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See detailGaia Data Release 2: Properties and validation of the radial velocities
Katz, D.; Sartoretti, P.; Cropper, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 622

Context. For Gaia DR2, 280 million spectra collected by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer instrument on board Gaia were processed, and median radial velocities were derived for 9.8 million sources brighter ... [more ▼]

Context. For Gaia DR2, 280 million spectra collected by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer instrument on board Gaia were processed, and median radial velocities were derived for 9.8 million sources brighter than GRVS = 12 mag. Aims. This paper describes the validation and properties of the median radial velocities published in Gaia DR2. Methods. Quality tests and filters were applied to select those of the 9.8 million radial velocities that have the quality to be published in Gaia DR2. The accuracy of the selected sample was assessed with respect to ground-based catalogues. Its precision was estimated using both ground-based catalogues and the distribution of the Gaia radial velocity uncertainties. Results. Gaia DR2 contains median radial velocities for 7 224 631 stars, with Teff in the range [3550; 6900] K, which successfully passed the quality tests. The published median radial velocities provide a full-sky coverage and are complete with respect to the astrometric data to within 77.2% (for G ≤ 12:5 mag). The median radial velocity residuals with respect to the ground-based surveys vary from one catalogue to another, but do not exceed a few 100 m s-1. In addition, the Gaia radial velocities show a positive trend as a function of magnitude, which starts around GRVS ∼ 9 mag and reaches about +500 m s-1 at GRVS = 11:75 mag. The origin of the trend is under investigation, with the aim to correct for it in Gaia DR3. The overall precision, estimated from the median of the Gaia radial velocity uncertainties, is 1.05 km s-1. The radial velocity precision is a function of many parameters, in particular, the magnitude and effective temperature. For bright stars, GRVS 2 [4; 8] mag, the precision, estimated using the full dataset, is in the range 220-350 m s-1, which is about three to five times more precise than the pre-launch specification of 1 km s-1. At the faint end, GRVS = 11:75 mag, the precisions for Teff = 5000 and 6500 K are 1.4 and 3.7 km s-1, respectively. © 2018 Springer Verlag. All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrometer
Cropper, M.; Katz, D.; Sartoretti, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 5

This paper presents the specification, design, and development of the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) on the European Space Agency's Gaia mission. Starting with the rationale for the full six ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the specification, design, and development of the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) on the European Space Agency's Gaia mission. Starting with the rationale for the full six dimensions of phase space in the dynamical modelling of the Galaxy, the scientific goals and derived top-level instrument requirements are discussed, leading to a brief description of the initial concepts for the instrument. The main part of the paper is a description of the flight RVS, considering the optical design, the focal plane, the detection and acquisition chain, and the as-built performance drivers and critical technical areas. After presenting the pre-launch performance predictions, the paper concludes with the post-launch developments and mitigation strategies, together with a summary of the in-flight performance at the end of commissioning. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. Processing the spectroscopic data
Sartoretti, P.; Katz, D.; Cropper, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 6

Context. The Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the first release of radial velocities complementing the kinematic data of a sample of about 7 million relatively bright, late-type stars. <BR /> Aims: This ... [more ▼]

Context. The Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the first release of radial velocities complementing the kinematic data of a sample of about 7 million relatively bright, late-type stars. <BR /> Aims: This paper provides a detailed description of the Gaia spectroscopic data processing pipeline, and of the approach adopted to derive the radial velocities presented in DR2. <BR /> Methods: The pipeline must perform four main tasks: (i) clean and reduce the spectra observed with the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS); (ii) calibrate the RVS instrument, including wavelength, straylight, line-spread function, bias non- uniformity, and photometric zeropoint; (iii) extract the radial velocities; and (iv) verify the accuracy and precision of the results. The radial velocity of a star is obtained through a fit of the RVS spectrum relative to an appropriate synthetic template spectrum. An additional task of the spectroscopic pipeline was to provide first-order estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters required to select such template spectra. We describe the pipeline features and present the detailed calibration algorithms and software solutions we used to produce the radial velocities published in DR2. <BR /> Results: The spectroscopic processing pipeline produced median radial velocities for Gaia stars with narrow-band near-IR magnitude G[SUB]RVS[/SUB] ≤ 12 (i.e. brighter than V 13). Stars identified as double-lined spectroscopic binaries were removed from the pipeline, while variable stars, single- lined, and non-detected double-lined spectroscopic binaries were treated as single stars. The scatter in radial velocity among different observations of a same star, also published in Gaia DR2, provides information about radial velocity variability. For the hottest (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] ≥ 7000 K) and coolest (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] ≤ 3500 K) stars, the accuracy and precision of the stellar parameter estimates are not sufficient to allow selection of appropriate templates. The radial velocities obtained for these stars were removed from DR2. The pipeline also provides a first-order estimate of the performance obtained. The overall accuracy of radial velocity measurements is around 200-300 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP], and the overall precision is 1 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]; it reaches 200 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the brightest stars. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 2. The catalogue of radial velocity standard stars
Soubiran, C.; Jasniewicz, G.; Chemin, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 616(A), 7

<BR /> Aims: The Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) on board the ESA satellite mission Gaia has no calibration device. Therefore, the radial velocity zero point needs to be calibrated with stars that are ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: The Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) on board the ESA satellite mission Gaia has no calibration device. Therefore, the radial velocity zero point needs to be calibrated with stars that are proved to be stable at a level of 300 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] during the Gaia observations. <BR /> Methods: We compiled a dataset of 71 000 radial velocity measurements from five high-resolution spectrographs. A catalogue of 4813 stars was built by combining these individual measurements. The zero point was established using asteroids. <BR /> Results: The resulting catalogue has seven observations per star on average on a typical time baseline of 6 yr, with a median standard deviation of 15 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. A subset of the most stable stars fulfilling the RVS requirements was used to establish the radial velocity zero point provided in Gaia Data Release 2. The stars that were not used for calibration are used to validate the RVS data. Based on observations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France, at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi- Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier) and CNRS, France, at the Euler telescope operated by Observatoire de Genève at La Silla, Chile, and on public data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility.Tables of individual measurements and mean velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A7">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/616/A7</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGaia spectroscopy: processing, performances and scientific returns
Katz, D.; Cropper, M.; Meynadier, F. et al

in EAS Publication Series (2011, February 01)

During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude V ~ 17-18. This talk presents: (i) the ... [more ▼]

During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude V ~ 17-18. This talk presents: (i) the system which is currently developed within the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) to reduce and calibrate the spectra and to derive the radial and rotational velocities, (ii) the RVS expected performances and (iii) scientific returns. [less ▲]

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