References of "Houbart, Claudine"
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See detailJean-Charles Delsaux est-il vraiment le "Viollet-le-Duc liégeois"?
Wey, Stéphanie ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2020, February)

Issu d’une famille de maîtres-maçons, Jean-Charles Delsaux (1821-1893) s’oriente tout naturellement vers une carrière d’architecte, qui le mènera à celle d’architecte-restaurateur. Formé à l’Académie ... [more ▼]

Issu d’une famille de maîtres-maçons, Jean-Charles Delsaux (1821-1893) s’oriente tout naturellement vers une carrière d’architecte, qui le mènera à celle d’architecte-restaurateur. Formé à l’Académie royale des Beaux-Arts de Liège, il a notamment pour maître l’ingénieur-architecte Julien-Etienne Rémont (1800-1883) dont l'enseignement repose sur l’étude de la Renaissance. Delsaux connaît une ascension professionnelle fulgurante: en 1845, âgé alors de 24 ans seulement, il est nommé architecte provincial. Cette fonction le prédispose à devenir, en région liégeoise, le premier architecte-restaurateur de monuments médiévaux. Il se voit par ailleurs confier la restauration de l’ancien Palais des Princes-évêques, monument emblématique de la ville de Liège. Tant les écrits de Delsaux que ses chantiers de construction et de restauration témoignent d’une parenté certaine avec les principes et réalisations d’Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, ce qui lui vaut le surnom de « Viollet-le-Duc liégeois » (Di Campli, 2012). La présente communication se donne pour objectif de questionner la parenté entre les deux architectes: n’étant son cadet que de sept ans, Delsaux n’a pu recevoir l’enseignement de Viollet-le-Duc, ni directement, ni indirectement, durant ses études. Après avoir identifié les points de convergence des théories et pratiques des deux architectes à travers le cas particulier de la restauration du palais des Princes-évêques, menée de 1847 à 1865, nous chercherons à identifier les canaux de réception de la pensée Viollet-le-Ducienne en province de Liège et plus spécifiquement auprès de son contemporain Jean-Charles Delsaux qui fera, à son tour, école dans la région. [less ▲]

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See detailRegeneration of Historic Urban Centres
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2019, November 05)

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See detailPatrimoine et culture: donner un sens au patrimoine
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailOpening general session - The CoToCoCo project : a Conceptual Toolkit for Contemporary Conservation
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Dawans, Stéphane ULiege; Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

Conference (2019, May 15)

Since the mid-twentieth century, theoretical and practical approaches to heritage have caught the interest of a growing number of academic and professionals. Facing the expanding scope of what an always ... [more ▼]

Since the mid-twentieth century, theoretical and practical approaches to heritage have caught the interest of a growing number of academic and professionals. Facing the expanding scope of what an always larger diversity of stakeholders consider necessary to hand in to the future, guidelines, sets of principles, charters and recommendations have multiplied in order to address each and every challenge posed by this ever-expanding corpus and its very diverse public. At the same time, the globalisation of heritage debates starting, in the field of architecture, which the Athens Conference in 1931 and booming with the World Heritage Convention, has questioned the most deeply rooted cultural traditions on which conservation and restoration principles had been built and developed. Despite some attempts to organise this prolific production and these fundamental questionings into a coherent theory (Munos-Vinas, 2003), experience shows that in front of practical problems, practitioners tend to come back to some fundamentals – the Venice Charter in architecture, Cesare Brandi’s theory in art, for example – despite the anachronism of using them to answer questions which couldn’t be foreseen at the time when they were thought. In parallel, a tendency to decontextualise practices, extracted from their traditional background, regularly helps to argue in favour of projects aiming at sustaining the capitalistic machine or questionable political interests rather that the safeguard and transmission of heritage (using the periodic rebuilding of Shinto temples to justify the rebuilding of any monument in the world is the clearest example). In this context, blurred interpretations of the concepts of identity and authenticity are in many cases responsible for a confusion in the debates and lead to unsatisfactory compromises mostly in disfavour the safeguard of heritage. At the same time, the expansion and diversification of cultural goods contributes in a positive way to a renewal of conservation and restoration approaches. Our ambition is to conjointly revitalize reflections on movable and immovable cultural goods, proposing methodological tools and ressources for a interdisciplinary dialogue in a broad sense. The CoToCoCo project (Conceptual Tools for Contemporary Conservation) is based on borrowings from varied disciplines – sociology, anthropology, mathematics, philosophy, semiology – in order to draw alternative perspectives and submit them for practitioner’s consideration. For this conference, we will provide an example of our methodology and its practical application, starting from a text by the French sociologist Nathalie Heinich on “heritage emotions”. We will submit it to the reflection of two heritage professionals – a conservator of cultural goods, working with communities in Central America and an Irish architect, in order to demonstrate that in order to think “out of the box”, it is sometimes necessary to rejuvenate theory and to try it out just like any other practical tool. [less ▲]

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See detailLes vestiges de l'hôtel Aubecq ou la trace mise en abîme
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, April 25)

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See detailDes valeurs au projet: peut-on se passer de l'architecte?
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2019, April 12)

Plus d’un siècle après l’ouvrage fondateur d’Aloïs Riegl (1903), le processus d’évaluation patrimoniale, étape essentielle du diagnostic, fait aujourd’hui l’objet de polémiques au sein du monde académique ... [more ▼]

Plus d’un siècle après l’ouvrage fondateur d’Aloïs Riegl (1903), le processus d’évaluation patrimoniale, étape essentielle du diagnostic, fait aujourd’hui l’objet de polémiques au sein du monde académique. Après avoir reflété la multiplication des catégories et outils depuis le début du 21e siècle, les publications les plus récentes font état d’une remise en question d’un processus trop largement implicite et monopolisé par un “discours patrimonial autorisé” persistant à ne prendre en considération que les aspects matériels des bien culturels (Smith 2006). Par ailleurs, en France, la littérature récente sur la « fabrique du patrimoine » et les « émotions patrimoniales » a mis en évidence les différents registres de valeur propres à l’expert et au profane (Heinich 2012). Face à la diversification des patrimoines et l’implication grandissante des usagers au sein des processus décisionnels, les modèles d’évaluation sont fondamentalement repensés pour plus d’inclusivité (Fredheim-Khalaf 2016). Au sein de cette littérature particulièrement clarifiante, le restaurateur – pour le patrimoine bâti, l’architecte – est singulièrement absent; centrés sur l’étape de l’identification, les ouvrages et articles ne se risquent que rarement à questionner les implications opérationnelles de l’évaluation et le rôle du restaurateur. Sans prétendre combler cette lacune, cette communication se propose, après un bref état de la question, de susciter le débat sur la place de l’architecte dans le processus d’évaluation patrimoniale. Ni profane, ni expert – au sens où l’éthique de l’expert lui interdit toute émotion (Heinich 2012) –, l’architecte détient-il le pouvoir de déceler une « valeur potentielle » au sein de son objet? [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from disabled people about qualities and obstacles in historic cities; The case of Liège
Eisazadeh, Negin ULiege; Heylighen, Ann; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, April)

The historic hearts of many European cities are famous touristic destinations which are sought after by various local and international visitors. However, the many restrictions and obstacles within the ... [more ▼]

The historic hearts of many European cities are famous touristic destinations which are sought after by various local and international visitors. However, the many restrictions and obstacles within the historic fabric limit the diversity of visitors who can access and benefit from these sites. Disabled people – i.e., those with sensory, mobility or mental abilities differing from the general public’s – are often inadvertently excluded from the touristic experience of historic cities. This exclusion from sharing the story of the(ir) past narrated through the historical architecture and urban spaces leads to further marginalization and disconnection from society. By contrast, opening up the historic built environment to a broader and more diverse audience facilitates their interaction not only with the(ir) past but also with other members of society while on par. This can potentially strengthen their connection to the heritage and additionally improve the link between people as a step towards more inclusive societies. In recent years there has been an increased interest in inclusive tourism resulting in multiple publications and conferences focused on this subject. Accessible historic city centres, in addition to having a positive impact on attracting a broad group of diverse visitors, ease the daily interaction of diverse residents. As part of a broader research which seeks to investigate the necessity, means and methods for adopting an inclusive approach in the conservation of historic built environment, this paper investigates the interaction of disabled people with the historic fabric of a European city, Liège. A person with an impairment who is confronted with disabling situations in their daily life has a unique expertise-by-experience, offering a fresh point of view in understanding the built environment that can lead to insights and solutions for creating spaces that are more suitable for all users. In the context of the historic urban space in Liège, collaborating with such diverse “user/experts”, in a bottom-up approach, this research attends to their experience and insights to identify the existing limitations and potentials. The city tour for each user/expert is planned based on a scenario and the routes by adapting the relevant tourist guide booklets of the Liège tourism office (Maison du Tourisme). The user/experts’ experience and statements regarding their visit and the researchers’ observation of this interaction reveal the qualities and obstacles that exist regarding opportunities for inclusive tourism in this historic city. Seeking to allow the broadest possible group of people to wander and navigate through the historic heart of a European city, this research is a step towards informing professional experts’ decisions for making the historic fabric more inclusive for residents and tourists. Such studies contribute to creating a knowledge and experience base which can gradually shift the prevalent commonly inadvertent exclusivity in the tourism practice to clear and consciously informed choices regarding inclusion that can improve the sense of belonging and attachment among residents and visitors. [less ▲]

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See detailDe(con)struction-(re)construction: urban scenography in Belgium in the 1960's
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Gremium (2019), 6(11), 46-61

In the decades following the second world war, the Belgian cities of Brussels and Liège, which didn’t suffer from any large-scale destruction during the conflict, are subjected to modernistic urban ... [more ▼]

In the decades following the second world war, the Belgian cities of Brussels and Liège, which didn’t suffer from any large-scale destruction during the conflict, are subjected to modernistic urban policies leading to the disappearance of whole sections of their traditional urban fabric. Helped by private agencies, cities’ administrations develop ambitious plans aiming to update their built environment and road system, in order to answer the needs of motorised traffic and modern lifestyle. This paper focuses on a practice developed in parallel to this prevailing tendency: under the direction of the city architects Jean Rombaux (Brussels) and Jean Francotte (Liège), some fragments of ancient buildings to be demolished are carefully dismantled and stored, with the aim of being reassembled in order to recreate fragments of idealised traditional townscapes. Through the examples of the Lombard-Violette and Saint-Georges blocks, respectively in the city centres of Brussels and Liège, this paper addresses the reasons behind the operations and the successive projects, and discusses the status of the results. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Historic Urban Landscape approach to urban management: a systematic review
Ginzarly, Manal ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in International Journal of Heritage Studies (2019)

In 2011, UNESCO adopted the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) recommendation and called for the application of a landscape approach to ensure the integration of cultural heritage policies and management ... [more ▼]

In 2011, UNESCO adopted the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) recommendation and called for the application of a landscape approach to ensure the integration of cultural heritage policies and management concerns in the wider goals of sustainable urban development. This paper tracks the genesis of a landscape approach to heritage conservation, and then presents a systematic review of the literature on the HUL. More than 100 publications from 2010 to early 2018 were analysed. The applied methodology combined an inductive categorization method with a deductive data mining method. The objective is to determine whether the academic discussion is addressing the different dimensions of the HUL approach, including the holistic, integrated, and value-based dimensions, and whether it is progressing through time to move from a conceptual to an operational level. Results show that while the discussion is heavily focused on values, the operationalization of a value-based approach is still lacking, as it is not fully contextualized in relation to local heritage discourses and the dynamics of heritage governance. Results also show that many case studies applications are in “non-Western” cities, thus opening the debate about the accountability of a value-based approach in contexts that tend to be dominated by groups with the most political power, and where conservation practices mainly focus on the mobilization of material heritage to foster its economic value. Nevertheless, the transition from international guidelines to contextualized local endeavours and policies remains a challenge to be solved. [less ▲]

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See detailRelire la charte de Venise à travers les archives de R.M. Lemaire: genèse, révisions, questionnements
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, December 13)

Déposées en 1992 aux archives universitaires de la KULeuven, les archives de Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997) constituent une ressource exceptionnelle pour l’histoire de la conservation-restauration dans la ... [more ▼]

Déposées en 1992 aux archives universitaires de la KULeuven, les archives de Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997) constituent une ressource exceptionnelle pour l’histoire de la conservation-restauration dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. Outre ses projets personnels et son implication au sein d’organismes internationaux tels que l’ICOMOS, le Conseil de l’Europe et l’Unesco, la « fabrique » de plusieurs documents internationaux y est documentée. Parmi ceux-ci, la charte de Venise, dont Lemaire fut l’un des rédacteurs avant de tenter à plusieurs reprises, et en vain, d’en obtenir une révision. Cet exposé abordera tant la genèse que les tentatives de révision de la charte, en parallèle avec les projets contemporains de R.M. Lemaire et l’émergence de nouveaux concepts au cours des années 1970, telle la conservation intégrée. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la Charte de Venise
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Pane, Andrea

Conference (2018, October 18)

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See detailRaymond M. Lemaire, the Grand Beguinage of Leuven and the reinvention of the traditional city
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2018, August 31)

Commissioned by the University of Louvain and mainly carried on between 1962 and 1972, the renovation of the Great Beguinage under the exclusive supervision of Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997) has been a ... [more ▼]

Commissioned by the University of Louvain and mainly carried on between 1962 and 1972, the renovation of the Great Beguinage under the exclusive supervision of Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997) has been a crucial milestone in the development of conservative urban policies at the turn of the 1960’s. Widely celebrated as a implementation laboratory of the contemporary Venice Charter, of which Lemaire was one of the writers, the operation was considered a pilot project by the council of Europe and contributed to the promotion of the concept of integrated conservation. It is now inscribed on the world heritage list. The in-depth study of the beguinage I had the opportunity to carry on during my PhD research, based on an extensive archival and photographic material, revealed that rather than a conservative project, respectful of the historical layering of the place, the operation had often consisted in a deep restoration of the individual buildings (houses and convents), bordering on reconstruction, in order to provide an ideal overall image of the pre-industrial city. At the light of Lemaire’s contemporary texts and reports presented on the international scene (Council of Europe, Unesco, ICOMOS), emphasising the benefits of a « traditional » environment for a healthy social life in response to the rising criticism towards the modernist model, the projects appears to have been a manifesto rather than a laboratory. At the turn of the 1970’s, the success of the project helped Raymond Lemaire to get many commissions in Brussels, and what is particularly interesting for this session is that, while promoting a quite scientific approach of the urban areas to renovate, Lemaire cannot help but try to reproduce the ideal beguinage model. Confronted to a much more heterogeneous built environment, with a more complex historical layering than in Leuven, he can’t escape the temptation of reinventing the pre-industrial city architecture and urban layering on the basis of scarce fragments. Ranging from pastiche to late-modern re-interpretations, his projects, often not or very partly realised, illustrate not only his aesthetic parti pris but above all, his faith in the power of pre-industrial architecture, even reinvented, to make the city a better place to live in. [less ▲]

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See detailHeritage for All: Rethinking the Relation of Built Heritage and Society in an Inclusive Conservation Approach
Eisazadeh, Negin ULiege; Heylighen, Ann; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2018, June)

Built heritage is an integral part of contemporary historic cities and closely interwoven with people’s daily lives. Although people define, identify and designate specific architecture and urban spaces ... [more ▼]

Built heritage is an integral part of contemporary historic cities and closely interwoven with people’s daily lives. Although people define, identify and designate specific architecture and urban spaces as heritage, these sites communicate both the story of their past and the approach and intentions of the present, which together can shape people’s life today and even in the future. While acknowledging that the values perceived from heritage will vary based on the knowledge, abilities, and skills of diverse observers, today’s approach in the conservation of built heritage can impact on and potentially enrich the heritage values. The meeting of heritage places and people is vital for the continued existence of built heritage as it can lead to raising awareness of heritage and its values. In order to facilitate this meeting, in line with the integrated conservation of heritage and the inclusive approach adopted in the European Cultural Heritage Strategy for the 21st century, we investigate the implementation of an inclusive approach in conservation of built heritage. This approach aims to improve built heritage’s relation with society by limiting the disabling situations which disrupt one’s ability to engage with heritage and its values. This more open and potentially active presence of built heritage in its social context can strengthen the link between heritage and society and between individuals in society. To this end, we are conducting an extensive research which uses a bottom-up approach by attending to the experience and insights of disabled people in selected heritage sites to identify the existing limitations and potentials. These can inform a more inclusive conservation practice that seeks to balance protecting values with providing more enabling situations for engagement with heritage and its values. The subsequent interventions and modifications can add an extra layer to heritage, conveying today’s social conscious approach to future generations. [less ▲]

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See detailLa modélisation 3D comme outil de convergence des données au service du projet patrimonial
Hallot, Pierre ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

Conference (2018, February 08)

L’une des difficultés rencontrées par les étudiants en architecture confrontés au patrimoine classé (ou non) est la prise en compte des données multiples issues de l’étude interdisciplinaire du bien ... [more ▼]

L’une des difficultés rencontrées par les étudiants en architecture confrontés au patrimoine classé (ou non) est la prise en compte des données multiples issues de l’étude interdisciplinaire du bien concerné, qu’ils en soient ou non les auteurs. Données historiques et archéologiques, identification des matériaux et pathologies, étude de la structure, potentiel et limites d’usage, sont autant de paramètres qui doivent guider les options de restauration ou de reconversion, mais qui sont trop souvent mis de côté, voire oubliés, au moment de passer au stade du projet. Dans ce contexte, nous sommes convaincus que la modélisation 3D du patrimoine, peut, en plus de fournir les données dimensionnelles indispensables au projet, servir de support virtuel à la représentation des données collectées. La convergence des savoirs dans une structure intégrée peut constituer un outil au service de l’évaluation patrimoniale et de l’établissement d’un projet en pleine connaissance de cause. La modélisation 3D dans un environnement virtuel permet de confronter plus aisément les différentes sources relatives à l’édifice, notamment au travers de la composante spatiale permettant la localisation de chaque donnée collectée. La participation des étudiants à la réalisation et l’alimentation du modèle « intelligent » tout au long du processus les engage activement dans l’approche interdisciplinaire en les amenant à collecter et croiser les données issues des diverses études (en général dispersées au sein de plusieurs rapports, mobilisant diverses techniques, confrontant plusieurs approches du métier), à en comprendre la complémentarité et à en faire un véritable ressort du projet. Finalement, le contexte virtuel 3D développé dans l’approche permet d’analyser aisément les premières les hypothèses du projet au travers de son environnement et de l’ensemble des informations collectées. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Great Beguinage of Leuven: an Early Challenge for the Venice Charter
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Opus (2018), Nuova serie(2), 105-128

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See detailConservation Ethics in the 21st Century: Towards an Extended Toolkit
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Dawans, Stéphane ULiege

in Heritage for Future (2018), 1

In his now classic essay on the « Régimes d’historicité », the French historian François Hartog (2003) has very well described the effect of globalisation, democratisation and mass consumerism on our ... [more ▼]

In his now classic essay on the « Régimes d’historicité », the French historian François Hartog (2003) has very well described the effect of globalisation, democratisation and mass consumerism on our relation with the past and thus, with heritage. In the course of the 1970’s, at a time when the ink of the Venice Charter was barely dry, postmodernity triggered a loss of collective anchoring and memory, paradoxically accompanied by an amplification of the thirst for commemorations, in the name of identity or heritage. Pierre Nora’s great endeavour « Les lieux de mémoire », fully corresponds to this « presentism » era, including aside from monuments, museum and archives, intellectual constructions such as the Larousse encyclopaedia (Nora 1989). It very well illustrates the « extension of the heritage domain » as defined by the sociologist Nathalie Heinich (2009). In our « post-monumental » era, anything can possibly become heritage, regardless of scale, of artistic qualities, of age or ontological degree – from tangible to intangible. This is a sign of times. Following the example of Nelson Goodman replacing the essentialist definitions of art with the question « When is there art ? » (Goodman 1976), we should consider focusing on a dynamic and operational definition of heritage. The question « When is there heritage ?» better correspond to contemporary cultural studies and our attempt to understand « heritagization »; it contains the idea of a performative action, implying new actors, new dynamics, new process, new research questions, new difficulties and new opportunities. And by necessity new concepts. We are far from rejecting theories from the past which provided us with effective and stimulating tools. But who could still imagine today, in the situation we described, that any system could fully encompass the heritage reality as the grand theories – Brandi, Riegl,… – succeeded to do? The repeated attempts to get the Venice charter revised from the 1970’s on (Houbart 2014), and the multiplication of thematic documents and charters are the best illustration of this impossibility. But while postmodern thinkers made us suspicious towards large systems, they also made us more modest and above all, more inclined to respect « bricolage », as a most helpful attitude after a shipwreck. We believe that the current return to a case by case approach – as promoted from the interwar period by theoreticians such as Ambrogio Annoni (1946) – often mostly relying on practical constraints such as reuse and technical performances, combined with the use of decontextualised concepts – separated articles from the Venice Charter, for example – and practices – using the Ise shrine periodical rebuilding to advocate any reconstruction project – doesn’t mean to accept a cynical relativism in answer to the cause of a capital-intensive machine. But in practice, we cannot deny that it has sometimes been the case: the clearest examples are the debates addressing the reconstruction of monuments all over Europe, based on a jumble of arguments confusing the pure mercantilism of the tourism industry or unconfessed political reasons with post-conflict identity issues or religious traditions (Monumental 2010). Reflecting on such reconstruction projects, raising questions of identity, has convinced us of the incompleteness of the toolkit we inherited from 20th century theoreticians. Though still perfectly relevant to address the issues that were already present at the time when they were elaborated, they might prove inappropriate to address new types of heritage, new concerns, new issues such as cultural tourism, inclusive approaches, modern heritage or the digital turn. In this context, we have been drawn to look at texts outside the conservation sphere, starting from ontology of art and analytical philosophy. We discovered that taking a step to the side could provide a stimulating insight on heritage conservation problems. In fact, it is not surprising that, facing what many have called a heritage inflation, some new actors could help us. Now that heritage has quitted the monuments sphere to encompass any material or immaterial reality worthy of conservation and that the expert point of view is challenged by the ones of a broad range of stakeholders, from the user to the investor, it becomes interesting to look at this reality from different points of view borrowed to a wide range of human sciences such as law, communication, aesthetics, semiotics, anthropology or philosophy, to name a few. Together with our colleague Muriel Verbeeck, we are currently gathering texts in order to propose an anthology that could complement the existing ones in helping to fill conceptual gaps and throw a reinvigorating light on new problems raising old questions. The originality of the project is to chose most texts outside the conservation world, and to address movable and immovable heritage at the same time. During our presentation, we will provide some examples of the usefulness of these new concepts, some already known by a number of conservators – such as the distinction proposed by Nelson Goodman between allography and autography (Goodman 1976) –, some not – the impact of intention on identity, based on texts by Theodore Scaltsas (1981), for example –, and will encourage the members of the committee who might be interested in this approach to contribute to the project. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand y a-t-il Parthénon? L'identité du patrimoine face aux attentes et aux intentions
Dawans, Stéphane ULiege; Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Nouvelle Revue d'Esthétique (2018), 21(1), 9-20

Contrairement au procès qui a pu leur être fait, les logiciens sont loin de développer, lorsqu’ils parlent d’identité, une approche que l’on peut réduire à ce que Tim Winter appelle un « matérialisme ... [more ▼]

Contrairement au procès qui a pu leur être fait, les logiciens sont loin de développer, lorsqu’ils parlent d’identité, une approche que l’on peut réduire à ce que Tim Winter appelle un « matérialisme scientiste » (Winter 2013). Au contraire, en utilisant des notions comme les intentions et les attentes, des logiciens comme Theodore Scaltsas, David Wiggins et, en France, Stéphane Ferret et Pascal Engel situent bel et bien l’évaluation des identités (et des authenticités) dans un cadre anthropo-logique. Ils peuvent donc s’intéresser aux raisons pour lesquelles un couteau familial dont le grand-père avait remplacé la lame, et le père, le manche, continue à jouer son rôle patrimonial lorsque le petit-fils en hérite. Wiggins et Scaltsas démontrent très bien que l’identité du bateau de Thésée – ou du Parthénon – dépend de ce que les prêtres, les antiquaires ou les simples fidèles en attendent. Plus étonnant encore de la part d’un logicien, Scaltsas va jusqu’à affirmer que la reconstruction d’un bâtiment à partir de ses propres matériaux est identique ou non selon qui opère cette reconstruction et avec quelles intentions (Scaltsas 1981). Comme Gérard Genette le souligne dans le champ de l’ontologie de l’art, « les traits qui définissent l’identité d’un objet ne sont pas seulement des propriétés internes de composition physique, de forme ou de fonction : ce sont aussi des propriétés, externes si l’on veut, d’emplacement et de relation au site et à l’environnement » (Genette 1994). Comme l’a montré Nelson Goodman, déplacer la question peut être une manière de résoudre des problèmes d’apparence insolubles. C’est ce que font les « critical heritage studies » en posant la question : « quand y a-t-il patrimoine? ». Dans un même ordre d’idées, les logiciens, en considérant les attentes et/ou intentions comme des conditions à prendre en compte dans l’évaluation de l’identité d’un objet patrimonial, peuvent permettre de clarifier son statut. D’où le titre un peu provocateur de cette proposition: « Quand y a-t-il Parthénon ? ». [less ▲]

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See detailMatériaux, métiers et techniques. Vers une histoire matérielle du chantier de restauration (1830-1914): Introduction au colloque
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Piavaux, Mathieu; Timbert, Arnaud

Conference (2017, December 14)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 ULiège)