References of "Houbrechts, Geoffrey"
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See detailCan coarse bedload pass through weirs?
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

in Geomorphology (2020), 359

Restoring active bedload transfer in human-impacted rivers has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in response to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that the ... [more ▼]

Restoring active bedload transfer in human-impacted rivers has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in response to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that the continuity of rivers not be disturbed by anthropogenic features such as dams or weirs. The Bocq River (233 km2), a moderate-gradient stream in Wallonia, Belgium, has a hydraulic resource that was formerly largely exploited with 74 weirs (up to 2.3 m high) along 43 km. We examined the effects of seven old abandoned weirs on bedload transport for three different types of weirs (defined by the presence and position of the sluice gate system). First, the volume estimates of bedload stored in reservoirs indicated that, despite their old age, the reservoirs were not completely filled (between 25 and 50% filled compared to the reservoir volume capacity) and did not evolve very much since 1990. Second, the grain size analysis of bed material upstream, downstream and within the reservoirs, and the direct measurements of sediment transport (slag particles and PIT-tagged pebbles) demonstrated that bedload continues to be transported out of the reservoir, even though the selective trapping of coarser elements was observed within the reservoir. Particles in the range of the median can pass over the crest of weirs, but the coarser elements tend to remain in the reservoirs. This trapping effect is mitigated when the weir has open or collapsed flushing gates that facilitate bedload transfer. This indicates that weirs act as leaky barriers that allow bedload to pass through, although the individual geomorphic setting plays a primary role in determining the local sediment continuity. These findings suggest that river connectivity is less impacted than initially thought and is likely to increase over time as old weirs gradually fall into disrepair. This needs to be acknowledged when planning barrier removal projects. [less ▲]

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See detailProtections de berges en génie végétal : Conception, application, suivi et recommandations
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Verniers, Gisèle ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege et al

Book published by Direction des Cours d'Eau non navigables (SPW - DGO3 - DDRCB - DCENN) (2020)

Grâce à une étroite collaboration avec les gestionnaires de cours d'eau de la DCENN, le LHGF de l'ULiège a mis à jour le guide technique des protections de berges en génie végétal. En plus d'une ... [more ▼]

Grâce à une étroite collaboration avec les gestionnaires de cours d'eau de la DCENN, le LHGF de l'ULiège a mis à jour le guide technique des protections de berges en génie végétal. En plus d'une évaluation sur le long terme d'une trentaine d'ouvrages de stabilisation de berges (mis en place à partir de 1996), cette actualisation comprend une partie introductive qui s'est enrichie, entre autres, d'un outil d'aide à la décision destiné à guider le gestionnaire sur le choix de la technique de stabilisation la plus appropriée au contexte environnemental. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroslag as a stratigraphic tracer to quantify floodplain processes (Lienne catchment, Belgium)
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Notebaert, Bastiaan et al

in Geomorphology (2020), 360

This paper focuses on two objectives: (i) the presentation of the methodology for using small-sized iron slag (called microslag) as a stratigraphic marker to reconstruct the centennial-scale floodplain ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on two objectives: (i) the presentation of the methodology for using small-sized iron slag (called microslag) as a stratigraphic marker to reconstruct the centennial-scale floodplain evolution and (ii) the study of the geomorphic evolution of the Ardennian rivers situated in the Lienne catchment (southern Belgium) by means of microslag evaluation, 14C dating, topographic surveys and sedimentological analysis. Using these data, the floodplain history since the Late Pleistocene is reconstructed, fine floodplain sedimentation and lateral mobility rates are estimated, and channel incision phases are identified. The first Holocene erosion episode occurred during the Bronze Age. Archaeological data and historical sources indicate Roman and High Middle Age occupations in the area but no evidence of erosion or increased floodplain sedimentation have been observed. Several peat layers have been dated in the Chavanne floodplain to approximately 1000 BP and probably indicate very low anthropogenic activity and a high level of groundwater. Before 1000 AD, the fluvial style of the Ardennian rivers was probably different, characterized by a low-level forested floodplain, which explains the presence of frequent peat layers within the alluvial sequences and abandoned channels. From the eleventh century onwards, a generalized increase in sedimentation rates occurred, coinciding with a higher concentration of charcoal in the alluvium and also the formation of colluvial deposits. Analyses of slag concentrations allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of the floodplain topography. In the Lienne catchment, the mean floodplain aggradation over the last several centuries is between 2.7 and 16 cm/century, depending on the study site. Such differences in floodplain sedimentation rates can be explained by several factors such as the distance to past cultivation areas, the degree of woodland clearance, flow velocities during floods and the incision of the riverbed during recent centuries, which reduces the frequency of inundation and, therefore, sedimentation on floodplains. [less ▲]

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See detailReturn Period of Characteristic Discharges From the Comparison Between Partial Duration and Annual Series, Application to the Walloon Rivers (Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege et al

in Water (Switzerland) (2020), 12(3), 792

The determination of the return period of frequent discharges requires the definition of flood peak thresholds. Unlike daily data, the volume of data to be processed with the generalization of hourly data ... [more ▼]

The determination of the return period of frequent discharges requires the definition of flood peak thresholds. Unlike daily data, the volume of data to be processed with the generalization of hourly data loggers or even with an even finer temporal resolution quickly becomes too large to be managed by hand. We therefore propose an algorithm that automatically extracts flood characteristics to compute partial series return periods based on hourly series of flow rates. Thresholds are defined through robust analysis of field observation-independent data to obtain five independent flood peaks per year in order to bypass the 1-year limit of annual series. Peak over thresholds were analyzed using both Gumbel’s graphical method and his ordinary moments method. Hydrological analyses exhibit the value in the convergence point revealed by this dual method for floods with a recurrence interval around 5 years. Pebble-bedded rivers on impervious substratum (Ardenne rivers) presented an average bankfull discharge return period of around 0.6 years. In the absence of field observation, the authors have defined the bankfull discharge as the Q0.625 computed with partial series. Annual series computations allow Q100 discharge determination and extreme floods recurrence interval estimation. A comparison of data from the literature allowed for the confirmation of the value of Myer’s rating at 18, and this value was used to predict extreme floods based on the area of the watershed. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la Meuse de Dinant à la capture de la Meuse lorraine
Juvigné, Etienne ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Report (2020)

The highlighting of the entry of the Semois gravel, then of the first Vosges elements in Meuse terraces in the region from Namur to Huy caused the need to revisit in France the sites that were used to ... [more ▼]

The highlighting of the entry of the Semois gravel, then of the first Vosges elements in Meuse terraces in the region from Namur to Huy caused the need to revisit in France the sites that were used to place the corresponding catches in the mio-pliocene transition. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos d’un changement pétrographique majeur dans les terrasses de la Meuse entre Namur et Huy (Belgique) : de la Meuse de Dinant à la capture de la Semois
Juvigné, Etienne ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege

Report (2020)

A sedimentological study of shreds of very high terraces of the Meuse River between Namur and Huy has made it possible to improve the knowledge relating to the evolution of the Meuse of Dinant which has ... [more ▼]

A sedimentological study of shreds of very high terraces of the Meuse River between Namur and Huy has made it possible to improve the knowledge relating to the evolution of the Meuse of Dinant which has shaped terraces over a vertical drop of 35 m below the level of the plateau by systematically abandoning a few decimetre thick gravel characterized by a large majority of quartz pebbles and a grain size lower than 32 mm. At the current altitude of 180 m at Andenne / Huy, a coarse gravel rich in quartzites suddenly invaded the basin; it is attributed to the capture of the Semois in Deville (France). This capture is placed in the lower Pleistocene based on its stratigraphic position in the existing terrace models, rather than in the Miocene as the literature says. [less ▲]

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See detailDes scories dans les alluvions du bassin de l’Ourthe : origine et utilisation en géomorphologie
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

in Atlas du Karst Wallon - Bassin de l'Ourthe Calestienne (2020)

Des «galets» colorés couverts de vacuoles sont présents dans certains secteurs de l’Ourthe ainsi que dans plusieurs de ses affluents (Somme, Aisne, Lembrée, etc.). Ces galets sont des scories, résidus de ... [more ▼]

Des «galets» colorés couverts de vacuoles sont présents dans certains secteurs de l’Ourthe ainsi que dans plusieurs de ses affluents (Somme, Aisne, Lembrée, etc.). Ces galets sont des scories, résidus de la transformation du minerai de fer en métal. Elles ont été produites par les nombreuses usines sidérurgiques qui fonctionnaient autrefois dans la région et plus spécialement à proximité de la Calestienne. Les scories constituent un traceur et un marqueur stratigraphique particulièrement intéressant en géomorphologie pour analyser le transport des sédiments, la dynamique des cours d’eau et l’évolution des plaines alluviales. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is a suitable microhabitat for Unio crassus?
Vaessen, Quintia ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Mayon, Nicolas et al

Poster (2019, March)

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See detailMécanismes du transport sédimentaire des cours d’eau et effets sur l'hydro-morphologie
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailEfficacité et résistance de techniques de protection de berges en génie végétal
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

in Géomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement (2018), 24(2 (2018)), 121-138

Nineteen streambank stabilisation projects using bioengineering techniques were monitored in the short and the long term on several rivers in Wallonia. Most of the bank protections, installed between 3 ... [more ▼]

Nineteen streambank stabilisation projects using bioengineering techniques were monitored in the short and the long term on several rivers in Wallonia. Most of the bank protections, installed between 3 and 20 years ago, were effective, although many of them are now partially destroyed. In some cases, damage to the protective structure has led to a renewed erosion of the bank. The main factor of degradation is the magnitude of stream discharge, which is quantified by the critical stream power (the maximum power value at which the bank protection can resist). Permissible stream power thresholds were determined empirically, and are in order of 130 W/m² for fascine, 65 W/m² for tree revetment, 200 W/m² for cribwall and 150 W/m² for groynes system. Nevertheless, several factors might undermine the bank protection before its flood destruction, which lead to a lower threshold of critical power. The deterioration factors highlighted are (i) a poor vegetation recovery due to lack of sunlight, unmanaged cutting, and damage caused by animals (livestock and rodents), (ii) an inadequate design or filling, and (iii) a lack of consideration of fluvial processes, such as unit stream power and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) as most of these structures require filling with fine sediments. As a result, this study underlined the importance of characterising the geomorphological context in addition to the regular hydrological technical factors prior to the bank stabilisation project. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Semois valley in southern Ardenne: short-wavelength, large-Amplitude meanders incised into a slaty basement
Petit, François ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

in Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

The incised meanders of the Semois Valley, in Southern Ardenne, are remarkably elongated, forming a nearly 100-km-long meander belt. Their elongation is conditioned by the relative orientation of the ... [more ▼]

The incised meanders of the Semois Valley, in Southern Ardenne, are remarkably elongated, forming a nearly 100-km-long meander belt. Their elongation is conditioned by the relative orientation of the meander loops and the regional slaty cleavage, as theorized by Strahler. These meanders already existed in the Early Quaternary, some cut-off meanders lying more than 100 m above the present floodplain. Although the Quaternary incision rates of the Semois were low ( 0.05 mm/year), several meanders look more entrenched than ingrown, probably because lateral erosion was fairly slow (*0.3–0.5 mm/year), owing to the large quantity of material to evacuate by a rather small river. The combined aesthetic and scientific interests of this particularly well-developed meander belt speak in favour of the preservation of the nicest meanders as geomorphosites. [less ▲]

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See detailThe periglacial ramparted depressions of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau: traces of Late Weichselian lithalsas
Demoulin, Alain ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Juvigné, Etienne ULiege

in Demoulin, Alain (Ed.) Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

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See detailA unique boulder-bed reach of the Amblève River, Ardenne, at Fonds de Quarreux: Modes of boulder transport
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege et al

in Demoulin, Alain (Ed.) Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

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See detailWeir impacts on sediment transport and geomorphic response to their removal in the Bocq River (Belgium)
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, November 17)

Bedload transport is an important component of the ecological equilibrium of rivers. Artificial features such as dams or weirs interrupt the continuity of sediment transport, causing river habitat ... [more ▼]

Bedload transport is an important component of the ecological equilibrium of rivers. Artificial features such as dams or weirs interrupt the continuity of sediment transport, causing river habitat degradation. These barriers are numerous in the Bocq catchment (233 km²), with an average of one barrier every 1.8 km. They consist of old weirs (1-3 m high) related to ancient uses (watermill, iron factory, irrigation system). Since 2009, the Bocq catchment has been subjected to a large-scale restoration project (EU LIFE+ project Walphy) including weir removal, resulting in the re-establishment of bedload continuity, and thus in an improvement in river ecological quality. Before undertaking sustainable rehabilitation work, an assessment of hydromorphological and sedimentological conditions was conducted on several weirs, based on the identification of impacted areas (upstream influence on water level and bedload transport) and on the evaluation of the trapping efficiency of bedload material. The latter rests on the characterisation of the weir structure and the sediment storage quantification. Particle size measurements and the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags have demonstrated different scenarios of bedload trapping, from absence to partial trapping. The Spontin weir removal was combined with an appropriate assessment of the hydromorphological and geomorphological impacts. The surveys carried out pre- and post-removal have shown an improvement of hydromorphological conditions on the upstream reach, with shallow, fast-flowing habitats, more suitable for salmonid species. Geomorphic responses to the weir removal were quick in relation to the 11-year flood that followed. The release of the trapped sediment was studied using topographic surveys and PIT-tagged pebbles. We thus highlighted the development of a new point bar and a moderate stream bed aggradation downstream. [less ▲]

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See detailTransport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuses de Belgique et du nord de la France grâce aux scories de la sidérurgie ancienne
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Gob, Frédéric; Tamisier, Vincent et al

Conference (2017, November 09)

Le transport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuse reste à l'heure actuelle relativement mal connu. Avec les techniques habituellement déployées en dynamique fluviale, le principal problème ... [more ▼]

Le transport de la charge sableuse dans les rivières caillouteuse reste à l'heure actuelle relativement mal connu. Avec les techniques habituellement déployées en dynamique fluviale, le principal problème consiste à retrouver après une crue mobilisatrice des éléments sableux marqués et dispersés longitudinalement et verticalement dans le lit des rivières. De plus, les résultats obtenus portent sur des échelles de temps relativement limitées. Nous proposons une approche nouvelle pour quantifier le transport du sable grâce à l’utilisation d’un traceur anthropique, les scories de la sidérurgie ancienne. De grandes quantités de scories sont en effet présentes dans les alluvions sableuses et caillouteuses de nombreux cours d'eau d'Europe. Ces scories sont des déchets produits dans des usines sidérurgiques installées le long des cours d'eau entre le 14e et le 19e siècle. Ces déchets étaient généralement rejetés sur les plaines alluviales, à proximité des rivières, ou directement dans les cours d'eau. Lors des crues, ces éléments ont été emportés en aval et se sont mélangés avec la charge naturelle des rivières (Houbrechts et al., 2011). Grâce aux sources historiques, il est possible de dater de manière relativement précise les périodes d'activité de ces sites sidérurgiques. En conséquence, sur la base de la distance de dispersion des scories et de l'époque de rejets, nous avons déterminé la vitesse d'avancée de la charge en saltation pour plusieurs rivières du massif ardennais, de Normandie et de Haute Marne. Cette analyse a été plus spécifiquement réalisée sur deux fractions granulométriques : entre 0,5 et 1 mm et entre 1,6 et 2,5 mm. Ces données permettent ainsi d’étudier le transport de la charge en saltation dans des rivières naturelles en tenant compte des caractéristiques granulométriques des lits (armurage) sur la mise en mouvement des fractions sableuses. Une attention particulière a par ailleurs été portée sur le rôle des obstacles transversaux sur le transit des sables. Enfin, par rapport aux techniques traditionnelles, l’utilisation des scories a permis d’analyser ces questions sur le temps long (plusieurs siècles), ce qui permet d’intégrer l’évolution historique des lits et de pleinement considérer le caractère très discontinu du transport (difficilement appréhendé lorsqu’on travaille avec le marquage de particules individuelles). [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des impacts des ouvrages transversaux sur le transport sédimentaire et l’hydromorphologie
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Petit, François ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege

Conference (2017, May 31)

Le transport naturel des sédiments de la charge de fond est aujourd'hui clairement identifié comme un contributeur essentiel pour atteindre le bon état écologique des cours d’eau (Directive 2000/60/CE ... [more ▼]

Le transport naturel des sédiments de la charge de fond est aujourd'hui clairement identifié comme un contributeur essentiel pour atteindre le bon état écologique des cours d’eau (Directive 2000/60/CE). Lorsque le transport sédimentaire est entravé par des obstacles, l’équilibre hydromorphologique et écologique de la rivière est alors perturbé. Ces obstacles à la continuité écologique sont nombreux dans le bassin versant du Bocq (233 km², affluent de la Meuse en Wallonie) : on en dénombre 76 sur les 135 km de linéaire de cours d'eau, ce qui représente 1 obstacle tous les 1,8 km en moyenne. Il s'agit principalement d'ouvrages transversaux liés à des usages anciens du cours d’eau (moulin, forge, abissage, pompe à eau, etc.). Dans le cadre du projet UE LIFE+ Walphy, des travaux de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique ont été réalisés entre 2009 et 2013 sur 22 ouvrages transversaux du bassin du Bocq. Avant la réalisation des travaux, plusieurs ouvrages ont fait l’objet d’un diagnostic hydromorphologique et sédimentaire, basé sur l'identification des zones impactées (remous liquide et solide) d'une part, et l'évaluation de l'effet de piégeage de l'ouvrage d'autre part. Ce dernier point repose sur la caractérisation de l'ouvrage et du remplissage de sa retenue, ainsi que sur des mesures granulométriques et des marquages de la charge de fond (transpondeurs passifs). Ainsi, nous avons mis en évidence différents cas de piégeage de la charge de fond : absent, partiel ou total. Parmi les travaux de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique, ce sont les projets de suppression d'obstacle qui sont les plus efficaces, comme l'illustre le cas du déversoir de Spontin, pour lequel nous avons quantifié les impacts de son arasement des points de vue hydromorphologique et sédimentaire. Enfin, l’aménagement d'une rampe rugueuse sur un site fortement artificialisé (lit bétonné) à contrainte importante (protection de captages d'eau potable) constitue un cas particulier de réhabilitation de la continuité écologique, pour lequel l'analyse approfondie du transport sédimentaire a fourni les éléments nécessaires au bon dimensionnement des matériaux à utiliser. [less ▲]

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See detailFlux sédimentaires des rivières de Wallonie : du Pléistocène à Demain
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Gob, Frédéric; Hallot, Eric ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 11)

Livret-guide des journées 2016 de la Commission des hydrosystèmes continentaux du CNFG. Depuis plus de 40 ans, de nombreuses études ont été menées par François Petit et ses collaborateurs sur le transport ... [more ▼]

Livret-guide des journées 2016 de la Commission des hydrosystèmes continentaux du CNFG. Depuis plus de 40 ans, de nombreuses études ont été menées par François Petit et ses collaborateurs sur le transport des sédiments par les rivières du massif ardennais et des régions périphériques. La diversité des processus et des problématiques abordées, des méthodes d'analyse et des périodes considérées nous ont amené à proposer un thème relativement général permettant de regrouper les études portant sur les sédiments de taille variée, depuis les fractions fines jusqu'aux éléments les plus grossiers de la charge de fond ainsi que d'aborder des échelles de temps différentes, depuis les héritages géomorphologiques des périodes froides du Quaternaire jusqu'aux futures évolutions dans le cadre de projets de restauration de cours d'eau. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the temporal dynamics of suspended sediment fluxes using discrete sampling and continuous turbidity measurements in the Meuse and Scheldt watersheds (Wallonia, Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULiege; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Petit, François ULiege

Conference (2016, June 27)

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several ... [more ▼]

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several projects were conducted to estimate the erosion rates in watersheds ranging from 16 to 2900 km². Both discrete sampling methods (allowing the coverage of a large area through field campaigns during major floods or moderate hydrological events) and continuous turbidity measurements devices (studying a small number of locations with a small sampling interval and a wide range of sampled flow rates) were tested in these projects. At the region scale (Figure 1), the mean annual sediment erosion rate reaches several hundreds of tons per square kilometre and per year in the loess belt (Senne, Dyle and Gette watersheds) with a huge sensibility to extreme hydrological events while the mean annual sediment transport value reaches 20 t.km-2.yr-1 in Lorraine, 34 t.km-2.yr-1 in Ardenne and 69 t.km-2.yr-1 in Entre-Vesdre-et-Meuse. The aims of our researches are 1) the determination of the effect of the sampling frequency on the annual sediment transport rate estimation ; 2) the definition of the prerequisites to perform efficient turbidity measurements in rivers with high suspended load concentrations ; 3) the identification of the sources of errors due to the interpolation methods through a comparison of several methods proposed in the literature allowing the quantification of long-term erosion rates using a small number of discrete samples ; 4) the observation and explanation of clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops in relationship with the sequence of floods occurring in large watersheds and 5) the highlighting of the regional differentiation in the erosion rates, particle size and proportion of organic matter in the suspended load samples due to spatial variations of the soil substrate and the land cover characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailTipping points in Anthropocene fluvial dynamics
Notebaert, Bastiaan; Broothaerts, Nils; Verstraeten, Gert et al

Poster (2016, April)

Three examples demonstrate the varying impact of human deforestation on floodplain geomorphology. For the Dijle and Valdaine region this lead to dramatic changes once a certain tipping point is reached ... [more ▼]

Three examples demonstrate the varying impact of human deforestation on floodplain geomorphology. For the Dijle and Valdaine region this lead to dramatic changes once a certain tipping point is reached. In contrast the Amblève river is more resilient to human impact due to its specific morphological setting. The morphology of the catchments and the nature of supplied sediments plays a major role in the sensitivity of fluvial systems to environmental impact. Once the tipping points are reached, it is difficult for the river to revert to its original state and floodplains remain highly impacted. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of suspended sediments dynamics in a catchment contaminated with PCBs (Samme River – Belgium)
Denis, Anne-Cécile ULiege; Frippiat, Christophe; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege et al

Conference (2015, October 13)

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