References of "Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas"
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See detailListeria monocytogenes dissemination in farming and primary production: Sources, shedding and control measures
Rodriguez, Cristina; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Garcia-Fuentes, E. et al

in Food Control (2020)

in both humans and animals. Human transmission mainly occurs via ingestion of contaminated foods and specifically affects pregnant women, newborns, elderly individuals and immunosuppressed individuals ... [more ▼]

in both humans and animals. Human transmission mainly occurs via ingestion of contaminated foods and specifically affects pregnant women, newborns, elderly individuals and immunosuppressed individuals. Several outbreaks have been historically associated with the consumption of fresh raw milk and unpasteurized cheese, highlighting the role of good farm hygiene measures to reduce the probability of milk contamination. L monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment, and therefore, this bacterium is commonly found in silage, haylage, grazing pastures, crop fields, farmyards and even water. Faeces of wild animals, including gulls and rooks, have also been described as important vectors of the pathogen for farm animal contamination, as well as animal bedding, soils or feed bunk tanks, especially when animals are housed during indoor months. Milking lines, including filters, collectors, bulk tanks and other utensils in the room, have been described as important sites of bacterial detection. The ability of L. monocytogenes to produce biofilms and to survive in humid environments makes elimination difficult and increases its persistence in equipment and on floors, leading to high risk of milk contamination at harvest in farms. This review explores in depth the different sources of L. monocytogenes contamination described in production farms, with a special focus on ruminants, identifying the transmission vectors and analysing the applicable control measures at each stage. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale multivariate dataset on the characterization of microbiota diversity, microbial growth dynamics, metabolic spoilage volatilome and sensorial profiles of two industrially produced meat products subjected to changes in lactate concentration and packaging atmosphere.
Poirier, Simon; Martin Luong, Ngoc-Du; Anthoine, Valérie et al

in Data in Brief (2020)

Data in this article provide detailed information on the diversity of bacterial communities present on 576 samples of raw pork or poultry sausages produced industrially in 2017. Bacterial growth dynamics ... [more ▼]

Data in this article provide detailed information on the diversity of bacterial communities present on 576 samples of raw pork or poultry sausages produced industrially in 2017. Bacterial growth dynamics and diversity were monitored throughout the refrigerated storage period to estimate the impact of packaging atmosphere and the use of potassium lactate as chemical preservative. The data include several types of analysis aiming at providing a comprehensive microbial ecology of spoilage during storage and how the process parameters do influence this phenomenon. The analysis includes: the gas content in packaging, pH, chromametric measurements, plate counts (total mesophilic aerobic flora and lactic acid bacteria), sensorial properties of the products, meta-metabolomic quantification of volatile organic compounds and bacterial community metagenetic analysis. Bacterial diversity was monitored using two types of amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA and GyrB encoding genes) at different time points for the different conditions (576 samples for gyrB and 436 samples for 16S rDNA). Sequencing data were generated by using Illumina MiSeq. The sequencing data have been deposited in the bioproject PRJNA522361. Samples accession numbers vary from SAMN10964863 to SAMN10965438 for gyrB amplicon and from SAMN10970131 to SAMN10970566 for 16S rDNA amplicon. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of spoilage bacterial communities in food wrap and modified atmospheres-packed minced pork meat samples by 16S rDNA metagenetic analysis.
Cauchie, Emilie ULiege; Delhalle, Laurent ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2020), 10

Although several studies have focused on the dynamics of bacterial food community, little is known about the variability of batch production and microbial changes that occur during storage. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Although several studies have focused on the dynamics of bacterial food community, little is known about the variability of batch production and microbial changes that occur during storage. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial spoilage community of minced pork meat samples, among different food production and storage, using both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and classical microbiology. Three batches of samples were obtained from four local Belgian facilities (A–D) and stored until shelf life under food wrap (FW) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2 30%/O2 70%), at constant and dynamic temperature. Analysis of 288 samples were performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in combination with counts of psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria at 22◦C. At the first day of storage, different psychrotrophic counts were observed between the four food companies (Kruskal-Wallist test, p-value < 0.05). Results shown that lowest microbial counts were observed at the first day for industries D and A (4.2 ± 0.4 and 5.6 ± 0.1 log CFU/g, respectively), whereas industries B and C showed the highest results (7.5 ± 0.4 and 7.2 ± 0.4 log CFU/g). At the end of the shelf life, psychrotrophic counts for all food companies was over 7.0 log CFU/g. With metagenetics, 48 OTUs were assigned. At the first day, the genus Photobacterium (86.7 and 19.9% for food industries A and C, respectively) and Pseudomonas (38.7 and 25.7% for food companies B and D, respectively) were dominant. During the storage, a total of 12 dominant genera (>5% in relative abundance) were identified in MAP and 7 in FW. Pseudomonas was more present in FW and this genus was potentially replaced by Brochothrix in MAP (two-sided Welch’s t-test, p-value < 0.05). Also, a high Bray-Curtis dissimilarity in genus relative abundance was observed between food companies and batches. Although the bacteria consistently dominated the microbiota in our samples are known, results indicated that bacterial diversity needs to be addressed on the level of food companies, batches variation and food storage conditions. Present data illustrate that the combined approach provides complementary results on microbial dynamics in minced pork meat samples, considering batches and packaging variations. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey on the presence of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples from six sites of the dairy pool of Niamey, Niger
Madougou, Amadou Morou; Douny, Caroline ULiege; Moula, Nassim ULiege et al

in Veterinary World (2019), 12(2), 1970-1974

Background and Aim: Antibiotics are widely used in animal production for treating the diseases and for preventing or increasing animal growth. The presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a public ... [more ▼]

Background and Aim: Antibiotics are widely used in animal production for treating the diseases and for preventing or increasing animal growth. The presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the use of antibiotic residues in raw milk from the dairy pool of Niamey in three farms (Toukounous, Kirkissoye, and Niamey) and three collection centers (Hamdallaye, Kollo, and Say). Materials and Methods: A direct interview (questionnaire) was used to collect data regarding the mode of use of antibiotics, the level of knowledge of farmers according to the withdrawal period, and a cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 samples of raw milk. The Delvotest® T was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analyzed using SAS and R software. Results: The most commonly used antibiotics were those from the family of tetracycline (86.7%) and from the family of beta-lactams (13.3%). Regarding the statements of farmers, the reasons why the farmers use antibiotics were the following: About 47% in case of prevention and treatment, 29% for treatment, 12% for prevention, and 12% for increase dairy production. Moreover, the farmers lacked the necessary information about withdrawal period. Screening of antibiotic residues was performed using a standardized biological test kit, the Delvotest®. In total, from 192 samples of raw milk, 19 (9.9%) were positive including ten from collection centers and nine from farms. This could lead to a risk of exposure when a consumer drinks locally produced raw milk. Conclusion: Raw milk supplied from the area of the study has a level of antibiotic residues, and the breeders have a low level of knowledge about the withdrawal period. Keywords: antibiotic residues, cow, Delvotest, Niger, raw milk [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the microbiological quality of beverages sold in collective cafes on the campuses of the University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin Republic
Komagbe, Gwladys; Sessou, Philippe; Dossa, François et al

in Journal of Food safety and Hygiene (2019), 5(2),

Fresh juices are highly nutritious foods for human beings, but the inability to observe requirements for their preparation, packaging and storage subjects them to microbial contamination which poses a ... [more ▼]

Fresh juices are highly nutritious foods for human beings, but the inability to observe requirements for their preparation, packaging and storage subjects them to microbial contamination which poses a potential health risk to consumers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of beverages sold within the cafes of the campuses of Abomey-Calavi University (Benin). A survey carried out among beverage vendors showed that the sources of contamination were uncontrolled and the raw materials used were of questionable quality as the operators lacked good hygienic practices. Thus, the microbial quality of forty-five samples of four types of beverages sold in these cafes was investigated for mesophilic aerobic flora, Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, sulfate-reducing anaerobic spores, fungal flora and Salmonella spp. using standardized methods. Then, molecular studies identified the pathogenic strains isolated from the beverages. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the strains identified for the detection of multi-resistant bacteria. These analyses revealed a non-compliance rate of 100% in the analyzed samples. The indicators that caused this non-compliance in the samples were mesophilic aerobic flora, coliforms and fungi. In addition, 85.7% of the samples contained other Enterobacteriaceae including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Kluyvera georgiana, Citrobacter murliniae, Yersinia intermedia. While the non-compliance rates of the samples for Salmonella spp and E.coli were 4.4% each, the non-compliance rate for S. aureus was 2.2% with the presence of sometimes multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Sellers' awareness of good hygiene practices is important for improving the quality of food sold. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of unconventional O serotypes of enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli from intestinal contents of healthy cattle at slaughterhouse
Ikeda, Rie; Habets, Audrey ULiege; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULiege et al

Poster (2018, October 26)

Escherichia coli producing the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion are called enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and are responsible for diarrhoea in animals and humans. EPEC are subdivided into typical (t) EPEC ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli producing the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion are called enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and are responsible for diarrhoea in animals and humans. EPEC are subdivided into typical (t) EPEC producing the “Bundle Forming Pili” type 4 fimbriae and isolated from humans, and atypical (a) EPEC not producing the BFP and isolated from humans and animals, including diarrheic young calves and healthy adult cattle. tEPEC and several aEPEC belong to specific serotypes, but different aEPEC can also belong to classical Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) O serotypes (O26, O103, O111, O121, O145, O157, O165) and derive from STEC after loss of genes encoding the Shiga toxins. In 2014 several hundreds of EPEC from healthy cattle at two slaughterhouses in Wallonia, but the prevalence of the classical STEC O serotypes was low and all were negative for the recently described O80 EPEC serotype. The aim of this study was to identify 6 other unconventional O serotypes (O123/186, O146, O156, O177, O182, O183) recently identified by PCR in different bovine aEPEC and STEC by one of us, amongst 312 EPEC isolated at slaughterhouse that previously tested negative, applying two triplex PCRs either for the O146_O182_O183 or for the O123/186_O156_O177 serotypes. So far the first triplex PCR identified 1 O146-positive and 8 O182-positive EPEC. The second triplex PCR identified 30 O156. The further steps of this study are: (i) the identification of still other unconventional serogroups among EPEC (ii) the identification of their H antigen-encoding genes; (iii) the comparison of these bovine EPEC between themselves, with EPEC from diarrheic calves and with STEC from cattle and humans belonging to the same serotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2018), 50(3), 537546

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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See detailLow prevalence of the 'gang of seven' and absence of the O80:H2 serotypes among Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (STEC and EPEC) in intestinal contents of healthy cattle at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014.
Thiry, Damien ULiege; De Rauw, Klara; Tataki, Shino et al

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2018), 124(3), 867-873

The purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the 'gang of seven' and 'non-gang of seven' serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the 'gang of seven' and 'non-gang of seven' serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the O80:H2 serotype in 245 intestinal contents collected at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014. [less ▲]

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See detailA NMR-based metabolomics approach for reducing food losses: the example of minced pork meat
Cauchie, Emilie ULiege; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Leenders, Justine ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the First international Conference on "Innovative Food Ingredients and Food safety" (2018)

In Europe, the losses of initial meat production represent 20% and more than half of this occurs at animal production, slaughtering, processing and distribution step. In order to control food waste ... [more ▼]

In Europe, the losses of initial meat production represent 20% and more than half of this occurs at animal production, slaughtering, processing and distribution step. In order to control food waste, studies have highlighted the importance of monitoring the microbial diversity of food products because spoilage by bacteria that contaminate the food matrix is a major issue. As such, the combination of metabolomics data with other complementary approaches (classical microbiology and quality parameters) can gives the opportunity to gain deeper insights into and have a better comprehension of the spoilage mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to assess meat spoilage through the evolution of bacterial counts and changes in the metabolic profile of minced pork meat using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabolomics. Microbiological assessment, pH measurements, gas composition and metabolomics analysis were carried out in meat samples stored under food wrap and under modified atmosphere packaging (70% O2 – 30% CO2) at 4, 8 and 12°C during 13 days. All samples were irradiated and then inoculated separately with three dominant bacterial species: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Leuconostoc gelidum and Pseudomonas fragi. For all conditions, non-inoculated samples were also stored. Analysis were carried out at day 0 and at day 13 for metabolomics analysis, and each day for all others measurements. The multivariate analysis (PLS-DA) reveals a clear discrimination between: (i) the non-inoculated product at day 0 and at day 13, (ii) the inoculated and non-inoculated samples, (iii) the type of bacterium, and (iv) the packaging conditions. It can be observed that the type of bacterium inoculated had a higher impact on the metabolome than that the packaging conditions. Moreover, some metabolites are significantly increased: acetate and glycerol for B. thermosphacta, betaine and lactate for L. gelidum, threonine and glycine for P. fragi. Exploration of the correlations of NMR-based metabolomics results with others microbial parameters suggested their use as possible spoilage tool to provide information on minced pork meat spoilage and to follow intrinsically the evolution of the metabolomics pattern linked to a specific bacterium in a complex bacterial ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of predictive models in the context of food spoilage: the case of white pudding
Cauchie, Emilie ULiege; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Ellouze, Mariem et al

in Proceedings of the First international Conference on "Innovative Food Ingredients and Food safety" (2018)

Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry and consumers as products become unacceptable for human consumption leading to significant food waste and economic losses. This study combines the use ... [more ▼]

Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry and consumers as products become unacceptable for human consumption leading to significant food waste and economic losses. This study combines the use of predictive microbiology and metagenetics in order to predict bacterial evolution in Belgian white pudding. The ecology of the product was studied at several times during the storage at constant temperatures, and under three different packaging (food wrap, modified atmosphere 30% CO2 – 70% N2 and vacuum packaging), by association of classical microbiological plate counting and 16S rRNA metagenetic analysis on each sample. The bacterial evolution could thus be deduced for the two major spoilage populations in the product, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. The growth parameters were estimated using the nlsMicrobio package from R and then used to simulate the microbial behavior in dynamic conditions with three different softwares: ComBase, Sym’Previus and baranyi growth function in R. These results are compared with validation curves, obtained from these durability studies. A relatively good agreement was obtained between the validation data set and the simulations, showing that the approach combining the metagenetics and the simulations based on an accurate database is promising. Performance factors (bias and accuracy factors) indicated no significant structural deviation of the maximal growth rates simulations between observed and predicted values with R and Sym’Previus. An overestimation was mainly observed with R, while an underestimation was generally observed with Sym’Previus and ComBase. None of predictive simulations give an identical microbial curve that the validation data set, but all models show relatively good statistical fittings. This work gives a proof of concept on the feasibility to combine predictive models and metagenetics in order to predict bacterial evolution using different predictive tools. In the future, predictive models needed to be more accurate by taking into account as many growth parameters as possible. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile in beef cattle farms, farmers and their environment: assessing the spread of the bacterium
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Hakimi, Djalal-Eddine; Vanleyssem, Raphael et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2017), 2010

n recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated ... [more ▼]

n recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C. difficile in closely associated populations, beef cattle and farmers, as well as in the animal feed, manure and dust in five different farms in Belgium. C. difficile was isolated from calves and cattle with a prevalence varying between 5.5% and 11.3%. Furthermore, all of the isolates were toxigenic. An important age and breed effect was observed in the colonization of C. difficile. For age, there was a higher probability of colonization in calves of less than 6 months in age than in cattle over 11 months of age. For the type of breed a higher prevalence of the bacterium was detected in the Limousin breed than in the Belgian Bleu breed. By contrast, none of the human and animal feed samples tested positive for C. difficile. The results obtained indicate a persistent animal reservoir of C. difficile, but an indirect dissemination to humans, probably via the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Hupperts, Caroline et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2017), 247

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one “legal” zone of 1,600 cm2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200 cm2). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87 log CFU/100 cm2 and 0.49 and 1.94 log CFU/100 cm2, for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the “legal” swabbing zone in “Halal” samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in “Halal” samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis of taxonomy at the genus level taxonomy highlights differences between swabbing areas. Although not clearly proven in this study, differences in hygiene practices used during both slaughtering protocols could explain the differences in contamination between carcasses from both slaughtering groups. [less ▲]

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