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See detailA Comparative Study between Major Crop (Potato) and Minor Crop (Onion) in Volcanic Highlands of Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Agriculture and Crops (in press)

This paper aims to assess the competition between the priority (major) crops and the non priority (minor) crops. Competition between crops is defined as the significant major differences between two crops ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to assess the competition between the priority (major) crops and the non priority (minor) crops. Competition between crops is defined as the significant major differences between two crops in terms of production costs and their performance. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to a random sample of 226 small scale crop producers including 94 onion producers and 132 potato producers. The T-test was conducted to state whether there is significant difference of mean land sizes, mean crop yields, mean selling prices, and mean net farm incomes between the two groups of crop producers. Results showed non significant difference between the mean land size allocated to onion production and that allocated to potato farming. Results also indicate that onion yield is significantly greater than potato yield, onion selling price is significantly greater than that of potato, and the net income from onion production is far away greater than the income from potato production. It is remarkable that, in some circumstances, the authorities may prioritize and thus propose to farmers the crops that are less competitive considering their price, yield or income, if the current climatic conditions and economic settings are maintained in the medium or long term. Referring to these findings, policy efforts should encourages to the farmers to shift from potato farming to onion production, or simply inclusion of crop diversification via adopting onion may be the best option to maximize the potentials of the selected crops. [less ▲]

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See detailPreferences of Small-Scale Farmers for Innovative Farming Techniques in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Mulumeoderhwa Munyakazi, Fidèle ULiege et al

in Agris On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics (in press), XIV(22),

This paper attempted to identify the determinant factors of innovative technologies preferences by small-scale farmers in the Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data used were collected from a random sample of ... [more ▼]

This paper attempted to identify the determinant factors of innovative technologies preferences by small-scale farmers in the Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data used were collected from a random sample of 401 small-scale crop producers using a structured questionnaire in the study area. A logit regression model was specified, whereby a binary maximum likelihood estimation method was used to identify the factors affecting of the adoption of chemical fertilizers, the determinants of the combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, the determinants of the adoption of improved seeds, as well as the determinant factors of appropriate use of pesticides. The results showed that farmer’s education level, farming experience, membership to farm cooperative, the number of extension visits, and crop farming are the factors that affect positively the probability of adopting one or other of the four innovative farming techniques. From these results, we suggest the enhancement of extension services and other needed support to small-scale farmers (grants and subsidies, access to finance for example), the spread of professional trainings to farmers, and the increased farmers’ access to high-yielding seed varieties if farming professionalization and innovative farming techniques are still among the development goals. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of Small-Scale Farming as an Engine of Agricultural Development in Mountainous South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mulumeoderhwa Munyakazi, Fidèle ULiege; Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Neema Ciza, Angélique ULiege et al

in Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development (in press)

Mountainous South Kivu is an agro-pastoral zone in Democratic Republic of Congo where smallscale agriculture is predominant. Due to its location and potential, this region would contribute to the food ... [more ▼]

Mountainous South Kivu is an agro-pastoral zone in Democratic Republic of Congo where smallscale agriculture is predominant. Due to its location and potential, this region would contribute to the food security of the population of South Kivu and neighbouring territories. This research aimed to establish a characterisation of small-scale farming in this area in order to highlight the factors that differentiate farms. To achieve this objective, we adopted a holistic approach coupled with descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and student's t-test for data analysis. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 211 farmers in 2018 and 2019 respectively. The results revealed that the differentiation of farms is based on the number of plots per farm, the choice of production systems, the cropping system, the land tenure, the gross margin, the gross value added and the net farm income achieved at farm level. Therefore, solutions such as access to finance allowing farmers to diversify their production system, the restoration of security in rural areas, the rehabilitation of the existing and creation of new feeder roads, and the setting and promotion of very strong and dynamic farmers' structures would allow a significant development of agricultural activities in the study area. [less ▲]

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See detailFood security status and coping strategies among small-scale crop farmers in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Central European Agriculture (in press)

This paper aims to determine the level of food security of small-scale crop farmers and to identify coping strategies for food security mostly adopted by small-scale crop farmers in the Volcanic Highlands ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to determine the level of food security of small-scale crop farmers and to identify coping strategies for food security mostly adopted by small-scale crop farmers in the Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to a random sample of 401 small scale crop producers in the study area. CARI approach and descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. This methodology was chosen by the fact that it enables to have disaggregated food security indicators. Results show that 86.61% of the sample households are food secure, while 13.39% are food insecure. These results also indicate that spending savings is the most adopted stress-coping strategy among the livelihood-based coping strategies. The most adopted among consumption-based strategies are relying on less preferred or less expensive food, and reducing the quantities consumed by adults for children. The overall CARI console analysis shows that the majority of the sampled households are not food insecure, i.e. they are not vulnerable with respect to adopted strategies to cope with food shortage. Therefore, it is recommended that strategies should be initiated to increase crop productivity and output, to guarantee market access to small-scale farmers for stable agricultural prices and farm incomes, to enhance the livelihood diversification to cope with under-employment in the agricultural sector to benefit rural non-farm sources and to complement farm incomes. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 13: Perennial Cropping System Development and Economic Performance of Perennial Cropping System in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam
Phan, Thi Thuy; Bui, Thi Thanh Thuy; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Nguyen, An Thinh; Hens, Luc (Eds.) Global Changes and Sustainable Development in Asian Emerging Market Economies Vol. 2: Proceedings of EDESUS 2019 (2022)

The paper deals with the perennial crop development in Dak Lak Province by using the mixed data collection of quantity and quality. At the same time, the returns of two major perennial crop systems ... [more ▼]

The paper deals with the perennial crop development in Dak Lak Province by using the mixed data collection of quantity and quality. At the same time, the returns of two major perennial crop systems including monocropping and intercropping systems concentrating on coffee and pepper were analyzed. The findings indicated that development and adjustment of perennial crop systems in Dak Lak province highly related to economic, political, and social changes; and underwent through five main stages as following large-scale perennial crop plantations as early-stage; perennial crop systems as state-owned and cooperative farms; intensified perennial crop systems; mixed perennial crop systems; and specialized and diversified perennial crop systems. Additionally, the study revealed that intercropping systems were more efficient than monocropping systems due to the potential presence of economies of scope. Consequently, the results provided useful information for local households in making sustainable production strategies and policy-makers in enacting suitable policies as well as diagnosis of the future evolution of perennial crops for the coming years. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Small-scale Farmers’ Exposure to Environmental Risks: Empirical Evidence from Rural Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Nkikabahizi, Ferdinand et al

in Agronomie Africaine (2021), 33(3),

Agriculture is a backbone of economy in Rwanda. Even if the sector faces environmental challenges, people still depend on it for subsistence and income. Essentially, there is an urgent need of coping and ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is a backbone of economy in Rwanda. Even if the sector faces environmental challenges, people still depend on it for subsistence and income. Essentially, there is an urgent need of coping and mitigation strategies to shocks. We used the fifth integrated household living conditions survey (EICV 5) cross sectional data collected from October 2016 to October 2017 by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The study used a sample size of 3,081 rural farm households, descriptive statistics were computed to describe the main socioeconomic characteristics of the small-scale farmers in rural Rwanda and the independent samples T test was performed to compare means between exposed and non-exposed farmers to environmental risks. Results revealed that some farmers have been exposed to environmental risks and even more affected by impact born from shocks like destructive rains (60.2 per cent), mountain slides (22 per cent) and floods (4.8 per cent). Except for total household consumption expenditures, no significant difference was observed between exposed and non-exposed farmers in terms of crop production, land size, livestock and farm expenditures. Results from econometric analysis identified the age, livestock, farm output, land consolidation, land tenure and farm expenses as the main factors affecting the farmers’exposure to environmental risks. From these finding, farmers should be trained on environmental risks, their effects, as well as the farming practices to cope with them. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 10: Impacts of the Land Tenure System on Sustainable Land Use in Ethiopia
Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Movahhed Moghaddam, Saghi; Mahmoudi, Hossein et al

in Beckmann, Volker (Ed.) Transitioning to Sustainable Life on Land (2021)

On Earth, land is the most vital resource from which living things derive their essential necessities. There are many methods for managing and maintaining this vital resource in a sustainable manner, but ... [more ▼]

On Earth, land is the most vital resource from which living things derive their essential necessities. There are many methods for managing and maintaining this vital resource in a sustainable manner, but it is more important to first understand the root cause of malfunctioning land management strategies. This chapter aims at understanding the underlying causes of socio-economic and policy-related factors affecting the sustainability of land tenure systems in Ethiopia. It also presents a review of historical and sociopolitical literature to evaluate the challenges with an insecure land tenure system, which lead to land degradation, soil erosion and low incomes. In most developing countries, systematic evaluation mechanisms of land tenure performance are very inadequate. In particular, Ethiopia has no systematic framework for assessing and measuring the state of its land tenure system. In this line, this study applies a systematic review to explore theoretical considerations and overviews on current estimates related to land tenure security in Ethiopia. Through an in-depth literature review and a qualitative analytical approach, the results identified a collection of good practices and indicators that can provide a framework for a systematic evaluation of sustainable land use in Ethiopia. The findings also showed performance gaps in land management, the application of enacted legislation and the allocation of land for agricultural investments. This study provides recommendations to federal and regional institutions with a mandate for land management, land holding and resource rights and land use on how to resolve these bottlenecks. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors Affecting Farm Performance among Small-Scale Farmers in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda: What is the Role of Institutions?
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development (2021), 11(4), 262-268

This study attempted to examine the role of institutions in boosting rural and agricultural development in the region of Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected ... [more ▼]

This study attempted to examine the role of institutions in boosting rural and agricultural development in the region of Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a random sample of 401 small-scale farmers through a questionnaire. Data were analysed using a weighted-least squares method to account for heteroscedasticity, a common issue in cross-section studies. Results from the crop output function reveal a positive and significant effect of cooperative membership, a positive non-significant effect of extension services, and a negative non-significant effect of land tenure, credit access and market access on farm production, respectively. In terms of the net farm income function, the results demonstrate that farmer cooperation, land tenure, extension services, and access to the output market have a positive non-significant influence, but that access to finance has a negative non-significant effect. It was therefore suggested that agricultural sector programmes and activities should be readapted and strengthened in order to leverage rural and agricultural development in Rwanda. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges to the Development of Family Farms in Mountainous South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mulumeoderhwa Munyakazi, Fidèle ULiege; Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Bahati Shamamba, Dieudonné ULiege et al

Conference (2021, October 15)

Despite the enormous agricultural potential of the South Kivu province in Democratic Republic of Congo, family farming does not ensure food self-sufficiency for farmers due to diverse constraints ... [more ▼]

Despite the enormous agricultural potential of the South Kivu province in Democratic Republic of Congo, family farming does not ensure food self-sufficiency for farmers due to diverse constraints hindering the development of agricultural activities. The objective of this article is to identify and analyze the constraints in order to propose some possible solutions to develop family farming in mountainous South Kivu. Data used were collected through the interviews with 150 family farmers purposively selected and equally distributed among the three sampled zones, namely Mbinga Sud Locality in Kalehe Territory and Bugorhe and Irhambi Localities in Kabare Territory. For data analysis, the z-test was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to examine the differences of the proportions between the localities covered by the study. The results point to two main constraints, namely lack of access to agricultural finance and difficulties in marketing agricultural products. The first is due to the lack of financial institutions (88%) for granting agricultural credit as a result of low profitability of agricultural activities and lack of collaterals because farmers are poor. The second constraint concerns the difficulties encountered in marketing agricultural products, more specifically due to less remunerating producer prices (83.3%). In order to enable the access to finance and guarantee remunerative prices to family farmers, the facilities for farm produce storage, innovative financing systems such as inventory credit model, contract farming and value chain financing could be put in place. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the determinants of households’ expenditures in Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Nkikabahizi, Ferdinand et al

in UKH Journal of Social Sciences (2021), 5(1), 8-17

Economists use two different approaches, unitary and collective, to analyze household decisions. The unitary approach ignores the differences between single-person and multi-person households, whereas the ... [more ▼]

Economists use two different approaches, unitary and collective, to analyze household decisions. The unitary approach ignores the differences between single-person and multi-person households, whereas the collective approach states that each person in the household must be characterized by specific preferences. The household’s decisions concern mainly the allocation of their income to current consumption or for savings and future consumer expenditures. This study uses the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) data collected from a random sample in 2015 in Rwanda. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method was applied to a linear regression model to estimate the household demand functions (total household consumption expenditures, household food consumption expenditures and household nonfood consumption expenditures). The results show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the household, the possession of productive assets and wealth conditions as well as the household locational controls are among the primary drivers of its consumption expenditures. The findings highlight the policy efforts that improve household human capital (education, health), access to and capitalization of productive assets and financial capital, continuous urbanization of rural areas, and sustained provision of quality infrastructure, to achieve high standards of household welfare. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse institutionnelle de la chaîne de valeur noix de cajou au Bénin : Rapport final provisoire 04 Juin 2021
Aoudji, Augustin; De Weerdt, Loïc; Van Passel, Stephen et al

Report (2021)

Compte tenu de l'importance de la filière cajou dans les objectifs du développement du pays, l’Ambassade de Belgique à Cotonou et ENABEL ont souhaité utiliser une partie des fonds disponibles pour les PSR ... [more ▼]

Compte tenu de l'importance de la filière cajou dans les objectifs du développement du pays, l’Ambassade de Belgique à Cotonou et ENABEL ont souhaité utiliser une partie des fonds disponibles pour les PSR 2020 pour mener à bien l'étude de l'analyse institutionnelle de la chaîne de valeur anacarde au Bénin. Son objectif est d’analyser la chaîne de production de l’anacarde dans les différentes zones de production au Bénin en adoptant une approche chaîne de valeur pour comprendre les goulots d’étranglement au niveau de chaque maillon analysé, le mécanisme des prix pratiqués et le cadre institutionnel qui régit les maillons de la filière afin d’alimenter la réflexion dans le cadre du dialogue politique. Le but final visé de l’étude est d’identifier et d’évaluer les options stratégiques, les options politiques et les options techniques qui peuvent être mises en place afin d’améliorer la compétitivité de la production de l’anacarde mais aussi de déterminer le rôle de l’état et du secteur privé dans la mise en œuvre de la stratégie proposée. Les résultats attendus portent sur l’analyse de la chaîne de valeur de l’anacarde avec un accent sur les questions institutionnelles mais aussi sur des propositions de mesures concrètes en vue d’améliorer la compétitivité du cajou béninois sur le marché national et international. Cette étude tend à dépasser le simple diagnostic et s’attache à proposer des stratégies d’appui pour les principaux maillons considérés en fonction des opportunités et contraintes de marché et en lien avec les politiques/stratégies et plans d’action au niveau local et national. Il est à noter que dans un contexte de développement de son agriculture, le Gouvernement béninois a formulé un programme national de développement de la filière anacarde 2017- 2021. Le financement de ce programme est en partie assuré par le Gouvernement béninois. Plusieurs projets et programmes financés et/ou mis en œuvre par plusieurs partenaires au développement tels que la coopération allemande, la coopération belge, la coopération néerlandaise, la Banque Mondiale, la coopération américaine, etc. ont mené, au niveau des différents maillons, des actions de renforcement des capacités des acteurs, d’appui en infrastructures et équipements, d’appui organisationnel pour consolider la filière. Dans le cadre de cette étude, on a veillé à ne pas remettre en cause les programmes des différents acteurs de développement en les associant étroitement dès le départ à l’étude, en particulier l’Interprofession filière anacarde (IFA) et le Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Elevage et de la Pêche (MAEP). [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement agricole, source d’inégalités dans l’Est de la RD Congo : Cas de la Province du Sud-Kivu montagneux.
Neema Ciza, Angélique ULiege; Léon, Muzee Kazamwali; Clérisse, Casinga Mubasi et al

Scientific conference (2021, May 27)

L’activité agricole est au cœur de l’activité économique tant dans les pays développés que ceux en voie de développement et constitue le moteur de croissance et de transformation structurelle des ... [more ▼]

L’activité agricole est au cœur de l’activité économique tant dans les pays développés que ceux en voie de développement et constitue le moteur de croissance et de transformation structurelle des économies. Actuellement, le monde se caractérise par une bipolarité avec d’un côté une minorité des riches jouissant de l’essentiel de la richesse mondiale et d’autre côté, une majorité de la population croupissant dans la pauvreté sous toutes ses formes. Une inégale répartition des ressources de façon que, 20% de la population mondiale s’approprie plus de 80% des richesses, ce qui laisse une grande partie de la population dans une situation d’extrême pauvreté. Ainsi, dans les zones rurales, la pauvreté touche principalement les petits exploitants et les familles sans terres poussant ces derniers à migrer vers les villes entrainant une déstructuration des tissus sociaux. L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer comment le secteur agricole constitue une source d’inégalité dans la zone d’étude en identifiant les différentes sources de revenu des agriculteurs ainsi que les déterminants des inégalités au sein des ménages ruraux. Les enquêtes ont été menées auprès des ménages du territoire de Kalehe et celui de Kabare à l’aide de l’outil de collecte des données ODK (Open Data Kit). Les résultats attestent en amont que le plus grand déterminant des inégalités au sein des groupements et des ménages est le niveau de revenu ainsi que la superficie exploitée. Et en aval, que l’utilisation des intrants agricoles ainsi que l’accès au marché sont les sources secondaires d’inégalités des ménages agricoles dans les territoires d’étude de la province du Sud-Kivu [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des activités non agricoles sur la sécurité alimentaire au Sud-Kivu montagneux
Neema Ciza, Angélique ULiege; Casinga Mubasi, Clérisse; Amani Barhumana, Richard et al

in Tropicultura (2021), 39(2), 1-20

Impact of non-agricultural activities on food security in mountainous South Kivu. According to the results of the participatory poverty analysis (28), the current economic and financial crisis, which is ... [more ▼]

Impact of non-agricultural activities on food security in mountainous South Kivu. According to the results of the participatory poverty analysis (28), the current economic and financial crisis, which is now extending to all underdeveloped and developing countries, is severely affecting the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, more specifically, rural households in South Kivu province, which are affected by unprecedented recurring crises that plunge them into severe and unsustainable poverty. Paradoxically, these farmers, whose role is to provide healthy and abundant food to the Congolese population, are among the least well-fed. The objective of this study is to diagnose the impact of non-agricultural activity on household food security in mountainous South Kivu in the Luhwindja chieftaincy community. The results revealed that 37% of the rural households considered derive part of their income from non-agricultural activities, which improves their food security, while 63% of households with only agriculture as a means of subsistence had a critical level of food security because they were unable to obtain 2400 kilocalories per day per person. The non-agricultural sector and income from non-farming activities are therefore very important and contribute significantly to the economy of rural households because of their influence on the standard of living of households and their food security. Index by keyword : Non-agricultural activities, food security, households, Luhwinja chieftain community, DRC [less ▲]

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See detailExplanatory Factors for Farm Income Diversity in Kalehe District, South Kivu Province, DR Congo
Neema Ciza, Angélique ULiege; Rhys, Manners; Marc, Schut et al

in International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues (2021), 11(2), 19-27

Despite repeated wars and the persistence of feudal land tenure, the agricultural sector is at the center of economic activity for most rural households in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study ... [more ▼]

Despite repeated wars and the persistence of feudal land tenure, the agricultural sector is at the center of economic activity for most rural households in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study aims to assess the competitivity of the agricultural sector in relation to other sectors of economic activity, such as mining. To achieve this aim, it analyses and compares the agricultural incomes of different farmers. It also compares these incomes with their incomes from other sectors of economic activity. This study paid particular attention to two factors of production which may explain the differences in income between farms, namely access to land and family agricultural work labor. A survey was carried out among the 33 dynamic and efficient farmers selected on the basis of the results of previous research carried out in Kalehe territory, sud-Kivu province. Households selected depend almost entirely on agriculture and their agricultural activity makes up 91% of the overall household income. Statistical analysis suggests two important facts. First, there are no relation between the mode of access to land, family labor and rural households’ income level. Second, it is only the area farmed and the number of fields that have an impact on overall household income. [less ▲]

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See detailRwanda's Land Policy Reform: Self-Employment Perspectives from a Case Study of Kimonyi Setor
Mizero, Mireille ULiege; Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Bashangwa Mpozi, Bosco et al

in Land (2021), 10(2/117), 1-17

Rwanda’s Land Policy Reform promotes agri-business and encourages self-employment. This paper aims to analyze the situation from a self-employment perspective when dealing with ex-propriation risk in ... [more ▼]

Rwanda’s Land Policy Reform promotes agri-business and encourages self-employment. This paper aims to analyze the situation from a self-employment perspective when dealing with ex-propriation risk in rural areas. In this study, we conducted a structured survey addressed to 63 domestic units, complemented by focus groups of 47 participants from Kimonyi Sector. The bi-nary logistic regression analysis revealed that having job alternatives, men heading domestic units, literacy skills in English, and owning land lease certificates (p < 0.05) are positively and significantly related to awareness of land expropriation risk. The decision of the head of the domestic unit to practice the main activity under self-employment status is positively influenced by owning a land lease certificate, number of plots, and French skills, while skills in English and a domestic unit’s size have a positive and significant influence on involvement in a second activ-ity as self-employed. Information on expropriation risk has no significant effect on self-employment. The domestic unit survey revealed that 34.9% of the heads of domestic units only have one job, 47.6% have at least two jobs in their everyday life, 12.7% have a minimum of three jobs, and 4.8% are inactive. The focus group synthesis exposed the limits to self-employment ability and facilities. [less ▲]

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See detailÉconomie rurale des ménages féminins dans la région de Tahoua (Niger)
Moussa Dit Kalamou, Mahamadou; Yamba, Boubacar; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Algerian Journal of Arid Environment (2021), 11(2), 52-59

The Tahoua region of Niger is subdivided into three agro-ecological zones: agricultural, agropastoral and pastoral. The majority of the population lives in rural areas in sedentary and nomadic villages ... [more ▼]

The Tahoua region of Niger is subdivided into three agro-ecological zones: agricultural, agropastoral and pastoral. The majority of the population lives in rural areas in sedentary and nomadic villages and camps. The latter are composed of communities led by male and female heads of household. This article focuses on the rural economy of these households. The results of the field investigations indicate that this household economy is characterized by access to natural resources and ownership of livestock. All income-generating activities for households depend on agricultural production from family farms or fields and livestock production from livestock ownership. The analysis shows that male households own more livestock than female households, so agricultural products provide more income for male heads of household, followed by transfers, petty trade and livestock. Female households earn more income from petty trade than from other activities. As a result, the average income of men is higher than that of women. Of the total sample, 76% make do with only one of the three daily meals, while only 9% of male households manage to guarantee all three daily meals. Households live in a precarious rural economy and spend more in the rainy season. Finally, female households appear to be more vulnerable to insecurity and poverty in Tahoua region. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Factors in Various Climates of Wheat Production in Western Iran: Experts’ Opinions
Ranjbar, Zahra; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hasan et al

in Agriculture (2021), 11(12), 1227

Agriculture is the origin of existence and survival in any society. However, this sector is always associated with risk and uncertainty, and farmers are faced with many challenges. Therefore, the main aim ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is the origin of existence and survival in any society. However, this sector is always associated with risk and uncertainty, and farmers are faced with many challenges. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to explore the (production) risk factors of irrigated wheat production systems among farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. The exploratory nature of this study on the one hand and the need for expert judgment on the other hand necessitated a Delphi research design. Thus, this study utilized a three-round Delphi technique. The population comprised of 10 subject-matter experts (SME) and 32 agricultural extension experts in two climates (warm and semi-arid and cold and moderate) in seven counties in Kermanshah province. A purposeful (complete) sample of 42 experts in the agricultural field participated in this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed on the basis of the Delphi technique. The findings indicated that, after three rounds of Delphi technique, the panel members reached a consensus on 75 factors which were categorized into biological, natural, managerial, and technological-structural groups for production risk. The results of this research provide useful insights for researchers, extension agents, and farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailMarket Structure and Market Performance of Tuna Value Chain: A Case Study of Yellowfin Tuna and Bigeye Tuna Value Chain in Three South Central Provinces of Vietnam
Nguyen Dang Hoang Thu, ULiege; Cao Le, Quyen; Le Thi Minh, Hang et al

in International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues (2021), 11(6), 94-113

A value chain integrated Structure Conduct Performance (SCP) framework applied in agribusiness products in general and fishery products, in particular, is of great significance in conceptualizing the ... [more ▼]

A value chain integrated Structure Conduct Performance (SCP) framework applied in agribusiness products in general and fishery products, in particular, is of great significance in conceptualizing the strategy design specifically to a value chain segment in a territory in terms of economic development. This study aims to analysed the market structure and financial performance of each actor in the tuna value chain in three South Central provinces of Vietnam to provide an overview of the economic efficiency of the value chain. Within the study, the interviews have been conducted with 315 respondents, including shipowners, middle-persons, and processors, directly related to the tuna value chain in 2018. The market concentration of each actor was quantitatively indicated in form of the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. In addition actor’s financial performance was calculated by costs and earnings models. The results also showed that the market structure of middle-persons and processors tended to be monopolistic while shipowner’s market structure tended to be in perfect competition. Besides, the processors received the highest return compared to other actors due to their highest value-added contribution and the most significant business scale. Finally, several policy interventions were suggested to improve the economic efficiency of the value chain. [less ▲]

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See detailLa rentabilité de la production de pomme de terre dans la région des sols de laves au Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Berti, Fabio ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard et al

in Tropicultura (2021), 39(2021), 1909

The profitability of potato production in the volcanic highlands in Rwanda This article aims to analyze the profitability of potato small-scale producers in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data used were ... [more ▼]

The profitability of potato production in the volcanic highlands in Rwanda This article aims to analyze the profitability of potato small-scale producers in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data used were collected from a random sample of 132 producers. Different methods namely accounting method, cost-benefit analysis and correlation analysis were used in the analysis of data. The results from the budgetary analysis show that the potato production is profitable and that the profitability is sensitive to the shock of production and the increase in the cost of production. By comparison, the results from sensitivity analysis of net farm income show that a decrease in potato production generates more effects than the increase in the cost of fertilizers. To improve the level of profitability, potato growers must adopt farming practices that boost the productivity. By the correlational method, the coefficient is positive and significant between net farm income and other factors namely the cost of production, the selling price, the farmer’s experience and the size of the cultivated land. These are factors that must be considered to maintain and/or improve the level of agricultural profitability. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of customary land rights and its impact on the agronomic choices for small farmers in the South Kivu province, Eastern DR Congo
Bahati Shamamba, Dieudonné ULiege; Bisimwa Basengere, Espoir; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (2021), 10(6 (November 2021)), 199-212

In Africa, there is still observed a land related legal plurality despite innovations undertaken since colonial times. In DR Congo, while by law land remains the property of the State, it remains ... [more ▼]

In Africa, there is still observed a land related legal plurality despite innovations undertaken since colonial times. In DR Congo, while by law land remains the property of the State, it remains difficult to manage rural lands, ignoring customary practices. In fact, alongside the “modern” land administration, the majority of rural lands are covered by customary contracts. Meanwhile, these contracts have evolved due to different socio-political issues in the DRC and particularly in its eastern part. This study aimed at understanding these changes and thus the impact resulted in agricultural activities, especially the small farmers’ technology choice. The study is based on households’ surveys in the Mbinga Sud zone as well as from other stakeholders on land in the Kalehe territory, South Kivu province, eastern DRC. Through this study, it is noted that customary land contracts have sufficiently evolved due to the population growth, innovations taken in land administration in the country, the wars that occurred in the eastern DR Congo, the attractiveness of rural land by elites and rich businessmen leading to land concentration etc. Given this situation, some practices such as purchase and lease of land were thus developed to cope with weak customary land acquisition mechanisms, the land scarcity and / or land depletion and the fear of land grabbing by the strongest. These changes also have an impact on some agricultural practices, including the fertilization of farms, the choice of crops and varieties to grow as well as many other cultivation techniques. [less ▲]

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