References of "Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline"
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See detailVocal features of song and speech: Insights from Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire
Merrill, Julia; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of ... [more ▼]

Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners’ perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, “Pierrot lunaire” op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg’s piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range), but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech. [less ▲]

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See detailLay Listeners Can Evaluate the Pitch Accuracy of Operatic Voices
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Morsomme, Dominique ULiege; Magis, David ULiege et al

in Music Perception (2017), 34(4), 489-495

Lay listeners are reliable judges when evaluating pitch accuracy of occasional singers, suggesting that enculturation and laypersons’ perceptual abilities are sufficient to judge “simple” music material ... [more ▼]

Lay listeners are reliable judges when evaluating pitch accuracy of occasional singers, suggesting that enculturation and laypersons’ perceptual abilities are sufficient to judge “simple” music material adequately. However, the definition of pitch accuracy in operatic performances is much more complex than in melodies performed by occasional singers. Furthermore, because listening to operatic performances is not a common activity, laypersons‘ experience with this complicated acoustic signal is more limited. To address the question of music expertise in evaluating operatic singing voices, listeners without music training were compared with the music experts examined in a recent study (Larrouy-Maestri, Magis, & Morsomme, 2014a) and their ratings were modeled with regard to underlying acoustic variables of pitch accuracy. As expected, some participants lacked test-retest reliability in their judgments. However, listeners who used a consistent strategy relied on a definition of pitch accuracy that appears to overlap with the quantitative criteria used by music experts. Besides clarifying the role of music expertise in the evaluation of melodies, our findings show robust perceptual abilities in laypersons when listening to complex signals such as operatic performances. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of pitch accuracy in melodies: A categorical or continuous phenomenon?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Franz, Simone; Poeppel, David

Conference (2016, July)

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic ... [more ▼]

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic perception does not rely exclusively on this category but also involves the notion of ‘correctness’. If we usually classify melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” depending on the size of interval deviations (smaller than a semitone) along melodies, the transition between the two categories remains unclear. This study examines the process involved in pitch accuracy perception. Twenty-five participants identified melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” and rated their confidence for each answer. The pitch manipulation consisted of the enlargement of an interval in 5 cent steps (from 0 to 50 cent deviation). The interval deviated was either a Major 2nd or a Perfect 4th and occurred in the middle or end of a 6-tone melody. The task was run twice, before and after an explicit definition of the two labels. Repeated measure ANOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of the deviation on the proportion of in- tune answers and on the confidence levels. For the participants who were able to learn the labels (n = 20), the proportion of in tune answers varies greatly according to the amplitude of the deviation and depended on the size of the interval manipulated. Associated with the confidence level measurement, the identification data support a categorical perception process. Interestingly, explicitly learning the labels increased the overall confidence but did not modify drastically the profile of the categories and the process behind the categorization. This study suggests that explicit learning is not necessary to develop higher order categories relative to “correctness”. Nevertheless, such a process seems limited to certain intervals. Further investigation of other intervals and individual differences seems promising to better understand the mechanisms underlying music perception. [less ▲]

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See detailSolo vs. duet in different virtual rooms: On the consistency of singing quality across conditions
Fischinger, Timo; Kreutz, Gunter; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Poster (2016, July)

Previous research on vocal pitch accuracy revealed insights into the fundamentals of singing. However, most of the research on singing focused on the analysis of single voices, whereas few aYempts have ... [more ▼]

Previous research on vocal pitch accuracy revealed insights into the fundamentals of singing. However, most of the research on singing focused on the analysis of single voices, whereas few aYempts have been made to tackle the challenge of analyzing mulTtrack recordings of singing ensembles. In addiTon, singers have to adjust their way of singing with respect to a given venue’s acousTcal environment (e.g., small room vs. a comparaTvely large space like a church). If it is common that musical performances are greatly influenced by room acousTcs, studies on the effects of room acousTcal features during ensemble singing are rare. In order to invesTgate singing performances across various condiTons, we manipulated the singing condiTon (unison, canon, solo) as well as the acousTcal feedback by applying diverging virtual rooms. Three duets with female singers (N = 6) were asked to sing three different melodies using headset microphones to record each singer separately. Recordings took place in the communicaTon acousTc simulator (CAS) at the House of Hearing (Oldenburg, Germany) to be able to provide different simulated acousTcal spaces (i.e., cathedral, classroom, and dry condiTon) to the singers. ObjecTve measures were performed on each recording and confirmed that the singers sang the melodies with high precision (small pitch interval deviaTons) hardly affected by singing condiTons or by the type of acousTcal feedback. However, the singers tended to driH (larger deviaTons of the tonal center) when singing in canon compared to solo and unison singing. Overall, the analysis of the pitch accuracy showed a general effect of condiTon (i.e., unison, canon, solo), but no general effect of acousTcal feedback and no interacTon between the two variables under study. [less ▲]

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See detailMelodic perception
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, May 30)

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See detailIn-tune versus out-of-tune: On the perception of pitch accuracy
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Speech/Talk (2016)

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See detailDo you sing in tune?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Speech/Talk (2015)

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See detailEffects of Music and Language Expertise on the Implicit Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; DeChristen, Eleonore; Kolinsky, Régine

Poster (2015, August)

1. Background The cognitive consequences of music and language expertise are rarely compared. Recently, we observed different profiles in music and language experts in implicit learning of linguistic ... [more ▼]

1. Background The cognitive consequences of music and language expertise are rarely compared. Recently, we observed different profiles in music and language experts in implicit learning of linguistic structures of sung material (Larrouy-Maestri, Leybaert, & Kolinsky, 2013), with music experts performing better. Yet, as the language experts were speech therapists, this could reflect their formal, late language training. 2. Aims We aimed at comparing informal vs. formal language training and at examining the effect of dual expertise (in music and language) on the implicit statistical learning of musical and linguistic structures. We therefore used the sung material of Larrouy-Maestri et al. (2013) and tested the ability of music and/or language experts as well as of dual experts to implicitly learn the linguistic and/or musical structure of this material. 3. Method 14 music experts, 14 bi- or multi-linguals and 8 dual experts (bi- or multi-linguals also experts in music) were asked to listen attentively to 7.30 min of a continuous stream made out of 6 trisyllabic nonsense “words” sung on 6 three-tone melodies. Each “word” (defined by transitional probabilities) carried its specific melody, as melodic and linguistic transitional probabilities were congruent. A two-alternative forced-choice required choosing between “words” and “partwords”, either spoken (in the linguistic test) or instrumental (in the music test) was used to test participants’ learning of the linguistic or melodic structure. 4. Results Expertise modulated performance in the linguistic test when including the speech-therapists of our previous study (F(3, 49) = 5.92, p = .002, η2 = 0.28), who performed the worst. In the musical test, there was no significant group effect (p = .25), but one-sample t-tests showed that only the dual experts performed above chance, with 62.5% correct (p < .01). 5. Conclusions Whereas informal language training and music expertise lead to similar abilities to implicitly learn linguistic - but not musical - structure, this was not the case of formal language expertise. The combination of music and informal language expertise led to a particular profile, i.e., to the ability to learn simultaneously the musical and linguistic structures of sung material. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do “scoops” influence the perception of singing accuracy?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Pfordresher, Peter

Conference (2015, August)

When we listen to a singer, a large amount of time-varying information is available on which evaluations of accuracy may be based. Most analyses of singing accuracy focus on relatively steady portions of ... [more ▼]

When we listen to a singer, a large amount of time-varying information is available on which evaluations of accuracy may be based. Most analyses of singing accuracy focus on relatively steady portions of sung notes, eliminating “scoops” of pitch that often occur at note beginnings and endings. However, it is likely that these scoops contribute to judgments of accuracy. We report results of three experiments designed to address the relative contribution of these scoops in contrast to a steady central portion of sung notes. Participants rated the pitch accuracy of 4-tone melodies where the 3rd tone was manipulated with respect to its center region (either correct, 50 cents sharp, or 50 cents flat) as well as the presence of a scoop at the start and/or the end of the tone, varying with respect to direction. We were particularly interested in contrasting scoops that maintained ‘continuity’ between tones (e.g., scooping up for an ascending interval) versus those that highlighted distinctions (the opposite). Further analyses evaluated whether reactions to scoops indicate a tendency to perceive the average pitch across the entire tone, or to treat scoops versus the tone’s center as separate features. Results suggest that listeners respond to scoops in a way that goes beyond role in forming the average pitch across a tone. Listeners respond differently to scoops at the beginning versus the end, showing more sensitivity to ending scoops. Furthermore, listeners do not necessarily prefer scoops that preserve continuity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that continuous time-varying pitch information is an important indicator of perceived singing accuracy, and should be considered more fully when assessing singing ability. [less ▲]

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See detailListeners’ tolerance when listening to melodic performances
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Gosselin, Laura; Blanckaert, Ellen ULiege et al

Conference (2015, August)

A melodic performance can be slightly out of tune (i.e., enlargement or compression of an interval of ~20 cents) and still be rated as “in tune” by layman listeners. In order to elucidate the concept of ... [more ▼]

A melodic performance can be slightly out of tune (i.e., enlargement or compression of an interval of ~20 cents) and still be rated as “in tune” by layman listeners. In order to elucidate the concept of pitch accuracy in melodies, this study aims (a) to clarify the effect of music expertise when listening to familiar vs. non-familiar melodies and (b) to quantify the perceptual thresholds of music experts when listening to melodic performances. For (a), familiar and non-familiar melodic sequences were manipulated, from “in tune” (deviation of 0 cent) to “out of tune” (10 to 60 cents, in 10 cent steps). The sequences were presented to 30 non-musicians and 30 musicians, matched in age and gender, using the method-of-limits procedure, in a test/retest paradigm. For each condition, participants were asked to specify whether the presented singing performances were “in tune” or “out of tune”. For (b), the same melodies, with smaller manipulations (0 to 30 cents, in 5 cent steps), were presented to 30 musicians using the same procedure. We observed a high test – retest reliability, independent of both familiarity of melody and musical training. As expected, there was an effect of expertise (p < .001) on the perceptual thresholds (experts’ tolerance of ~10 cents). In addition, we observed a specific profile for music experts, who were particularly sensitive to interval compressions. This study yields the opportunity to refine objective tools for the evaluation of singer pitch accuracy but also to provide pertinent material to investigate the music perception process. [less ▲]

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See detailSinging accuracy, listeners’ tolerance, and pitch analysis
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Devaney, Johanna

Conference (2015, August)

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See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation, Evolution in 152 Dysphonic Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULiege; Finck, Camille ULiege; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Conference (2015, April 08)

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score ... [more ▼]

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score after voice treatment. Nevertheless, few studies used ESGP to evaluate voice efficiency treatment. Objectives: The purpose is to examine the ESGP twice, at the first (T1) and the last consultation (T2) . We observe the ESGP values according to voice pathology. We also examine the relationships between ESGP, SPL(Sound pressure level) and DSI (Discorder severity index) . Method: The study includes 130 patients (M:31/W:99), which suffer from 4 different pathologies as immobility (N: 54), oedema (N:23), nodules (N:24) and polyp (N:29). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. We compare our values to those of Zraick et al (2012) which studied ESGP on a healthy group. Results: At T2, for the all patients, at minimum and conversational intensity the ESGP scores decrease singificantly, even if those scores were higher than for the healthy group. We observe a negative correlation between ESGP and SPL at low and conversational intensity. At T1, the higher is the ESGP score, the lower is the SPL score. At T2, the higher is the ESGP score, the higher is the SPL score. At T1, a negative correlation is observed between ESGP and DSI for 2 groups of patients (immobility and polyp) only at minimum intensity. The higher is the ESGP, the lower is SPL. At T2, only for the group immobility, the negative correlation persists. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering the ESGP as a parameter of efficiency. High ESGP is mainly connected with patients who suffer from pathology. The patient who suffer from immobility seems to present a specific profile which could help the clinician to better understand their vocal behavior. Recommendation: This study highlights the pertinence of considering the ESGP as a parameter of vocal treatment efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of pitch accuracy in solfeggio examinations: What about non-musical variables?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Poster (2015, March 24)

Background and aims In experimental settings, 81% of the variance of judges’ rating of pitch accuracy is explained by musical variables (precision of pitch intervals and respect of tonality) (Larrouy ... [more ▼]

Background and aims In experimental settings, 81% of the variance of judges’ rating of pitch accuracy is explained by musical variables (precision of pitch intervals and respect of tonality) (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsonne, 2013). In ecological settings, non-musical variables influence judgments of music performances (i.e., McPherson & Thompson, 1998; Platz & Kopiez, 2012). This study aims to better understand the evaluation of pitch accuracy in the context of formative and summative solfeggio examinations at tertiary music level, for which live performances are evaluated. Method Twenty-one participants of conservatory were asked to learn simple melodies during solfeggio classes. They were evaluated two times (formative and summative examinations) by 3 judges. Each performance was also objectively analyzed regarding pitch accuracy (number of contour errors, precision of pitch intervals and respect of the tonal centre) with a computer-assisted method (Larrouy-Maestri & Morsomme, 2014). Results The 3 judges provided strongly and significantly correlated ratings. The musical criteria objectively analyzed explained 56% of the variance of the jury’s rating when the examination purpose was formative (p < .001) and 31% of the variance when the purpose was summative (p = .009). Interestingly, the predictive musical criteria differed depending on the examination’s purpose. In addition, the variance explained by our statistical model increased (from 56% to 67% and from 31% to 46%) when taking into account non-musical variables such as the gender of the music students. Conclusions Besides the educational perspectives, the proposed method appears interesting for examining the influence of non-musical variables on the pitch accuracy assessment in ecological contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailLayman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege; Magis, David ULiege; Grabenhorst, Matthias et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen ... [more ▼]

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen’s ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners–who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice–are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, lay- man listeners’ judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies per- formed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliabil- ity in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence du stress sur la voix parlée et chantée
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

in Langage et Pratiques (2015), 56

Quand la voix dysfonctionne, le logopède/orthophoniste travaille avec le patient afin de l’aider à retrou- ver une efficacité vocale et la possibilité de s’exprimer avec aisance. Considérant que parler ou ... [more ▼]

Quand la voix dysfonctionne, le logopède/orthophoniste travaille avec le patient afin de l’aider à retrou- ver une efficacité vocale et la possibilité de s’exprimer avec aisance. Considérant que parler ou chanter en public peut engendrer du stress, il est nécessaire d’en connaitre les répercussions sur la voix. Le présent article vise à familiariser les professionnels de la voix au facteur « stress », à mieux en com- prendre les effets sur la voix parlée et chantée et à saisir l’importance qu’il revêt dans le cadre de la thérapie vocale. [less ▲]

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See detailOn drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?
Pfordresher, Peter; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2015), 9

In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer ... [more ▼]

In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer to more generally as individuals having a “vocal pitch imitation deficit.” The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability. [less ▲]

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See detailStress and singing accuracy: What is the relationship?
Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Conference (2014, October 31)

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will ... [more ▼]

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will have an influence on vocal accuracy. In addition, the quality of a musical performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In order to clarify the effects of stress on singing accuracy and to explore solutions to favor the positive consequences of stress, we ran an experiment in collaboration with the Royal Conservatory of Liège. Thirty-one music students were asked to learn a simple melody. There were then recorded in a stressful condition (i.e., a music examination) and a non-stressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances (in terms of respect of melodic contour, precision of intervals and respect of the tonality) was objectively analyzed. As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the non-stressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. The results encourage searchers to take into account the stress level of the performer when evaluating singing accuracy. In addition, it seems pertinent to work on the perception of somatic and cognitive symptoms in higher music institutions and to try to diminish the stress level of students, in order to favor the positive consequences of stress on the quality of musical performances. Thanks to this method, we are actually focusing on studies designed to better understand the effects of stress on speaking voice. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de l'expertise musicale sur la perception de la justesse vocale
Gosselin, Laura; Morsomme, Dominique ULiege; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline ULiege

Poster (2014, October 17)

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See detailEvaluation de la pression sous glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale: étude sur 418 patients.
Morsomme, Dominique ULiege; Chareix, Hélène; Finck, Camille ULiege et al

Conference (2014, October 13)

Objectif: Notre but est d'analyser la pression sous-glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale, du genre et du niveau de pression sonore. Nous observons également les corrélations entre ... [more ▼]

Objectif: Notre but est d'analyser la pression sous-glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale, du genre et du niveau de pression sonore. Nous observons également les corrélations entre la PSGE, le Voice Handicap Index (VHI) et le Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Méthode: 418 patients (118 H, 300 F) ont réalisé un bilan vocal (VLS, mesures acoustiques, aérodynamiques, VHI). La PSGE est collectée à l’aide du Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Les patients ont produit 3 séries de /ipipi/ à 3 niveaux de pressions sonores (conversationnel, faible et fort). Résultats: A intensité forte, les hommes ont un niveau de PSGE supérieur à celui des femmes. A intensité faible, le groupe « atrophie » montre des scores plus faibles que le groupe « nodules » et à intensité forte plus faibles que le groupe « polype ». A intensité conversationnelle, le groupe « examen normal » montre des scores plus faibles que les groupes « nodules », « polypes » et « œdème de Reinke ». A intensité faible, la même différence est observée avec en plus les groupes « kystes » et « cicatrices ». Nous observons une corrélation positive entre la PSGE et le VHI à intensité faible et négative à intensité forte. A intensité conversationnelle et faible, nous observons une corrélation négative entre le DSI et la PSGE. Quel que soit le niveau d’intensité, nous n’observons pas de corrélation pour le groupe « kyste ». Conclusion: Cette étude met en évidence l’intérêt de la PSGE. Une PSGE élevée est principalement observée chez les patients avec lésion sur le plan glottique. La corrélation entre PSGE et niveau de pression sonore varie en fonction de la pathologie. La mesure de PSGE peut aider le clinicien à mieux comprendre le comportement vocal du patient en lien avec sa pathologie. [less ▲]

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