References of "Lebailly, Philippe"
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See detailLes déterminants des rendements du mil et du sorgho avec la technique de microdosage d’engrais
Sissoko, Penda ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Veterinaires (in press), 7(2),

La technique de microdosage d’engrais a été développée par l’Institut International de recherche sur les cultures des zones tropicales et semi-arides (ICRISAT) en partenariat avec les instituts nationaux ... [more ▼]

La technique de microdosage d’engrais a été développée par l’Institut International de recherche sur les cultures des zones tropicales et semi-arides (ICRISAT) en partenariat avec les instituts nationaux de recherche au Sahel pour répondre aux contraintes de productivité des céréales sèches, en l’occurrence les cultures de mil et de sorgho. Cette étude vise à l’identification des déterminants de la productivité du mil et du sorgho avec l’application de la technique du microdosage d’engrais par les producteurs. Des enquêtes agronomiques ont été réalisées pour collecter des données auprès de 108 producteurs agricoles dans les régions sahélienne et soudano-sahélienne du Mali. Les statistiques descriptives et les méthodes analytiques ont été utilisées pour analyser les données avec le logiciel STATA. Les résultats ont montré que le microdosage d’engrais, les variétés améliorées, la fumure organique, les techniques de conservation du sol et de l’eau, le semoir à disque et l’utilisation de la subvention d’engrais par les producteurs sont des variables positifs et significatifs dans le rendement du mil et du sorgho. [less ▲]

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See detailRemittances: A loan funds for rural economy? Evidence from the Kayes District (Western Mali)
Yao Namé, Juste Michel ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in O’Connor, Michael; Afonso, Joana Silva (Eds.) Emerging Challenges and Innovations in Microfinance and Financial Inclusion (2019, July)

In addition to have a direct and positive impact on reducing of food insecurity and poverty gaps in more vulnerable countries to shocks on the rainfall, the remittances received by the migrants families ... [more ▼]

In addition to have a direct and positive impact on reducing of food insecurity and poverty gaps in more vulnerable countries to shocks on the rainfall, the remittances received by the migrants families also allow them to have saving. This is what reveals the self-managed village banks of Kayes’ region, the most important emigration basin of Mali and located in strong climate variations area. However, this saving contributes less at agricultural sector finance. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable and innovative agriculture in Vietnam: past, present and future
Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2019, April 12)

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See detailInternal Return Migration in Rural of Vietnam: Reasons and Consequences
Ngo Trung Thanh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Dien, Nguyen Thi

in Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (2019), 10(1), 17

Many researchers have tried to explain the motivation behind out and return migration. However, few bodies of literature focus on selection of destinations of out migration, motives to return according to ... [more ▼]

Many researchers have tried to explain the motivation behind out and return migration. However, few bodies of literature focus on selection of destinations of out migration, motives to return according to marriage status of migrants before the return and gender perspective of employments on the return. By surveying 68 returnees and applying participatory rural appraisal, this study shows that the personal and household characteristics of returnees before the migration create an effect on destination selections On the return, both single and married migrants are motivated by filial obligations to their parents. Single migrants’ motive associates to the potential failures that can be a burden on their livings after getting married. Married migrants’ motive to return results from living away from their children. This study also demonstrates that women play an important role in the development of agriculture. Additionaly, agriculture acts as a buffer to the negative impacts of return migration. [less ▲]

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See detailLabor Division in Pig Farming Households: An Analysis of Gender and Economic Perspectives in the Red River Delta Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Nguyen Mau Dung,

in International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues (2019), 9(1), 183-192

This paper attemps to understand about gender division of labor in pig farming households and to identify factors affecting that division. Using primary data collected from 40 pig farming, we find that ... [more ▼]

This paper attemps to understand about gender division of labor in pig farming households and to identify factors affecting that division. Using primary data collected from 40 pig farming, we find that female laborers play more important role in pig production. More than 60% of women participating in making decision regarding to many stages of pig farming. Especially, in small scale households women are observed to take main responsibility for almost all activities as many men do off-farm jobs far from home. Compared to wives, husbands are more likely to make decision regarding pig farming. Nevertheless, in households with higher-educated and younger couples, we identify a higher probability of husband and wife making decision together. Therefore, to improve the role of women in pig farming, it is necessary for local authority to train them knowledge relating to pig farming and to change their husbands’ perception on gender equality. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the Impact of Partnership Program on the Technical and Economic Efficiency of Irrigation Water Use for Moroccan Citrus Farms
Maatala, Nassreddine; Fadloui, Aziz; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (2019), 4(2), 70-79

A public-private partnership (PPP) in irrigated area is a mode of collaboration and governance that allows the Moroccan Government to entrust the design, financing, construction, operation and maintenance ... [more ▼]

A public-private partnership (PPP) in irrigated area is a mode of collaboration and governance that allows the Moroccan Government to entrust the design, financing, construction, operation and maintenance of irrigation equipment to a private enterprise. In this research, we want to estimate technical efficiency of farms, the technical and economic efficiency of irrigation water use, analyzing the determinants of each of these aspects. The sampling was undertaken using the propensity score matching. The estimation of the farms’ technical efficiency was carried out using FRONTIER 4.1 software and a stochastic parametric method with the functional form Translog. The transition from an output orientation to an input orientation in order to estimate the technical and economic efficiency scores of the irrigation water was carried out through the use of the Reinhard derivative. The determinants of these aspects were analyzed with the Gnu Regression, Econometrics and Time series Library (Gretl) software using the Tobit model. A survey was carried out among 130 citrus growers (65 pairs). The average of the technical efficiency increased from 62% in 2009 to 72% in 2016. This improvement is explained by the presence of highly qualified employed who assure the management and the technical supervision of the workers on the farms. Conversely, the analysis shows that the PPP irrigation program has had no impact on the farms’ technical efficiency scores. On the basis of the results, it is appropriate to focus on several aspects in order to improve the different types of efficiencies. Indeed, the Moroccan Government must ensure the aspect of the technical supervision of farmers in the two perimeters, which will better help to control the technical conduct of citrus farms. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the adaptive capacity of households to climate change: a case study in Quang Dien District, Thua Thien Hue Province
Tran Cong Dung; Dao Duy Minh; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Hue University Journal of Science (2019), 128(5C), 97-111

This study aims to identify the adaptation capacity undertaken by households in response to natural disasters and climate changes (CC). A total of 100 households in two communes including Quang Phuoc and ... [more ▼]

This study aims to identify the adaptation capacity undertaken by households in response to natural disasters and climate changes (CC). A total of 100 households in two communes including Quang Phuoc and Quang Cong, Quang Dien district were interviewed. The findings indicate that in the last few years, these communes have been badly affected by various types of natural hazards, including typhoons, floods, droughts and, and extremely cold weather. The study demonstrates that the adaptive capacity index in Quang Cong is significantly lower than that in Quang Phuoc (0.50 and 0.52). Also, the current adaptation actions of local households in response to natural disasters and CC have focused on short-term actions only. On the basis of the findings, the study proposes key recommendations to local households in Quang Dien district to effectively mitigate and adapt to natural disasters and CC. The recommendations encompass three groups, namely (i) raising awareness and understanding about CC; (ii) improving the infrastructure system; and (iii) diversifying livelihood strategies to increase income. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Rural Credit Markets in Developing Countries, the Case of Vietnam: A Literature Review
Ta Nhat Linh, ULiege; Hoang Thanh Long, ULiege; Le Van Chi et al

in Sustainability (2019), 11(5), 18

Agricultural sectors play an important role in the process of economic development of a country, especially in developing ones. Vietnam is known as an emerging market, which depends directly on ... [more ▼]

Agricultural sectors play an important role in the process of economic development of a country, especially in developing ones. Vietnam is known as an emerging market, which depends directly on agriculture-related activities for their livelihood, in which the issue of rural credit access still remains a confounding problem. The paper focuses on the characteristics of rural credit markets, the determinants of farmer access to the markets, the socio-economic impacts of credit access in Vietnam and briefly comparing with those of some developing countries. This question is addressed by reviewing existing literature and empirical evidence, followed by a comprehensive case study in Vietnam. Comprehensive literature review with secondary data collection and key informant interviews are methods that are applied in this research. The results of this analysis indicate the features of Vietnam markets as participated constraints, government intervention, and segmentation. Other results reveal the significant determinants of credit accessibility. Impacts of credit access on output production, household income, and poverty reduction are highlighted in this paper. Some managerial implications are recommended for households through participation in lending networks; for financial institutions relating to expand target clients as well as capital allocation; and, for policy-makers via ensuring market competitiveness and sustainable development in the long run. [less ▲]

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See detailCoffee cooperatives and women empowerment in Rwanda’s rural areas - A case study of Karaba coffee cooperative
Gisaro M., Ya-Bititi; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Orjuela, Camilla et al

in Roelants, Bruno; Eum, Hyungsik; Esim, Simel (Eds.) et al Cooperatives and the World of Work (2019)

Cooperatives bring socio-economic benefits to their members through combining forces with others. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are around 800,000 cooperatives which provide affordable products ... [more ▼]

Cooperatives bring socio-economic benefits to their members through combining forces with others. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are around 800,000 cooperatives which provide affordable products and services and access to resources (UNDESA, 2014). Cooperatives create opportunities and promote income generating activities for many communities by providing goods and services through their daily activities. They provide medical care, access to markets, and job creation. Apart from enabling their members to access economies of scale, cooperatives help to enhance the status of their members to voice their needs and challenges in the community. Access to resources helps cooperative members to improve the quality of life by enhancing social and economic empowerment of women. It is in this context that Karaba coffee farmers joined their organization in order to address their social and economic problems. Cooperatives have empowered their members by creating jobs and other advantages. The potential contribution of women empowerment in development and poverty reduction is supported by global institutions such as the World Bank and other development practitioners. Cooperatives are used as engines of development in homesteads and agricultural activities (Gibson, 2005; UNDESA, 2012). Rwanda’s paid labour force employed as casual workers in agriculture sector and other informal sector constitute 97.3 per cent of active persons with very low salaries (Ansoms, 2008; Birchall, 2003). In addition to housework, most of the women in Rwanda’s coffee producing zones are involved in coffee production. The major concern of this study is to assess the role of cooperatives in empowering rural women in Karaba. The study aims at answering the following questions: (i) To what extent has Karaba coffee cooperative contributed to social and economic empowerment of women? (ii) What is the impact of women empowerment on Rwanda’s rural households? [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Land Use Changes on Soil and Vegetation Characteristics in Fereydan, Iran
Eghdami, Hanieh; Azhdari, Ghanimat; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agriculture (2019), 9(3), 58

To understand and manage ecosystem complexity, it is important to determine the relationships between soil characteristics, human activities, and biodiversity. This study analyzes the relationships ... [more ▼]

To understand and manage ecosystem complexity, it is important to determine the relationships between soil characteristics, human activities, and biodiversity. This study analyzes the relationships between vegetation, soil, and man-made damage with regards to land use change in the Fereydan region, Iran. Soil physical properties such as sand and silt content, clay, saturated soil’s moisture content, and gravel percentage as well as chemical properties such as lime content, pH, electro conductivity (EC), and organic matter content were measured. In order to trace these variables, the principle component analysis (PCA) was applied. The study area was divided into three states of conditions; i.e., good condition rangelands, poor condition rangelands, and abandoned rain-fed area. Based on the results there was a significant difference between species diversity in good condition rangelands compared with two other sites. The results further revealed that among soil chemical and physical characteristics, only soil organic matter had a significant difference between different rangeland sites. According to the results, the rangelands with good conditions had the highest amount of organic matter (1.43–1.50%) compared with two other studied rangelands (poor conditions: 1.02–1.09%; abandoned rain-fed: 1.2–1.46%). The most influential factor on the species diversity index was the distance to village parameter that revealed the important role of humans in degrading rangelands and reducing species diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailProductivity and competitiveness of Rwandan agriculture: a case study of the maize sector
Musabanganji, Edouard; Ruranga, Charles; Nzabanita, Joseph et al

in AGROFOR International Journal (2019), 4(1), 32-40

This study investigated the level of productivity and competitiveness of Rwandanagriculture by focusing on the case study of the maize sector. The data werecollected through close monitoring of maize ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the level of productivity and competitiveness of Rwandanagriculture by focusing on the case study of the maize sector. The data werecollected through close monitoring of maize production activities on a sample of 50producers from five maize producers’ cooperatives selected in the districts ofHuye, Rusizi, Gasabo, Burera and Bugesera (Rwanda) during two agriculturalseasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. They were supplemented by directobservation, interviews with targeted resource persons and secondary data onmaize imports and exports retrieved from FAOSTAT website. The analysis wasconducted using the comparative analysis, the farm-level economic performanceindicators, the Net Export Index (NEI) and theGrubel-Lloyd (GL) measure. Theresults revealed that the yield was very low compared to theoretical expected yieldsfor about 80% of producers. The analysis showed that the rational use of improvedseeds, chemical and organic fertilizersimproved the yield. The analysis of the NEIand the GL measures for maize flour and maize grain revealed that Rwanda was anet importer. For these staple foods, the results revealed that if Rwanda managed,through policy and institutional actions, to remove or alleviate the bottlenecks thatprevent farmers from producing enough for export, it could have had a competitiveadvantage on regional markets. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic challenges of the export-oriented aquaculture sector in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Khanh Hong, ULiege; Tran Thi Nang Thu; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Journal of Applied Aquaculture (2019)

This article raises awareness regarding the new challenges associated with the supply chain of the export-oriented Vietnamese aquaculture sector, including market situation, exportation, feed industry ... [more ▼]

This article raises awareness regarding the new challenges associated with the supply chain of the export-oriented Vietnamese aquaculture sector, including market situation, exportation, feed industry, middlemen, and concepts for sustainable aquaculture, which policy makers, the industry, and business should consider for the sector’s future development. The article concludes that there is a lack of attention toward the need for sustainable and comprehensive action plans to increase Vietnam’s animal-based aquatic food exports, which can have many negative impacts on the environment, the economy, and society, such as low value-added, weak reaction toward international market fluctuations, limitations in traceability, food safety issues, and a lack of branding/eco certification. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling environmental impacts of treated municipalwastewater reuse for tree crops irrigation in the Mediterranean coastal region
Moretti, Michele ULiege; Van Passel, S.; Camposeo, S. et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2019), (660), 15131521

Wastewater reuse provides valuable solutions to solve the societal challenges of decreasing availability and limiting access to secure water resources. The present study quantifies the environmental ... [more ▼]

Wastewater reuse provides valuable solutions to solve the societal challenges of decreasing availability and limiting access to secure water resources. The present study quantifies the environmental performance of nectarine orchards irrigation using treated municipal wastewater (TMW) and surface water using a unique dataset based on field experimental data. Climate change, toxicity (for human and freshwater), eutrophication (marine and freshwater) and acidification impacts were analysed using the impact assessment method suggested by the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD). The water footprint associated to the life cycles of each system has been estimated using the Available WAter REmaining (AWARE) method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess data uncertainty. The irrigation of nectarine orchards using TMW performs better than the irrigation using surface water for eutrophication impact categories. Compared with surface water resources, the potential impacts of TMW reuse in agriculture on climate change and toxicity are affected by the wastewater treatment phase (WWT). Only eutrophication and acidification burdens are generated by in-field substitution of surface water with TMW. Considering human and ecosystem water demand, the irrigation with TMW increases water consumption of 19.12 m3 per kg of nectarine produced. Whereas, it shows a positive contribution to water stress (−0.19 m3) if only human water demand is considered. This study provides important results that allow for a better understanding of the potential environmental consequences of TMW reuse in agriculture. It suggests that embracing the type of WWTs, the replacement of fertilizers, the effects on water scarcity and ecosystem quality might be useful to redefine water reuse regulations and increase public acceptance for the reuse of TMW in agriculture. Moreover, this study reveals the need for developing consensus and standardized guidance for life cycle analysis of water reuse applications. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic Analysis of Perennial Crop Systems in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam
Phan Thi Thuy, ULiege; Le Duc Niem; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2019), 11(1),

Dak Lak province, Central Highlands, Vietnam presents an interesting case in perennial crop systems, of which coffee and black pepper are the two premier commodities and contribute a large part to ... [more ▼]

Dak Lak province, Central Highlands, Vietnam presents an interesting case in perennial crop systems, of which coffee and black pepper are the two premier commodities and contribute a large part to economic growth provincially and at the national level. In recent years, in addition to mono-cropping systems, intercropping systems for diversification have developed quickly. This paper focuses on (1) comparing the economic efficiency of mono-coffee systems (MCSes), mono-pepper systems (MPSes), and coffee and pepper intercropping (CPI) by analyzing startup cost, annual cost, and profits; and (2) identifying the main factors affecting farmers’ decisions to convert their crop systems. The study was carried out by investigating 90 perennial crop samples using the three perennial crop systems (MCSes, MPSes, and CPI) in 2017–2018. Additionally, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion (FGD) methods were applied to collect more information about the operations of each system. Another survey with 37 samples (new plantations) was carried out to compute the startup cost. The findings showed evidence that MCSes had the lowest startup and annual costs, whereas MPSes had the highest costs of the three perennial crop systems. MCSes used less manure or compost in the initial setup and overused chemical fertilizer in annual production. Similarly, MPSes had high pesticide-stimulant costs in the production process to sustain crop development. The study indicated that CPI not only had the highest economic efficiency, but also created the best family employment opportunities of the three systems. Additionally, the study found some social factors that strongly influenced farmers’ decisions to shift their cropping system: These included ethnicity, education, training, and crop failure, in addition to economic factors (profits). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Contribution of Farmers to Irrigation Management for Agricultural Production in The Red River Delta Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Nguyen Mau Dung,

in Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suleyman Demirel University (2018), 13(02), 229-239

In the Red River delta Vietnam, farm performance is dependent on the availability of water provided by public irrigation. With a well constructed irrigation system, farmers can increase their income by ... [more ▼]

In the Red River delta Vietnam, farm performance is dependent on the availability of water provided by public irrigation. With a well constructed irrigation system, farmers can increase their income by cultivating three crops per year. Hence participating in irrigation system management is necessary to improve their living. The aims of this paper are to examine the contribution of farmers to irrigation control for sustainable agricultural production. By analyzing primary data which is collected from the survey of 60 farm households, we discovered that irrigation management in this delta consists of several activities such as canals dredging, damaged canals repairing, checking the flow of water in canals and water pumping. In general, farmers contribute to these activities in two ways either in cash or working days. Around 70 percent of farmers contribute money to canal dredging and repairing annually, the rest are poorer so they support by their working days. Our regression model indicates that household income, the contribution of their neighbors, and frequency of attending social events in the community are main factors which statistically significant affect on farmers’ contribution. Therefore, promoting the contribution of farmers to irrigation management is an appropriate policy that needs to be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Red River Delta, Vietnam: How does industrialization change the use of labor in agricultural production at farm households?
Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Nguyen Mau Dung,

in Asia Life Sciences (2018), 27(02), 311-328

In this paper, we analyzed the change in labor use for agricultural production at farm households in the Red River Delta, Vietnam under the context of industrialization. By using primary data collected ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we analyzed the change in labor use for agricultural production at farm households in the Red River Delta, Vietnam under the context of industrialization. By using primary data collected from 130 farm households and 60 exchanged/hired laborers in Bac Ninh, Hai Duong and Thai Binh provinces, we fnd that family farm laborers popularly have age range from 45 to 54 years old and female laborers in agricultural production are accounted for higher proportion than male laborers. This is because of the fact that industrialization process makes men take advantage in terms of health and skill to seek for off-farm jobs. Also, industrialization in the Red River Delta creates the wave of migration to urban/abroad regions both for male and female labor. Consequently, the shortage of labor supply in farm households is substituted by exchanging and renting laborers, especially in peaking seasons. Based on the sample of 130 farm households, we estimate a multinomial logistic model to quantify the impact of industrialization represented by farmland area, number of migrant laborers, number of family laborers and household income on household’s choice in labor use for agriculture. With one more migrant laborer, a household tends to exchange labor with 2.3 times higher than using family labor only, and it likely hire labor with 2.9 times higher than using family labor only. Therefore, creating off-farm jobs in rural areas is an appropriate policy to absorb laborers and to prevent them from migrating far away their home. [less ▲]

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See detailMigrant Workers for the Development of Industrial Zones in Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam
Ngo Trung Thanh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Dien, Nguyen Thi

in Asian Social Science (2018), 14(12), 115

It is no doubt that industrial zones leverage economic development in many countries. However, migrant workers who are main labor forces in industrial zones faced to some vulnerable situations easily ... [more ▼]

It is no doubt that industrial zones leverage economic development in many countries. However, migrant workers who are main labor forces in industrial zones faced to some vulnerable situations easily related to both working and non-working environment. Base on the survey of 190 migrant workers in two industrial zones in Bac Ninh, this study found that labor sustainability is threaten by going on the foot loose of traditional development of industrial zones. Migrant workers in these zones faced a trade-off between accepting a hard life and accumulating capitals as well as experiences for an expected better one afterward. They are going to be circular and leave these zones after staying several years on their works [less ▲]

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See detailLand and agrarian reform in Rwanda: organic farming perspective
Mizero, Mireille ULiege; KARANGWA, ANTOINE; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in INTERNATIONAL Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2018":Book of Proceedings Published b y University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia (2018, October)

Since 2004, Rwanda is carrying an important land policy and a fundamental program of its farming systems transformation. The pillars of the government plan highlight the changes in land use management and ... [more ▼]

Since 2004, Rwanda is carrying an important land policy and a fundamental program of its farming systems transformation. The pillars of the government plan highlight the changes in land use management and tenure combined with improved inputs utilisation to ensure optimum productivity in the right line of the market-led agriculture. When they mention improved input, someone may understand essentiallyintensive use of commercial seeds, pesticides and chemical fertilizers. However, bio-fertilizers and natural pesticides are being promoted by the crop and livestock intensification program as well as the necessary techniques mobilised in the high quality of organic fertilizers production and use. This article aims to analyse how organic agriculture can coexist with conventional agriculture and allow agriculture operators to benefit of the market liberalisation. The literature review shows that during the agrarian system evolution, Rwandan peasants are involved in the program of land consolidation and agriculture intensification. Their level of performance has been appreciated throughout their active involvement in the commercial circuit. The main conclusion of this article is that organic farming prospects are inherent to optimal biomass valorisation especially crop residue, agro forestry and livestock dejection incorporated in the production systems. The unstructured interviews revealed that the most performing producers are those who own a minimum of 1ha with a recognized land lease and those who are using a mixture of organic manure and chemical fertilizers in potatoes. It has been demonstrated that the farmers who are enthusiastically participate in cooperatives have also an open mind to consolidate their commercial relationship. Moreover, they have constant ability to take advantage of the market, especially in pyrethrum and potatoes cropping system. [less ▲]

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See detailAgrarian and land reforms in Rwanda: Situation and perspectives
Mizero, Mireille ULiege; KARANGWA, ANTOINE; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agris On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics (2018), 10(3), 79-92

Rwanda is a landlocked country of Eastern Africa with 26,338 km2. The total arable land in Rwanda is more or less than 1.8 million ha and Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa. A series of ... [more ▼]

Rwanda is a landlocked country of Eastern Africa with 26,338 km2. The total arable land in Rwanda is more or less than 1.8 million ha and Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa. A series of policy reforms and agrarian strategic plan have been elaborated to transform the economy now oriented towards subsistence agriculture into a knowledge-based service and market-oriented economy. The research question is who has the right to land ownership for its rational use? The purpose of this article is to contribute to land sharing prospects between agricultural operators and investors in Rwanda for the optimisation of land access in the rural areas. This work is the result of deep literature review related to the situation of land issue prevailing from pre-colonial period to the recent 2004 land policy reforms in Rwanda. Crucial challenges before the beginning of the effective agrarian evolution are widely discussed. Agrarian perspectives show that the foreignization of agrarian reforms put Rwandan peasants in uncomfortable position. The changes in land use and tenure in Rwanda have been stimulated by both outside influence and inside adversary forces. The real land reform policy consists in specialization and exploitation of large-scale farms subsequent to land consolidation of small plots registered by individuals whose property certificates are preserved. Meanwhile, the required registration of land holdings does not entitle the land to definitive appropriation but it only provides the rights of use if rational exploitation is guaranteed. Such a rational system may result in expropriation for the inefficient producers.This article emphasize that in the case of Rwanda were population growth rate is high, the redistribution of land has its limits. The land consolidation should not be a rule either. Any agrarian reform must find a point of balance. This equilibrium consists in reducing the pressure on the property assets and promoting rural entrepreneurship. Agriculture program may improve and diversify the mode of land access and improved input acquisition to feed a growing population whereas non-agriculture population is gradually increasing. It has been found that farmers operating in co-operatives are more secure and have advantage for land access than individual farmers. [less ▲]

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