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See detailModeling the Main Fungal Diseases of Winter Wheat: Constraints and Possible Solutions
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; kouadio, Louis; Tychon, Bernard ULiege et al

in Advances in Plant Pathology (2018)

The first step in the formulation of disease management strategy for any cropping system is to identify the most important risk factors. This is facilitated by basic epidemiological studies of pathogen ... [more ▼]

The first step in the formulation of disease management strategy for any cropping system is to identify the most important risk factors. This is facilitated by basic epidemiological studies of pathogen life cycles, and an understanding of the way in which weather and cropping factors affect the quantity of initial inoculum and the rate at which the epidemic develops. Weather conditions are important factors in the development of fungal diseases in winter wheat, and constitute the main inputs of the decision support systems used to forecast disease and thus determine the timing for efficacious fungicide application. Crop protection often relies on preventive fungicide applications. Considering the slim cost−revenue ratio for winter wheat and the negative environmental impacts of fungicide overuse, necessity for applying only sprays that are critical for disease control becomes paramount for a sustainable and environmentally friendly crop production. Thus, fungicides should only be applied at critical stages for disease development, and only after the pathogen has been correctly identified. This chapter provides an overview of different weather-based disease models developed for assessing the real-time risk of epidemic development of the major fungal diseases (Septoria leaf blotch, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving fungal disease forecasts in winter wheat: A critical role of intra-day variations of meteorological conditions in the development of Septoria leaf blotch
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; kOUADIO, Louis; EL JARROUDI, Mustapha et al

in Field Crops Research (2017), 213

Meteorological conditions are important factors in the development of fungal diseases in winter wheat and are the main inputs of the decision support systems used to forecast disease and thus determine ... [more ▼]

Meteorological conditions are important factors in the development of fungal diseases in winter wheat and are the main inputs of the decision support systems used to forecast disease and thus determine timing for efficacious fungicide application. This study uses the Fourier transform method (FTM) to characterize temporal patterns of meteorological conditions between two neighbouring experimental sites used in a regional fungal disease monitoring and forecasting experiment in Luxembourg. Three meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation) were included, all conducive to infection of wheat by Zymoseptoria tritici cause of Septoria leaf blotch (STB) in winter wheat, from 2006 to 2009. The intraday, diurnal, dekadal and intra-seasonal variations of the meteorological variables were assessed using FTM, and the impact of existing contrasts between sites on the development of STB was analyzed. Although STB severities varied between sites and years (P ≤ 0.0003), the results indicated that the two sites presented the same patterns of meteorological conditions when compared at larger temporal scales (diurnal to intra-seasonal scales, with time periods >11 h). However, the intraday variations of all the variables were well discriminated between the sites and were highly correlated to STB severities. Our findings highlight and confirm the importance of intraday meteorological variation in the development of STB in winter wheat fields. Furthermore, the FTM approach has potential for identifying microclimatic conditions prevailing at given sites and could help in improving the prediction of disease forecast models used in regional warning systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA threshold-based weather model for predicting stripe rust infection in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Kouadio, Louis; Bock, Clive et al

in Plant Disease (2017), 101(693-703),

Wheat stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a major threat in most wheat growing regions worldwide, which potentially causes substantial yield losses when environmental conditions ... [more ▼]

Wheat stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a major threat in most wheat growing regions worldwide, which potentially causes substantial yield losses when environmental conditions are favorable. Data from 1999-2015 for three representative wheat-growing sites in Luxembourg were used to develop a threshold-based weather model for predicting wheat stripe rust. First, the range of favorable weather conditions using a Monte Carlo simulation method based on the Dennis model were characterized. Then, the optimum combined favorable weather variables (air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) during the most critical infection period (May-June) was identified and was used to develop the model. Uninterrupted hours with such favorable weather conditions over each dekad (i.e., 10-day period) during May-June were also considered when building the model. Results showed that a combination of relative humidity > 92% and 4°C < temperature < 16°C for a minimum of 4 continuous hours, associated with rainfall ≤ 0.1 mm (with the dekad having these conditions for 5-20% of the time), were optimum to the development of a wheat stripe rust epidemic. The model accurately predicted infection events: probabilities of detection were ≥ 0.90 and false alarm ratios were ≤ 0.38 on average, and critical success indexes ranged from 0.63 to 1. The method is potentially applicable to studies of other economically important fungal diseases of other crops or in different geographical locations. If weather forecasts are available, the threshold-based weather model can be integrated into an operational warning system to guide fungicide applications. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of regional climate change on brown rust disease in winter wheat
JUNK, Jürgen; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Climatic Change (2016)

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the potential infection periods of wheat leaf rust (WLR) at two climatologically differentsites in Luxembourg. A threshold-based model, taking hourlyvalues of air temperatures, relative humidity and precipitation during night-time into account, was used for calculating favourable WLR infection days during three periods throughout the cropping season. Field experiments were conducted during the 2003–2013 period at the selected sites. Projected climate data, from a multi model ensemble of regional climate models (spatial resolution 25 km) as well as an additional projection with a higher spatial resolution of 1.3 km, were used for investigating the potential WLR infection periods for two future time spans. Results showed that the infections of WLR were satisfactorily simulated during the development of wheat at both sites for the 2003–2013 period. The probabilities of WLR detection were close to 1 and the critical success index ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 (perfect score = 1 for both). Moreover, the highest proportions of favourable days of WLR infection were simulated during spring and summer at both sites. Regional climate projections showed an increase in temperatures by 1.6 K for 2041–2050 and by 3.7 K for 2091–2100 compared to the reference period1991–2000. Positivetrends infavourableWLR infection conditions occur at both sites more conducive than in the reference period due to projected climatic conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomics of a decision-support system for managing the main fungal diseases of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 172(2), 32-41

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL). The study was conducted in replicated field experiments located in four agricultural locations (representative of the main agro-ecological regions of the country) over a 10-year period (2003-2012). Three fungicide spray strategies were compared: a single DSS-based system and two commonly used spray practices in the GDL, a double- (2T)- and a triple- spray (3T) spray treatment; there was also a non-treated control. In years with a high disease pressure, the DSS-based recommendation resulted in protection of the three upper leaves comparable to that achieved with the 2T and 3T treatments, with significant grain yield increases (P > 0.05) compared to the control (a 4 to 42% increase, depending on the site and year). Overall, the financial gain in treated plots compared with the control ranged from 3 to 16% at the study sites. Furthermore, in seasons when dry weather conditions precluded epidemic development, no the DSS-basedDSS recommended no fungicide spray was recommended, reducing use of fungicide, and thus saving the cost of the product. The gain in yield for the 2T and 3T plots (compared with control) did not necessarily result in a financial gain during the duration of the experiment. This study demonstrates the potential advantages and profitability of using a DSS -based approach for disease management. [less ▲]

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See detailSpring air temperature accounts for the bimodal temporal distribution of Septoria tritici epidemics in the winter wheat stands of Luxembourg
Beyer, Marco; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Junk, Jürgen et al

in Crop Protection (2012), 42

Septoria tritici is the causal agent of leaf blotch in wheat and among the most damaging fungal cereal pathogens in the humid regions of central Europe. The percentage of the leaf area colonized by S ... [more ▼]

Septoria tritici is the causal agent of leaf blotch in wheat and among the most damaging fungal cereal pathogens in the humid regions of central Europe. The percentage of the leaf area colonized by S. tritici was recorded weekly between April and July every season between 2004 and 2010. A total of 11 cultivars with moderate susceptibility [ratings of 4e6 on a 1 (resistant) to 9 (susceptible) scale] were included. The disease level was assessed on the upper three leaf layers at 2 locations between 2004 and 2006 and at 3 locations between 2007 and 2010. The period between sowing and the point of time, when 50% of the leaf area was necrotized due to colonization by S. tritici (T50) was estimated for each year, site, cultivar and leaf layer by non-linear regression. T50 values followed a bimodal distribution with one maximum at 245 days after sowing (DAS; early epidemics) and one maximum at 270 DAS (late epidemics). Early epidemics were preceded by almost constant daily average temperatures of 13.2 0.8 C between 181 and 210 DAS. Late epidemics were preceded by an approximately linear increase in temperature from 8.7 0.9 to 12.1 0.9 C during the same period of time. Based on these differences, it seems possible to predict whether an early or a late epidemic can be expected at least 35 days before the epidemic outbreak. Temperature sums calculated with a base temperature of 6.6 C starting at sowing and ending when T50 was reached were not significantly different between early and late epidemics (P ¼ 0.73) and averaged 1721 49 days. Fungicide applications, which resulted into a delay of the epidemic development similar to the difference between early and late epidemics, resulted in a yield increase between 11.7 and 12.6%.Septoria tritici is the causal agent of leaf blotch in wheat and among the most damaging fungal cereal pathogens in the humid regions of central Europe. The percentage of the leaf area colonized by S. tritici was recorded weekly between April and July every season between 2004 and 2010. A total of 11 cultivars with moderate susceptibility [ratings of 4e6 on a 1 (resistant) to 9 (susceptible) scale] were included. The disease level was assessed on the upper three leaf layers at 2 locations between 2004 and 2006 and at 3 locations between 2007 and 2010. The period between sowing and the point of time, when 50% of the leaf area was necrotized due to colonization by S. tritici (T50) was estimated for each year, site, cultivar and leaf layer by non-linear regression. T50 values followed a bimodal distribution with one maximum at 245 days after sowing (DAS; early epidemics) and one maximum at 270 DAS (late epidemics). Early epidemics were preceded by almost constant daily average temperatures of 13.2 0.8 C between 181 and 210 DAS. Late epidemics were preceded by an approximately linear increase in temperature from 8.7 0.9 to 12.1 0.9 C during the same period of time. Based on these differences, it seems possible to predict whether an early or a late epidemic can be expected at least 35 days before the epidemic outbreak. Temperature sums calculated with a base temperature of 6.6 C starting at sowing and ending when T50 was reached were not significantly different between early and late epidemics (P ¼ 0.73) and averaged 1721 49 days. Fungicide applications, which resulted into a delay of the epidemic development similar to the difference between early and late epidemics, resulted in a yield increase between 11.7 and 12.6%. [less ▲]

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See detailTypology of the Main Fungal Diseases Affecting Winter Wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (2012), 2

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases ... [more ▼]

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases (septoria leaf blotch (SLB), wheat leaf rust (WLR), wheat powdery mildew (WPM) and fusarium head blight (FHB)) were observed and a regional-based typology was established according to their severity and prevalence. In the Gutland (South), SLB severity was strong (about 51% on average) and higher than the severity (about 16%) prevailing in the Oesling (North). Similar typology was observed with the WLR: high severity in the Gutland (66% and 57% for the years 2003 and 2007, respectively) and low severity (< 1%) in the Oesling. The FHB was also present in the Eastern part of the Gutland, with a prevalence and severity significantly higher (P = 0.049 and P = 0.012, respectively, Tukey’s test) compared with their values in the Oesling. On the other hand, the WPM severity was high in the Oesling (15% to 40%) while less than 1% in the Gutland. Such a study is important for the spatial mapping of wheat fungal diseases risk based on agroclimatic parameters and for defining optimal frequencies and dates of chemical treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailForecasting epidemic outbreaks ofwheat leaf blotch based on meteorological parameters
Junk, Jürgen; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Pogoda, Frederik et al

Poster (2010, April 12)

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See detailFirst Report of Wheat Leaf Rust in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Progress of its Appearance over the 2003–2008 Period
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; Giraud, Frédéric; Vrancken, Carine et al

in Plant Disease (2009), 93

Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. was identified for the first time in 2000 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the basis of orange-to-brown, round-to-ovoid, erumpent uredinia (1 to 1.5 ... [more ▼]

Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. was identified for the first time in 2000 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the basis of orange-to-brown, round-to-ovoid, erumpent uredinia (1 to 1.5 mm in diameter) scattered on the upper and lower leaf surfaces and producing orange-brown urediniospores that are subgloboid, approximately 20 μm in diameter, and with up to eight germ pore scattered in thick, echinulate walls. In a second phase, wheat was monitored weekly (starting from Zadoks growth stage 30, pseudo stem erection) during the 2003–2008 cropping seasons for wheat leaf rust. Disease severity (percentage of leaf area with symptoms) was recorded in four, replicated field experiments located in three villages (Diekirch District: Reuler; and Grevenmacher District: Burmerange and Christnach), which are representative of the different agroclimatological zones of Luxembourg. A significant difference in severity was observed between the sites (P < 0.01) and the years (P < 0.05). Over the 6-year period, Burmerange and Reuler consistently showed the highest and lowest disease severity, respectively. In 2003 and 2007, Burmerange (a southern site with the highest average spring temperatures of 13.6 and 14.0°C, respectively) showed the highest disease severity with 66 and 57%, respectively, whereas the lowest severity (<1% for both years) was observed in the north at Reuler (site with the lowest average spring temperatures of 12.0 and 12.4°C, respectively). Christnach, located midway between Reuler and Burmerange, showed an intermediate disease severity with 7% (2003) and 22% (2007). The disease appeared at growth stages 77 (late milk) and 87 (hard dough) in the period 2003–2005, but at an earlier stage (45, boots swollen) for 2006–2008 (P < 0.001). In 2005, low severity was recorded due to a severe drought during May, June, and July. A reason for this earlier appearance of leaf rust occurrences in the two districts may be related to an increase in the average spring temperature (average March to May temperature for Luxembourg was 8.3°C for the 1971–2000 period, 9.5°C for the 2003–2005 period, 9.9°C for the 2006–2008 period, 2007 was exceptional with 11.9°C, P < 0.01). In the past, cereal disease management strategies were oriented toward the control of predominant and yield-reducing diseases such as that caused by Septoria tritici Desm. Because the succession of mild winters and warm springs during the last 5 years allowed the early occurrence and the fast development of wheat leaf rust in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, it is advisable to take this disease into account in fungicide application schemes. [less ▲]

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