavior
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

Conference (2017, October)

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance inertial measurement units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. Using smartphones to study animal behavior requires the improvement of the autonomy to allow the acquisition of many variables at a high frequency over long periods of time on a large number of individuals for their further processing through various models and decision-making tools. Storing, treating data at the iPhone level with an optimal consumption of energy to maximize battery life was achieved by using edge computing on the iPhone. It reduced the size of the raw data by 42% on average by eliminating redundancies. The decrease in sampling frequency, the selection of the most important variables and postponing calculations to the cloud allowed also an increase in battery life by reducing of amount of data to transmit. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on optimal spray properties for ground based agricultural applications using deposition and retention models
De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege et al

in Biosystems Engineering (2017), 162

In crop protection, it is well known that droplet size determine spray efficacy. The optimisation of both spray deposition and retention leads to a dilemma: should small droplets be used to increase ... [more ▼]

In crop protection, it is well known that droplet size determine spray efficacy. The optimisation of both spray deposition and retention leads to a dilemma: should small droplets be used to increase retention or large droplets be preferred to avoid drift? An ideal droplet should have a short time of flight to minimise its distance travelled while impacting the target with a moderate kinetic energy. This paper aims to determine an optimum range of droplet sizes for boom-sprayer applying herbicide using a modelling approach. The main parameters of spray deposition and retention models are systematically varied and the effects on drift potential and droplet impaction outcomes are discussed. The results of the numerical simulations showed that droplets with diameter ranging between 200 μm and 250 μm offer high control of deposition by combining a low drift potential and a moderate kinetic energy at top of the canopy. A fourfold reduction of the volume drifting further than 2 m from the nozzle was observed for a spray with a volume median diameter of 225 μm when the relative span factor of the droplet spectrum was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6. In the latter scenario, an increase from 63 to 67% of the volumetric proportion of droplets adhering to the wheat leaf was observed. Therefore, strategies for controlling the droplet size distribution may offer promising solutions for reducing adverse impact of spray applications on environment. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of feeding behaviour and forage quality on diurnal methane emission dynamics of grazing cows
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Keita (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September 12)

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in pasture characteristics. Existing methods to assess grazing ruminants’ daily CH4 emissions provide useful insights to investigate mitigation strategies relying on feeding and genetic selection. Nonetheless such methods based on tracer gases (SF6) or feeding bins equipped with sniffers (e.g. GreenFeed) can hardly cover diurnal CH4 emission fluctuations which can influence the accuracy of total CH4 production estimations. Previous studies in barns showed that emission dynamics strongly vary during post feeding time, leading to a possible bias in estimates of daily CH4 emissions as high as 100%. To investigate whether such fluctuations are also taking place on pasture, a portable device was designed with infrared CH4 and CO2 sensors measuring concentrations in the exhaled air at a high sampling rate (4 Hz). Six grazing dry red-pied cows were equipped with the device and motion sensors during runs of 24h to monitor CH4 and CO2 emissions and detect their feeding behaviours (grazing, rumination and other behaviours), respectively. This experiment was performed in summer and fall in order to cover seasonal changes in pasture forage quality. Methane emission was estimated from the CH4:CO2 concentration ratio and the metabolic CO2 production of the cows. As for barn studies, variations were observed in total daily CH4 emission due to the seasons and diurnal variations were also observed due to animal behaviours. Relationships between animal feeding behaviour and CH4 emissions patterns on pasture were also unravelled. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiating pre- and post-grazing pasture heights using a 3D camera: a prospective approach
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Castro Muñoz, Eloy ULiege; Blaise, Yannick ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Alassane (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September)

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance ... [more ▼]

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance livestock productivity and welfare. The evolution of grass resource during the grazing process is not being overlooked by graziers and researchers, but grass characteristics, such as height, dry matter content, productivity or density, are still measured using low frequency and sometimes destructive and time-consuming methods; such as quadrat, sward-sticks, rising plate meters. This study investigated the potential of using 3D cameras to assess sward physical characteristics. Main objectives were: (1) to define the correct way to capture images, particularly the camera position above the ground and, (2) to assess if differences in sward height were detectable. Couples of images differing in grass height were captured on the same spot with a 3D camera at different above-ground heights (30, 40, 50 cm) on a ryegrass-white clover pasture. Pregrazing height was 15cm and post-grazing sward was simulated by cutting at 2 cm. Histograms of intensity performed on greyscale images showed differences between pre- and post-grazing sward. As expected, overall darker pixels were observed for pre-grazing images (p<0.01) and whiter pixels for post-grazing images (p<0.01), indicating longer distances consistent with lower forage biomass. Images taken at a distance of 30 and 40 cm could identify these differences. Further developments require improving the calibration of the camera and developing image analysis method to estimate more plant characteristics such as density or dry matter content. [less ▲]

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See detailCaméras 3D et plantes numériques : vers une automatisation de l’agriculture
Bouvry, Arnaud ULiege; Stalport, Benoît ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege et al

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un ... [more ▼]

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un système mathématique de modélisation de plantes, utilisé notamment par Pixar, offre de nombreuses possibilités pour la recherche scientifique. [less ▲]

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