References of "Kowialiewski, Benjamin"
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See detailPrecision of neural codes involved in storing phonological information in working memory
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Attout, Lucie ULiege et al

Poster (2020, September 03)

Working memory (WM) precision is defined as the quality with which representations are stored in WM, and has to be distinguished from WM capacity, which is the quantity of information that can be ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) precision is defined as the quality with which representations are stored in WM, and has to be distinguished from WM capacity, which is the quantity of information that can be maintained in WM. This study is the first to assess the neural precision of WM traces for auditory-verbal information, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. In this experiment, we asked 27 young adults to actively maintain 4-syllable nonwords during a 7-second interval. The nonwords were highly similar or dissimilar at the phonological level. Using multivariate voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we explored the neural patterns associated with each nonword. We hypothesized that if auditory-verbal WM precision is limited, as indicated by the well-established phonological similarity effect in the WM literature, then dissimilar but not similar nonwords should be associated with distinctive neural patterns during WM, especially during the maintenance stage. Using Bayesian one sample t-tests on whole-brain classification accuracies, we observed that neural decoding of similar nonwords was at chance level, while neural decoding of dissimilar nonwords was clearly above chance during the maintenance stage. Searchlight analyses showed that the informative neural patterns were located in the dorsal language pathway known to support phonological processing. These results provide evidence for the neural basis of the phonological similarity effect in WM and the limited precision of phonological coding in WM. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision of neural representations supporting auditory-verbal working memory.
Bouffier, Marion ULiege; Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Attout, Lucie ULiege et al

Poster (2020, May 27)

Working memory (WM) precision is defined as the quality with which representations are stored in WM, and has to be distinguished from WM capacity, which is the quantity of information that can be ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) precision is defined as the quality with which representations are stored in WM, and has to be distinguished from WM capacity, which is the quantity of information that can be maintained in WM. This study is the first to assess the neural precision of WM traces for auditory-verbal information, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. In this experiment, we asked 27 young adults to actively maintain 4-syllable nonwords during a 7-second interval. The nonwords were highly similar or dissimilar at the phonological level. Using multivariate voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we explored the neural patterns associated with each nonword. We hypothesized that if auditory-verbal WM precision is limited, as indicated by the well-established phonological similarity effect in the WM literature, then dissimilar but not similar nonwords should be associated with distinctive neural patterns during WM maintenance. Using Bayesian one sample t-tests on whole-brain classification accuracies, we observed that neural decoding of similar nonwords was at chance level, while neural decoding of dissimilar nonwords was clearly above chance during the maintenance stage. Searchlight analyses showed that the informative neural patterns were located in the dorsal language pathway known to support phonological processing. These results provide evidence for the neural basis of the phonological similarity effect in WM and the limited precision of phonological coding in WM. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic chunks save working memory resources: computational and behavioral evidence
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Lemaire, Benoît; Portrat, Sophie

in Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (2020)

It is now well-established that long-term memory (LTM) knowledge, such as semantic knowledge, supports the temporary maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). This is for instance ... [more ▼]

It is now well-established that long-term memory (LTM) knowledge, such as semantic knowledge, supports the temporary maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). This is for instance characterized by the recall advantage observed for semantically related (e.g. leaf - tree - branch) over unrelated (e.g. mouse - wall - sky) lists of items in immediate serial recall tasks. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this semantic contribution remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate through a convergent approach involving computational and behavioral methods that semantic knowledge can be efficiently used to save attentional WM resources, thereby enhancing the maintenance of subsequent to-be-remembered items. These results have critical theoretical implications, and support models considering that WM relies on temporary activation within the LTM system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe varying nature of semantic effects in working memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Cognition (2020)

Several studies have demonstrated an influence of semantic knowledge on verbal working memory (WM) performance, such as shown by the observation of semantic relatedness (related vs. unrelated words) and ... [more ▼]

Several studies have demonstrated an influence of semantic knowledge on verbal working memory (WM) performance, such as shown by the observation of semantic relatedness (related vs. unrelated words) and word imageability (high vs. low imageability words) effects in working memory. The present study extends these observations by examining in four experiments the extent to which semantic knowledge can protect WM representations against interference. We assessed immediate serial recall performance for semantically related vs. unrelated word lists and for high vs. low imageability word lists, with memory lists being followed by an interfering task after encoding or not. Results show that semantic relatedness leads to a stronger protective effect against interference than word imageability at the item level. Furthermore, the semantic relatedness had a stronger impact on WM performance than word imageability; this was further supported by a meta-analysis of all relevant studies in the field. These results suggest that inter-item associative semantic knowledge can protect WM content against interference, but less so item-level semantic knowledge. This protective effect may result from between-item recurrent reactivation or from reduced cognitive load via the compression of memoranda into conceptual units, as further supported by a series of computational simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term memory effects in working memory are not always automatic: evidence from the imageability effect
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Akelyen, Dylan ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, September 26)

Verbal working memory (WM) is influenced by linguistic knowledge; this influence is considered to reflect non-strategic linguistic activation during WM. This may however not be true for the influence of ... [more ▼]

Verbal working memory (WM) is influenced by linguistic knowledge; this influence is considered to reflect non-strategic linguistic activation during WM. This may however not be true for the influence of semantic knowledge as involved in the imageability effect (recall of high vs. low imageability words). We assessed the role of controlled processes such as semantic elaboration in the occurrence of the imageability effect. Sixty participants recalled six-item lists composed of high or low imageability words, with an interfering task presented during encoding for half of trials. The interfering task either involved semantic judgment supposed to prevent semantic elaboration processes, or similarly demanding visuo-spatial judgement processes. We observed robust evidence for a reduced word imageability effect in the semantic but not in the visuo-spatial interfering condition. These results suggest that the occurrence of the imageability effect in WM tasks relies partially on semantic elaboration strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere does the imageability effect in working memory come from?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Akelyen, Dylan ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2019, May 14)

Working memory is influenced by several linguistic long-term memory factors. One of these factors is the imageability effect, in which concrete or high imageability words (e.g. cat, tree) are better ... [more ▼]

Working memory is influenced by several linguistic long-term memory factors. One of these factors is the imageability effect, in which concrete or high imageability words (e.g. cat, tree) are better recalled as compared to abstract or low imageability words (e.g. phase, doubt). The precise origin of this effect is however a matter of debate. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that the occurrence of the imageability effect in WM tasks is conditioned to the implementation of semantic elaborative processes. Thirty-nine young healthy adult participants were invited to encode and immediately recall six-items lists composed of either high or low imageability words. In half of the trials, participants had to perform a secondary interfering task involving an animal classification judgement task aimed at preventing the implementation of semantic elaborative processes on the memoranda. We found a very strong impact of the imageability dimension and the interfering task (BF10 > 100) on recall accuracy but there was no reliable evidence for a reduction of the imageability effect in the interfering condition (BF10 = .833). Our results suggest that semantic elaborative processes are not a necessary condition for the observation of imageability effects in WM. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural patterns in linguistic cortices discriminate the content of verbal working memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Van Calster, Laurens ULiege; Attout, Lucie ULiege et al

Conference (2019, May 14)

Verbal working memory (WM) is characterized by the presence of psycholinguistic effects, whereby items associated with richer linguistic representations are usually better recalled, such as words vs ... [more ▼]

Verbal working memory (WM) is characterized by the presence of psycholinguistic effects, whereby items associated with richer linguistic representations are usually better recalled, such as words vs. nonwords (lexicality effect). This effect is accounted for by language-based models, assuming a direct and obligatory involvement of lexical linguistic knowledge at all stages of WM processing or by redintegration models considering that lexical linguistic knowledge only intervenes during post-memory trace reconstructive processes. We contrasted these two accounts in functional neuroimaging experiment by assessing to what extent and at what WM stage word and nonword memoranda can be distinguished based on their multivariate neural patterns in linguistic cortices. fMRI scans were obtained from 28 healthy young adult participants. The participants were invited to encode lists composed of word or nonword items presented at a very fast rate (2 items/s) and to maintain the items over a 6-second delay or not, followed by a probe recognition phase. Multivariate voxel pattern analyses successfully decoded word and nonword stimuli during the encoding phase in all conditions, as well as during the maintenance phase but only during the active maintenance condition. This study supports language-based WM models assuming continuous support of linguistic knowledge during all WM stages. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal working memory and linguistic long-term memory: Exploring the lexical cohort effect
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Memory and Cognition (2019), 47

Numerous studies have shown that verbal working memory (vWM) performance is strongly influenced by linguistic knowledge, with items more familiar at sublexical, lexical and/or semantic levels leading to ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have shown that verbal working memory (vWM) performance is strongly influenced by linguistic knowledge, with items more familiar at sublexical, lexical and/or semantic levels leading to higher vWM recall performance. Among the many different psycholinguistic variables whose impact on vWM has been studied, the lexical cohort effect is one of the few effects that has not yet been explored. The lexical cohort effect reflects the fact that words sharing their first phonemes with many other words (e.g. alcove, alligator, alcohol…) are typically responded to more slowly as compared to words sharing their first phonemes with a smaller number of words. In a pilot experiment (Experiment 1), we manipulated the lexical cohort effect in an immediate serial recall task and found no effect. Experiment 2 showed that, in a lexical decision task, participants responded more quickly to items stemming from small cohorts, showing that the material used in Experiment 1 allowed for a valid manipulation of the cohort effect. Experiment 3, using stimuli from Experiment 2 associated with maximal cohort effects during lexical decision, failed again to reveal a cohort effect in an immediate serial recall task. We argue that linguistic knowledge impacts vWM performance via continuous interactive activation within the linguistic system, which is not the case for the lexical cohort variable which may influence language processing only at the initial stages of stimulus activation. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation du système linguistique au sein d’une architecture de mémoire de travail
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2018, November 29)

La mémoire de travail (MDT) verbale interagit fortement avec le système linguistique. Ceci est notamment montré par l’émergence d’effets psycholinguistiques en MDT : les items associés à des ... [more ▼]

La mémoire de travail (MDT) verbale interagit fortement avec le système linguistique. Ceci est notamment montré par l’émergence d’effets psycholinguistiques en MDT : les items associés à des représentations langagières plus riches ou robustes bénéficient d’un meilleur rappel en MDT. Une grande partie de ces effets peuvent conceptuellement être expliqués par des modèles langagiers de MDT considérant que l’activation au sein du système langagier se réalise par activation continue et interactive entre les différents niveaux de traitement linguistiques. Cependant, les modèles langagiers de la MDT ont rarement été implémentés sous forme de modèle connexionniste, empêchant leur mise à l’épreuve empirique. Cet exposé présentera un modèle connexionniste intégrant à la fois une architecture linguistique et une architecture de MDT. L’architecture linguistique part du modèle d’activation interactive entre niveaux phonologique, lexical et sémantique de Dell et al. (1997). L’architecture de MDT utilise un principe de marqueur positionnels (Burgess & Hitch, 2006) à travers lequel chaque item est associé à une position spécifique. Ces associations entre les items et leurs positions sont gardées en mémoire via des mécanismes d’apprentissage associatif de type Hebb. A travers une comparaison directe avec des données empiriques, nous montrons que le modèle prédit correctement deux effets psycholinguistiques d’intérêt : l’effet de similarité sémantique et l’effet d’imageabilité. De plus, il permet d’expliquer pourquoi les items entretenant des liens sémantiques forts mènent à une plus grande probabilité d’erreur de transposition (i.e. erreur ordre). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of semantic and temporal grouping on serial order processing
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2018, August 30)

Introduction: Temporal grouping is a benchmark effect for our understanding of serial order processing in verbal short-term memory (VSTM). However, whether other types of grouping effect also impact ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Temporal grouping is a benchmark effect for our understanding of serial order processing in verbal short-term memory (VSTM). However, whether other types of grouping effect also impact serial order processing in VSTM is largely unknown. In this study, we compared temporal and semantic grouping effects in immediate serial recall (ISR) and reconstruction tasks to assess whether semantic knowledge can also interacts with serial order processing. Method: Through 4 experiments, participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words. Verbal lists of unrelated words were directly compared with lists that were semantically related by triplets of 3 (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) or were interleaved (e.g. three, cloud, leaf, sky, branch, rain). These semantic conditions were manipulated along with two different temporal grouping effects, with verbal lists being temporally grouped with 2 groups of 3 words, or 3 groups of 2 words. In a 5th experiment, we used a visually presented order reconstruction task to further investigate the effect of interleaved semantically related lists. Results: We observed that both temporal and semantic grouping effects independently increased within-group transpositions and decreased inter-group transpositions in the grouped conditions. Interleaved semantically related lists however, did increased within-category transpositions (e.g. recalling leaf, cloud, tree, sky instead of three, cloud, leaf, sky) only in the order reconstruction task. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that semantic knowledge can also influence the pattern of transposition in serial order processing of VSTM. In addition, we show that this result can be attributed to the influence of top-down, controlled attention. [less ▲]

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See detailThe non-strategic nature of linguistic long-term memory effects in verbal short-term memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Journal of Memory and Language (2018), 101

The contribution of lexical and semantic knowledge to verbal short-term memory (vSTM) span is explained by language-based models, assuming that vSTM is deeply grounded within the linguistic system with to ... [more ▼]

The contribution of lexical and semantic knowledge to verbal short-term memory (vSTM) span is explained by language-based models, assuming that vSTM is deeply grounded within the linguistic system with to-be-remembered items being activated in a non-strategic and automatic manner. However, direct evidence for a non-strategic account of lexical and semantic contributions to vSTM span is scarce. In this study, we assessed the influence of several types of long-term linguistic knowledge (lexicality, lexical frequency, semantic similarity and imageability) on vSTM using a fast encoding running span procedure preventing any strategic processes during encoding. We observed reliable effects of lexicality (words vs. nonwords, Experiment 1), lexical frequency (high vs. low frequency words, Experiment 2) and semantic similarity (related vs. unrelated lists, Experiment 3) on running span performance. However, word imageability (high vs. low imageability words, Experiment 4) did not consistently impact running span performance. Experiment 5 showed that the imageability effect only appears in standard immediate serial recall conditions which do not prevent list-strategic encoding. This study provides novel evidence for linguistic accounts of vSTM by demonstrating a robust impact of lexical and surface-level semantic knowledge on vSTM in non-strategic, fast-encoding conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting the redintegration hypothesis by a single probe recognition paradigm
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Memory (2018), 26

The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonword lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge ... [more ▼]

The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonword lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge on verbal STM performance. The locus of this effect remains however a matter of debate. The redintegrative account considers that degrading phonological traces of memoranda are reconstructed at recall by selecting lexical LTM representations that match the phonological traces. According to a strong version of this account, redintegrative processes should be strongly reduced in recognition paradigms, leading to reduced LTM effects. We tested this prediction by contrasting word and nonword memoranda in a fast encoding probe recognition paradigm. We observed a very strong lexicality effect, with better and faster recognition performance for words as compared to nonwords. These results do not support a strong version of the redintegrative account of LTM effects in STM which considers that these LTM effects would be the exclusive product of reconstruction mechanisms. If redintegration processes intervene in STM recognition tasks, they must be very fast, which at the same time provides support for models considering direct activation of lexico-semantic knowledge during verbal STM tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Semantic Knowledge Influence Serial Order Processing In Short-term Memory?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2017, May 31)

Introduction: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal items associated with richer LTM representations are better recalled in VSTM. These LTM aspects are generally considered as being independent from serial order processing, that is, the ability to maintain the order in which verbal items appears within a sequence. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that serial order processing in VSTM can also interact with LTM knowledge, focusing more specifically on the interactions with semantic knowledge. Method: Forty participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words; verbal lists were either semantically related or they were not. The words were grouped by groups of 3 semantically related words (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) in the related condition. Results: We observed no effect of semantic grouping on the proportion of order errors. However, semantic grouping dramatically influenced the pattern of transposition errors: while statistically less inter-group transpositions (i.e. erroneously recalling one item from one semantic category to another) were observed in the related condition, we also observed statistically more intra-group transpositions (i.e. transposing two items within the same semantic category). Discussion: These results show that semantic knowledge can influence serial order processing in VSTM. They also support recent theoretical proposals stating that serial order processing strongly interact with the activation within the semantic system. [less ▲]

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See detailLa similarité sémantique influence-t-elle le traitement de l’ordre en mémoire à court terme ?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2017)

Introduction: La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) est une fonction cognitive permettant le maintien temporaire d’informations langagières. Certains travaux suggèrent que cette fonction dépend ... [more ▼]

Introduction: La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) est une fonction cognitive permettant le maintien temporaire d’informations langagières. Certains travaux suggèrent que cette fonction dépend fortement des représentations linguistiques ancrées en mémoire à long-terme (MLT) : les items verbaux associés à des représentations en MLT plus robustes ou plus riches facilitent le rappel des items en MCT. Ces aspects de MLT sont généralement considérés comme ayant peu d’influence sur la rétention de l’ordre sériel en MCT, c’est-à-dire l’ordre dans lequel les items verbaux apparaissent au sein d’une séquence. L’objectif de cette étude était de démontrer que la capacité de rétention des aspects sériels en MCT peut également interagir avec les connaissances en MLT, en ciblant plus particulièrement les interactions avec les connaissances sémantiques. Méthode: Quarante participants ont réalisé une tâche de MCT dans laquelle ils étaient invités à écouter puis immédiatement rappeler dans l’ordre des listes composées de 6 mots ; les mots au sein des listes étaient soit sémantiquement liés ou non. Les mots étaient regroupés par groupes sémantiques de 3 mots (par exemple, arbre, feuille, branche, nuage, ciel, pluie) pour les listes avec liens sémantiques. Résultats: Nous n’avons observé aucun effet du groupement sémantique sur la proportion globale d’erreurs d’ordre. Par contre, les groupements sémantiques avaient une incidence sur le type d’erreurs de transposition : dans les listes avec liens sémantiques, nous avons observé un taux de transpositions intragroupe (c’est-à-dire, un échange de la position sérielle de deux items au sein du même groupement sémantique) plus élevé par rapport aux positions sérielles équivalentes dans les listes sans liens sémantiques. . Discussion: Ces résultats montrent que des connaissances sémantiques en MLT peuvent influencer le traitement de l’ordre sériel en MCT. Ces résultats mettent en cause un certain type de modèles de la MCT qui considèrent des mécanismes spécifiques pour le traitement de l’ordre sériel sans aucune interaction avec les bases de connaissances linguistiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic similarity interacts with serial order processing in short-term memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2017)

Background: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal ... [more ▼]

Background: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal items associated with richer LTM representations are better recalled in VSTM. These LTM aspects are generally considered as being independent from serial order processing, that is, the ability to maintain the order in which verbal items appear within a sequence. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that serial order processing in VSTM can also interacts with LTM knowledge, focusing more specifically on the interactions with semantic knowledge. Method: Forty participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words; verbal lists were either semantically related or they were not. The words were grouped by groups of 3 semantically related words (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) in the related condition. Results: We observed no effect of semantic grouping on the proportion of order errors. However, semantic grouping dramatically influenced the pattern of transposition errors: while statistically less inter-group transpositions (i.e. erroneously recalling one item from one semantic category to another) were observed in the related condition, we also observed statistically more intra-group transpositions (i.e. transposing two items within the same semantic category). Discussion: These results show that semantic knowledge can influence serial order processing in VSTM. They also support recent theoretical proposals stating that serial order processing strongly interact with the activation within the semantic system. [less ▲]

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See detailComment la rapidité d’accès lexicale influence-t-elle la mémoire à court terme verbale ?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2017)

La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) et le traitement du langage sont deux processus cognitifs fortement associés. Beaucoup de variables linguistiques affectant le traitement du langage vont également ... [more ▼]

La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) et le traitement du langage sont deux processus cognitifs fortement associés. Beaucoup de variables linguistiques affectant le traitement du langage vont également affecter les performances de MCTV. C’est notamment le cas des items associés à des représentations lexico-sémantiques plus robustes, qui vont améliorer à la fois les temps de réponse dans des tâches purement linguistiques, et les performances de MCTV. Cependant, peu d’études ont actuellement investigué si un accès lexical plus rapide et plus efficient permet également d’améliorer les performances de MCTV. Le but de cette étude est de tester cette rapidité d’accès lexical dans des tâches de MCTV, et ce en manipulant une variable linguistique affectant spécifiquement la facilité d’accès aux représentations lexicales. L’influence de l’effet de cohorte lexicale (i.e. nombres de compétiteurs lexicaux associés aux premiers phonèmes d’une séquence verbale) a été évaluée dans une tâche de décision lexicale (i.e. tâche de décision de mots/non-mots) et dans une tâche de MCTV. Dans cette dernière, les sujets étaient invités à rappeler oralement des séquences de 5 items. Les résultats montrent un effet de cohorte lexicale très robuste au sein de la tâche de décision lexicale (BF10 = 625.81). En revanche, cet effet de cohorte lexicale s’est retrouvé absent dans la tâche de MCTV (BF01 = 10.87) ; les listes issues d’une cohorte basse et haute ont en effet été rappelés à des niveaux de performance identiques. Cette étude reproduit dans un premier temps l’effet de cohorte lexicale dans des tâches de décision lexicales classiques, montrant ainsi la fiabilité de cette variable linguistique. Dans un deuxième temps, cette étude montre que la facilité d’accès lexicale ne joue qu’un rôle mineur dans les performances de MCTV, menant à reconsidérer comment d’autres variables linguistiques (e.g. fréquence lexicale) affectent le rappel d’information en MCTV. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic contribution of long-term knowledge to verbal short-term memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2016, May 24)

Introduction: The contribution of long-term memory (LTM) knowledge to verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is explained by language-based models assuming fast and automatic interactions between STM and LTM ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The contribution of long-term memory (LTM) knowledge to verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is explained by language-based models assuming fast and automatic interactions between STM and LTM. However, direct evidence for automatic STM-LTM interactions is scant. The purpose of the present study was to test the degree of automaticity of LTM-STM interactions using fast running span procedures minimizing the intervention of strategic processes during verbal STM encoding and maintenance. Method: We assessed the influence of several types of long-term linguistic knowledge (lexicality, lexical frequency, semantic-similarity and imageability) on performance in a running-span procedure in which subjects had to encode and recall auditory lists of unpredictable length, with verbal items being presented at a very fast rate (2.5 items/s). Results: We observed reliable effects of linguistic variables in all conditions: VSTM span was higher for words vs. nonwords (p < .001), high vs. low frequency words (p < .001), related vs. unrelated words (p < .001) and high vs. low imageability words (p < .001). Discussion: These results provide the most direct evidence as so far for a direct and automatic interaction between verbal STM and linguistic knowledge stored in verbal LTM. Importantly, this was also the case for semantic knowledge, disconfirming claims that semantic LTM effects would depend on slower controlled activation processes. [less ▲]

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