References of "Hiel, Marie-Pierre"
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See detailImpact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie; Pierreux, Jérome ULiege et al

in PeerJ (2018), 6(e4836),

Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important ... [more ▼]

Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues) and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth) vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth)) in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops—winter wheat, faba bean and maize—cultivated over six cropping seasons), soil organic carbon content, nitrate (NO−3), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue management on the NO−3 content, since the effect of fertilization dominated the effect of residue management. To confirm the results and enhance early tendencies, we believe that the experiment should be followed up in the future to observe whether more consistent changes in the whole agro-ecosystem functioning are present on the long term when managing residues with contrasted strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege; Dupraz, Christian et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2017)

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western ... [more ▼]

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western Europe, light is likely to be the principal limiting resource for understorey crops, and most agronomic studies show a systematic reduction of final yield as shade increases. However the intensity of the crop response depends on both the environmental conditions and the shade characteristics. This study addressed the issue by monitoring winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, productivity and quality under artificial shade provided by military camouflage shade-netting, and using the Hi-sAFe model to relate the artificial shade conditions to those applying in agroforestry systems. The field experiment was carried out over two consecutive years (2013–14 and 2014–15) on the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium. The shade structures recreated two shade conditions: periodic shade (PS) and continuous shade (CS), with the former using overlapping military camouflage netting to provide discontinuous light through the day, and the latter using conventional shade cloth. The experiment simulated shading from a canopy of late-flushing hybrid walnut leaves above winter wheat. Shading was imposed 16 (2013–14) and 10 (2014–15) days before flowering and retained until harvest. The crop experienced full light conditions until the maximum leaf area index stage (LAImax) had been reached. In both years, LAI followed the same dynamics between the different treatments, but in 2013–2014 an attack of the take-all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) reduced yields overall and prevented significant treatment effects. In season 2014–15 the decrease in global radiation reaching the crop during a period of 66 days (CS: – 61% and PS: – 43%) significantly affected final yield (CS: – 45% and PS: – 25%), mainly through a reduction of the average grain weight and the number of grain per m2. Grain protein content increased by up to 45% under the CS treatment in 2015. Nevertheless, at the plot scale, protein yield (t/ha) did not compensate for the final grain yield decrease. The Hi-sAFe model was used to simulate an agroforestry plot with two lines of walnut trees running either north-south or east-west. The levels of artificial shade levels applied in this experiment were compared to those predicted beneath trees growing with similar climatic conditions in Belgium. The levels used in the CS treatment are only likely to occur real agroforestry conditions on 10% of the cropped area until the trees are 30 years old and only with east-west tree row orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage on greenhouse gas emissions by a maize crop and dynamics of N2O fluxes.
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

Conference (2017, July)

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas produced by nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms. In agricultural soils, the uppermost soil layer constitutes the main source of N2O emissions, which are driven by ... [more ▼]

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas produced by nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms. In agricultural soils, the uppermost soil layer constitutes the main source of N2O emissions, which are driven by climatic events such as precipitations, but also by soil properties such as N and C availability. Farming practices like tillage can influence these soil properties and consequently affect greenhouse gas emissions. Between June and October 2015, CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured on a maize crop located in Gembloux (Belgium), using a homemade automated set of dynamic closed chambers. Two tillage treatments were compared: reduced tillage and conventional tillage, both applied since 2008. A significant impact of tillage was observed on GHG emissions: mean emissions were twice larger (CO2) and six times larger (N2O) under reduced tillage than in conventional tillage, presumably because of higher total organic C and total N content, and greater microbial biomass in the upper soil layer. An emission peak of N2O was observed in both treatments mid-June less than 24h after heavy precipitations. The absence of peak later during the experiment was attributed to maize growth and competition for soil N. In reduced tillage, soil temperature explained ~10% of N2O background flux variability, but no significant relationship was found for conventional tillage. No clear pattern (e.g. daily cycle) was identified in N2O background fluxes. Our results highlight the need for continuous measurements as peaks can happen several months after fertilization, and the need for high temporal resolution measurements to understand the dynamics behind N2O emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Tillage generates higher N2O emissions: results of continuous chamber-based measurement in a winter wheat field.
Broux, François ULiege; Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O and CO2 emissions in cultivated lands. We conducted this study to assess the effect of farming practices and climate on both N2O and CO2 emissions from a winter wheat crop. The experiment was held in an experimental field in the loamy region in Belgium from March 2016 till crop harvest in August 2016. The fluxes were measured on two nearby parcels in a winter wheat field with restitution of the residues from previous crop. For the past 8 years, one parcel was subjected to a Reduced tillage (RT, 10 cm depth) and the other one to a conventional tillage (CT, 25 cm depth). On each parcel, the emissions are assessed with homemade automated closed chambers. Measurement continuity and good temporal resolution (one mean flux every 4 hours) of the system allowed a fine detection and quantification of the emission peaks which usually represent the major part of N2O fluxes. In addition to gas fluxes, soil water content and temperature were measured continuously. Soil samples were taken regularly to determine soil pH, soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools (total, NO3- and NH4+) and study microbial diversity and nitrification/denitrification gene expression. Surprisingly, results showed N2O emissions twice as large in the RT parcel as in the CT parcel. On the contrary, less important CO2 emissions were observed under RT. Several emission peaks of N2O were observed during the measurement period. The peaks occurred after fertilization events and seemed to be triggered by an elevation of soil water content. Interesting links could be made between soil NH4-N and NO3-N pools and N2O emissions. Nitrification being the main process originating the fluxes was suggested on the one hand by the temporal evolution of nitrogen pools and N2O emissions and on the other hand by the relation between spatial variability of the emissions with the soil nitrate content. A comparison of the emissions between ST and CT and a discussion on peaks temporal dynamic, focusing on their intensity, duration and starting time will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage on greenhouse gas emissions by an agricultural crop and dynamics of N2O fluxes: Insights from automated closed chamber measurements
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

in Soil and Tillage Research (2017), 167

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O ... [more ▼]

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O fluxes. Gas measurements were performed from June to October 2015 in a Belgian maize crop, with homemade automated closed chambers, allowing continuous measurement at a high temporal resolution. After 7 years of treatment, CO2 and N2O average emissions were significantly larger in the RT parcel than in the CT parcel. This observation was attributed to the effect of tillage on the distribution of crop residues within the soil profile, leading to higher soil organic C and total N contents and a greater microbial biomass in the upper layer in RT. A single N2O emission peak triggered by a sudden increase of water- filled pore space (WFPS) was observed in the beginning of the measuring campaign. The absence of large emission afterwards was most likely due to a decreasing availability of N as crop grew. N2O background fluxes showed to be significantly correlated to CO2 fluxes but not to WFPS, while the influence of soil temperature remained unclear. Our results question the suitability of reduced tillage as a “climate-smart” practice and suggest that more experiments be conducted on conservation practices and their potent negative effect on environment. [less ▲]

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See detail10. 1. Impact de la gestion des résidus de cultures sur la fertilité des sols et la production agricole
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie ULiege; Pierreux, Jérome ULiege et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2017, February 22)

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See detailTemporal dynamics of soil microbial communities below the seedbed under two contrasting tillage regimes
Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2017)

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See detailApplication of NIR hyperspectral imaging combined to chemometrics to assess the impact of tillage on the root system development of a winter wheat crop
Fraipont, Guillaume ULiege; Eylenbosch, Damien ULiege; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2016, July)

This poster presents de results of a study of the influence of tillage on the root development of a winter wheat crop. The originality of this research lies in the application of an innovative root ... [more ▼]

This poster presents de results of a study of the influence of tillage on the root development of a winter wheat crop. The originality of this research lies in the application of an innovative root quantification method based on the near infrared hyperspectral imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the impact of tillage on the root development and distribution of crop residues of a winter wheat crop by the use of NIR hyperspectral imaging
Fraipont, Guillaume ULiege; Eylenbosch, Damien ULiege; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Poster (2016, May 20)

The objectives of the study were to show the impact of tillage and crop residues management on the distribution of crop residues and root system of a winter wheat crop in the 0-30 cm soil profile.This ... [more ▼]

The objectives of the study were to show the impact of tillage and crop residues management on the distribution of crop residues and root system of a winter wheat crop in the 0-30 cm soil profile.This poster shows the results obtained during one crop year (2011-2012). This study is allowed by a rapid and innovative method of root system quantification based on the near infrared hyperspectral Imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailDealing with crop rotation in agroforestry: the impact of shade on winter wheat and sugar beet growth and yield under belgium conditions
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

in Book of Abstract- 3rd European Agroforestry Conference 2016 (2016, May)

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See detailCrop residue management in arable cropping systems under temperate climate. Part 1: Soil biological and chemical (phosphorus and nitrogen) properties. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; Degrune, Florine ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2016)

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial roles in agricultural systems, including increased organic matter mineralization, nutrient cycling, and soil structure stabilization. The following aspects of crop residue management effects are examined in this paper: (i) earthworm composition and structure; (ii) soil microbial communities; and (iii) phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) element availability and distribution in the soil profile. Conventional tillage (ploughing) is often reported to generate decreased soil organism abundance and diversity, primarily earthworms and microorganisms, as well as a uniform distribution of the nutrients P and N within the ploughed soil horizon. Soil residue incorporation of mineral particles can maintain P and N levels, however returning soil also increases aeration and the activation of microbial activity. Hence, comparisons of tillage effects on soil biological functioning and nutrient cycling remain unclear. This review highlights the challenges in establishing definitive evidence regarding the effects of crop residue management on soil organisms and nutrient dynamics. The studies examined reported variability in soil and climate, and the complexity of soil processes contributed to the absence of clear findings. Further research is required under temperate climate conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of a design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content with ERT
Chelin, Marie ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Hermans, Thomas ULiege et al

Poster (2016, April 21)

Choices related to crop residue management affect the soil structure. As a consequence, they may determinethe spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually the crop yields. In order to better ... [more ▼]

Choices related to crop residue management affect the soil structure. As a consequence, they may determinethe spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually the crop yields. In order to better understand the influence of these strategies on hydraulic processes occurring at the plot scale, we opted for the use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). This approach presents the advantage to limit soil disturbance but is still faced to important challenges when applied in an agricultural field context. Especially changing soil-electrode contact has to be considered, as it can lead to bad quality data, especially for setups with small electrodes and small inter-electrode distance. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of a high-resolution 3-D field measurement design to properly assess the dynamics of soil water content. ERT measurements were conducted in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium, on two plots of 2m^2 ploughed in Oct 2014 at a depth of 25 cm and sown with maize in April 2015. The plants were removed on one of the plots in order to obtain a bare soil reference. A grid of 98 surface stainless steel electrodes was layed-out on each plot and four sticks supporting each eight stainless steel electrodes were vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.20 m to get more detailed information in depth. The experiments were performed between Jul and Oct 2015, in order to get measurements both in dry and wet periods. For surface and borehole monitoring, a dipole-dipole array configuration including in-line and cross-line measurements was adopted. Normal and reciprocal measurements were performed systematically to assess the data quality: only the datasets with a mean reciprocal error lower than 3% were considered for the data inversion. This contribution will show the first inverted results showing the complexity of experimental design and data analysis for high-resolution, timelapse ERT in field conditions. Based on these results, we will draw conclusions about a minimal data set to be obtained in our upcoming field experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage on CO2 and N2O efflux in an agricultural crop
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

Poster (2016, April 20)

CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by a maize crop were measured from June to Octboer 2015 using a homemade automated system of dynamic closed chambers. We studied the impact of tillage (reduced and ... [more ▼]

CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by a maize crop were measured from June to Octboer 2015 using a homemade automated system of dynamic closed chambers. We studied the impact of tillage (reduced and conventional) on greenhouse gas emissions and nitrous oxide flux dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage practices on soil moisture dynamics in a temperate climate: potential of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)
Chelin, Marie ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Blanchy, Guillaume et al

Poster (2016, April 12)

Adapted agricultural soil management practices can enhance soil health by providing improved aggregate stability and soil structural quality. Hence water infiltration may be improved and plant water ... [more ▼]

Adapted agricultural soil management practices can enhance soil health by providing improved aggregate stability and soil structural quality. Hence water infiltration may be improved and plant water availability increased. In this study, we aim at quantifying the effect of tillage practices on the water dynamics in a loamy soil under temperate climate (Gembloux, Belgium). Therefore, we evaluated the ability of electrical resistivity tomography to estimate the water content at the field scale and under complex field conditions: varying pore water conductivity, rainfall, crop water uptake, root growth, varying temperature and changing soil structure due to tillage practices. During the summer of 2015, we studied four different treatments: conventional spring and winter tillage, strip tillage and a bare soil. We used ERT to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture. In each of the plots, 2 time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and 2 suction cups were installed. A calibration trench was constructed with 4 electrodes, 1 TDR probe and 1 temperature sensor at 4 different depths. We quantified changes of porosity over the growing season using X-ray tomography. Combining these data, we will investigate and quantify the effect of simultaneously changing pore water conductivity, soil porosity, soil temperature and soil moisture on the effectiveness of time-lapse ER measurements as a proxy for soil moisture changes under different tillage practices. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage on N2O and CO2 efflux in an agricultural crop
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

Poster (2016, April)

In an experiment conducted in the Belgian loess belt between June and October 2015, the effect of two tillage treatments (CT - conventional tillage and RT - reduced tillage) on CO2 and N2O fluxes ... [more ▼]

In an experiment conducted in the Belgian loess belt between June and October 2015, the effect of two tillage treatments (CT - conventional tillage and RT - reduced tillage) on CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by a maize crop were compared. Fluxes were measured using two fully automated sets of dynamic closed chambers, allowing a 4.5h temporal resolution. Soil water content and temperature were also monitored as well as pH, total N (TN) and total organic C (TOC) content. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on the root development of a winter wheat crop by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging combined to chemometrics
Fraipont, Guillaume ULiege; Eylenbosch, Damien ULiege; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Poster (2016, March 16)

The objective of this study is to characterize the impact of tillage management and nitrogen fertilization on the root system development of a winter wheat crop. To reach this objective, an innovative ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to characterize the impact of tillage management and nitrogen fertilization on the root system development of a winter wheat crop. To reach this objective, an innovative root quantification method that combines NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) and chemometric tools will be applied. [less ▲]

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See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial community diversity in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Dufrêne, Marc ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2016), 224

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and ... [more ▼]

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and crop productivity. Here, high-throughput sequencing (454 technology) was used to see how the tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced tillage) and the fate of crop residues (retention or removal) affect microbial communities at two sampling depths (top soil: 0–5 cm and deeper soil: 15–20 cm) in a fertile silty loam soil in Belgium. All combinations of these three factors were studied. After 6 years of conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, depth emerged as the main factor responsible for variation in microbial diversity, tillage regime ranked second, and finally, crop residue fate had no influence on microbial diversity. For both bacteria and fungi, the diversity appeared higher in the top soil than in the deeper soil, and surprisingly, higher under conventional than under reduced tillage. These differences are explained by changes in community composition due to taxon loss rather than taxon replacement. The specific local set of environmental conditions (a loess-derived soil and an oceanic temperate climate) may explain these results. These observations raise the question: does impoverishment in indicator taxa influence soil processes, and thus crop production? To answer this question, we discuss how the presence of certain indicator taxa liable to play an ecological role might relate to crop productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Chelin, Marie ULiege; Parvin, Nargish ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2016), 20(1), 245-256

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See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial communities in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Dufrêne, Marc ULiege et al

Poster (2015, December 01)

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were ... [more ▼]

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were conducted under specific climates on soils characterized by particular land-use histories. A very different ecological context is to be found in certain areas of Western Europe, such as central Belgium, whose loess-derived soils are among the most fertile in the world and have long been used for intensive agriculture. Specific objectives were to determine diversity levels and changes in microbial community composition under different combinations of tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced) and crop residue fate (residue removal R- vs. residues left R+ on the field). As reduced tillage results in two contrasting zones (the first centimeters of soil are mixed each year, while the soil below remains unperturbed), we chose to perform the analysis at two depths: 0 to 5 cm and 15 to 20 cm. [less ▲]

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