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See detailImpact of necrophagous insects on the emission of volatile organic compounds released during the decaying process
Martin, Clément ULiege; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Boullis, Antoine ULiege et al

in Entomologia Generalis (2019), 39(1),

After death, corpses undergo a complex decomposition process, during which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Several groups of organisms, including insects, use these VOCs to select their ... [more ▼]

After death, corpses undergo a complex decomposition process, during which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Several groups of organisms, including insects, use these VOCs to select their mating and feeding sites. While the presence of insects on a corpse influences the decaying process, we do not know whether insects impact on the VOC profile released by the cadaver. Using decomposing rats exposed to dipterans (Lucilia sericata) and/or coleopterans (Dermeste frischii), we assessed how the presence of insects impacted the cadaver volatilome by using dynamic sampling. As expected, the decomposition of rats in presence of insects was faster than in absence of insects. All rats went through the five decomposition stages with the exception of rats decomposing without insects. The composition of their volatile profiles differed among decomposition stages. We also found that insects do not affect the volatilome of decomposing rats, and no indicator compound could be associated to the presence of specific insect groups [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse détaillée de la seconde version de l’avant-projet de Code du bien-être animal wallon. Lecture commentée au 21/03/2018 du Chapitre 8 (Expérimentation animale)
Drion, Pierre ULiege; Corhay, Albert ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

Report (2018)

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par ... [more ▼]

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par les décrets du Gouvernement wallon). Certains éléments sont repris tels quels de la Directive 2010/63. Cela est nécessaire car la Directive européenne en tant que telle n’a pas de force obligatoire en Belgique. Elle doit être transcrite par un instrument législatif (avant, la Loi de 1984 et ses modifications, aujourd’hui, le projet de code pour la Région wallonne). Certains aspects semblent flous, mais renvoient à des dispositions que le Gouvernement doit encore prendre (au travers d’arrêtés du Gouvernement wallon, comme le faisaient avant les nombreux arrêtés royaux et du gouvernement qui réglementent la matière). Les arrêtés d’exécution devront obligatoirement tenir compte de la Directive européenne et s’inspirer de dispositions actuellement en vigueur. [less ▲]

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See detailFocus sur la sécurité sanitaire des insectes comestibles
Blecker, Christophe ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 19)

L'actuelle pression environnementale exercée par la production de protéines animales conventionnelles a entrainé les marchés d'aliments à destination humaine et animale à la recherche de sources de ... [more ▼]

L'actuelle pression environnementale exercée par la production de protéines animales conventionnelles a entrainé les marchés d'aliments à destination humaine et animale à la recherche de sources de protéines alternatives et innovantes. Parmi les alternatives, les insectes font figure de candidat plus que sérieux. Cet exposé fera tout d'abord le point sur le développement de l'entomophagie. Les risques potentiels liés à la consommation d'insectes seront ensuite abordés de façon générale. Pour terminer, certaines recherches plus spécifiques, sur la charge microbiologique d'insectes trouvés dans le commerce ainsi que sur l'allergénicité d'insectes d'élevage, seront présentées. [less ▲]

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See detailUNITÉ DE RECHERCHE LIÈGE – QUÉBEC SUR LE NUMÉRIQUE EN SANTÉ GLOBALE, EN ENSEIGNEMENT ET EN FORMATION CONTINUE UNIVERSITAIRE
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Bouchard, Stéphane; Billen, Roland ULiege et al

Speech/Talk (2018)

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are ... [more ▼]

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are: for the University of Liège, Anne-Marie ETIENNE, Professor and Vice-Dean for Education and for the Université du Québec en Outaouais, Stéphane BOUCHARD, Professor and Holder of the Canada Research Chair in Cyberpsychology Clinical. As part of the strategic plan of the University of Liège, the global project of digital use is part of two major societal challenges namely education and digital technology, health and society. This global digital use project focuses on teaching, research and citizenship missions and on the individual, his community and the society in which he lives. The specific objectives of this collaboration are to (1) Develop support tools for the university community, (2) Offer awakening or support workshops in complementarity with the community and (3) Ensure a monitoring mandate and knowledge sharing. Exchanges between the two partners can be carried out along different axes, namely initial training and continuing training; the development of joint research projects or mobility through exchanges of students, teachers, researchers, technicians and experts. [less ▲]

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See detailInsects, the next European foodie craze?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems (2018)

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards insect-based products. Effectively, as for sushi in the 2000s, edible insects are considered as new food products in Europe and are deeply related to a fear or a reject feeling by consumers called “food neophobia“. Consequently, several studies have been achieved to face the actual aversion of European consumers for insects. These studies principally tried to understand the insect-related neophobia, to highlight positive arguments for entomophagy development and also to test possible ways of integration of insects as food. The purpose of this chapter is to get an overview of the actual literature on edible insect acceptability in Europe to propose conceivable solutions for product development and new approaches for further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailFourteen years of anthropization dynamics in the Uapaca bojeri Baill. forest of Madagascar
de Haulleville, Thales ULiege; Rakotondrasoa, O. L.; Rakoto Ratsimba, H. et al

in Landscape and Ecological Engineering (2018), 14(1), 135-146

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of ... [more ▼]

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of deforestation are required, coupled with detailed analysis of both spatial transformation processes and forest patch geometry. We conducted such a comprehensive study in a monospecific Uapaca bojeri (Baill.) forest of Madagascar, between 1999 and 2013. A diachronic set of four maps was produced and deforestation rates were calculated. Spatial transformation processes were described using Bogaert et al. (2004) typology. Forest patch geometry was monitored using largest patch index, mean patch size, and squared mean patch size to describe patch size dynamics, mean shape index and area weighted mean shape index to describe patch compactness, and fractal dimension analysis to describe patch outline complexity. For fractal dimension analysis, an innovative segmented regression model (Muggeo 2008) was used to separately quantify fractal dimensions for multiple ranges of patch sizes. Our results showed a growing anthropization of the U. bojeri forest landscape in the area, through a strong yet decelerating deforestation (from − 59.5% year−1 between 1999 and 2005 to − 2.84% year−1 between 2009 and 2013), clear forest fragmentation, and a subtle yet growing-in-scale simplification of patch geometry for small forest patches. Deforestation was artisanal in nature and, in 2013, large patches were withdrawing to less accessible topographic features. Our results forecast a medium-term loss of resilience of the U. bojeri forest in the area, if no direct forest conservation measures are taken. © 2018, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Effects of Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Exportation on Soil Organic Matter and Earthworm Communities in Silt Loam Arable Soil
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege et al

in Angeles Munoz, Maria; Zornoza, Raul (Eds.) SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE : EFFECTS ON ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN DYNAMICS, AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (2018)

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See detailEffect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Poeleart, Christine; Ernens, Majorie et al

in Food Research International (2018)

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating ... [more ▼]

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching with VR. Développer des environnements virtuels pour l'enseignement en sciences humaines
Billen, Roland ULiege; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

Conference (2017, November 23)

Présentation du projet Teaching with VR, qui associe des enseignants-chercheurs de 4 facultés pour développer des environnements en réalité virtuelle au service de l'enseignement en sciences humaines ... [more ▼]

Présentation du projet Teaching with VR, qui associe des enseignants-chercheurs de 4 facultés pour développer des environnements en réalité virtuelle au service de l'enseignement en sciences humaines. Trois environnements sont montrés, qui peuvent être déclinés pour différentes disciplines (psychologie, architecture, marketing, etc.), en fonction de dispositifs ajoutés aux environnements. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuing education with MOOCs. The case of children’s literature in French-speaking world
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULiege; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULiege; Centi, Valérie et al

Conference (2017, September 21)

1. Introduction Continuing education poses a challenge to the university: the objective is to allow professionals on the job market to enhance their competences through curricula adapted to their needs ... [more ▼]

1. Introduction Continuing education poses a challenge to the university: the objective is to allow professionals on the job market to enhance their competences through curricula adapted to their needs, both in terms of schedule and contents as well as teaching approaches applied. In its MOOCs policy, the University of Liège has identified this priority axis precisely to meet this requirement of schedule, contents and teaching approach. Already taught at the ULg, children's literature offered a perfect option for its pilot project. Popular culture studies are already one of the specificities of the Arts faculty program, and the University thought important to allow for a wider access to this teaching, responding to a growing interest from the civil society. 2. Problem description / challenges Up to now, there were, in French-speaking Belgium, only very few training opportunities on children's literature, based on cutting-edge scientific research, aimed at future or already established teachers. Although children's literature is one of the subject areas taught in secondary schools in French-speaking Belgium, it is not compulsory in the curriculum of aspiring French teachers at higher education institutions (whether universities or hautes écoles). Teaching children's literature thus depends on the teacher's good will: hence the importance of finding a way to train teachers in a subject area they have to teach to secondary school students by putting forward a large-scale but cost controlled solution, open to anyone looking for this specific training, and offering a certificate with a professional value. It was also important for the university to propose an innovative teaching format distinct from the practices generally in force and especially adapted to the adult-learning in terms of pedagogical approach (Thorpe,Edwards,Hanson, 1993). 3. MOOC Format Choosing the MOOC format was an important challenge: on the production level, above all, given the relative inexperience of the teaching staff, supported by a team of instructional designers and a production staff with experience in the creation of online contents for the University's online education platform; but also on the reception level, given that the expected audience is not particularly in line with digital technologies: MOOCs on literature are not the most common ones, and bookish readers are not known to be new technology buffs. The MOOC offers a selection of topics related to the field of children's literature, each under the responsibility of one team member, generally supported by experts. The MOOC tackles two main genres, the novel and the album, presents the publishing market, elaborates on digital literature and explores fictions beyond the book; it includes videos, quizzes, integrative activities, and feedback through forums. Each chapter of our MOOC adopts a modular and autonomous approach. These two characteristics allow learners to follow the MOOC according to their own needs or simply their interests. 4. Initial success The first session, in early March 2017, was a success, with more than 10000 subscribers, quite above the average for MOOCs in French. This is, for many subscribers, their first MOOC experience. Moreover, the motivation and investment of the community is remarkable: the forums are very active, the learners an-swer to and help each other. The feedback is extremely positive, showing a general willingness to partici-pate in the construction of collective knowledge useful for everyone. The information collected from participants is also an early success indicator in terms of population target. 5. Shaping Up for the Future Given this initial success, and in order to enhance this in-depth continued training, the teaching staff is envisioning for next year to develop a summer school linked to the MOOC and implement a blended learning element to our MOOC. The participants would first have to follow the MOOC and complete the required activities, in order to be granted certification. Afterwards, a limited number of these participants (probably around fifty) will be selected based on applications to participate in person to a course that would expand on the introduction to the subject offered by the MOOC. This training would highly benefit from the exceptional resources that the city of Liège holds for children's literature: the Michel Defourny archive, holding more than 30000 pieces, is indeed a unique site in Europe which deserves a better valorization from the University. [less ▲]

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See detailAvant-projet de décret relatif au Code wallon du Bien-être des animaux Lecture commentée au 04 juillet 2017 des chap. 4, 8, 11
Drion, Pierre ULiege; Seutin, Vincent ULiege; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege et al

Report (2017)

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par ... [more ▼]

La compétence « bien-être animal », auparavant fédérale, a été régionalisée en juillet 2014. Ce projet de code vise à remplacer les dispositions légales en vigueur (la Loi de 1984 telle que modifiée par les décrets du Gouvernement wallon). Certains éléments sont repris tels quels de la Directive 2010/63. Cela est nécessaire car la Directive européenne en tant que telle n’a pas de force obligatoire en Belgique. Elle doit être transcrite par un instrument législatif (avant, la Loi de 1984, aujourd’hui, le projet de code). Certains aspects semblent flous, mais renvoient à des dispositions que le Gouvernement doit encore prendre (au travers d’arrêtés du Gouvernement wallon, comme le faisaient avant les nombreux arrêtés royaux et du gouvernement qui réglementent la matière). Les arrêtés d’exécution devront obligatoirement tenir compte de la directive européenne et s’inspirer de dispositions actuellement en vigueur. [less ▲]

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See detailInsect fatty acids: A comparison of lipids from three Orthopterans and Tenebrio molitor L. larvae
Paul, Aman ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20(2), 337-340

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and ... [more ▼]

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and compared with those of Tenebrio molitor larvae. A. domesticus, Co. discolor, Ch. parallelus and T. molitor larvae were found to contain approximately 15%, 13%, 10% and 32% lipids on dry weight, respectively. The lipids from three Orthopterans contain much higher amounts of essential fatty acids than those of T. molitor larvae. The two Orthopterans of the suborder Ensifera i.e., A. domesticus and Co. discolor contain linoleic acid in major quantities, while Ch. parallelus of the suborder Caelifera, contain α-linolenic acid in major quantities. The consumption of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid is linked with numerous health promoting effects. The factors that contribute to differences in fatty acid profiles of these insects are being discussed. At last the nutritional parameters including polyunsaturated to saturated and omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratios of these insect lipids are also being discussed to understand the potential role of these lipids in human nutrition. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological load of edible insects found in Belgium
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe ULiege et al

in Insects (2017)

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated carbon dioxide concentration reduces alarm signaling in aphids
Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Fassotte, Bérénice ULiege; Sarles, Landry ULiege et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2017), 43

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in ... [more ▼]

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will impact pheromonal communication by insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission of Eβf (released under predation events). While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduces the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of the alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases do impact chemical communication in insects, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-scale production of crickets and impact on rural livelihoods
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Insects as food and feed: From production to consumption (2017)

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species ... [more ▼]

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species, crickets are valuable candidates as they reproduce quickly in high numbers, require a reduced-size rearing space and could easily recycle agricultural or industrial by-products, while keeping high feed conversion ratio. This chapter will present an overview of four cricket species, Acheta domesticus, Gryllus bimaculatus, Teleogryllus testaceus, and Brachytrupes membranaceus reared at a small-scale level and will describe their corresponding rearing system. Strategies to promote and develop small-scale cricket farming in different countries will be presented throughout a state of play of the past and current projects. [less ▲]

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See detailCould new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?
Barsics, Fanny; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in British Food Journal (2017)

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a broad-based information session would affect consumers’ perceptions and attitudes about an edible insect product. Design: During a taste testing session, preceded or followed by an information session about entomophagy, participants rated the organoleptic characteristics of two bread samples on 9-point hedonic scales. The two bread samples were identical, though one was faux-labelled as containing an insect product. Findings: General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed effects of gender, information session exposure, entomophagy familiarity, and entomophagy experience on participants’ ratings of the samples. Wilcoxon‑Mann-Whitney ranked sum tests showed that appearance, flavour, and overall liking were significantly better rated for the bread sample labelled as insect-free by participants who attended the presentation a priori. Potential ways to improve information content and delivery in favour of encouraging dietary shifts are discussed. Practical applications: This study shows that information about insect-based products could change consumers’ perceptions of such products. The results provide clues regarding how the food industry can adapt communication for target audiences. Originality: Actual edible insect products were not used in this study. Paradoxically, it is the first to show the impact of an information session on the acceptability of edible insect products, by revealing participants’ perceptual expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Odor of Death: An Overview of Current Knowledge on Characterization and Applications
Verheggen, François ULiege; Perrault, Katelynn ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Bioscience (2017)

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because ... [more ▼]

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because they are key attractants for necrophagous insects and vertebrate scavengers. Identifying cadaveric VOCs has required the effective development of analytical tools for collecting, separating, identifying, and quantifying the suite of VOCs released throughout decomposition. Analytical developments for studying cadaveric VOCs in vertebrates, ecological interactions of cadaveric VOCs with the abiotic and biotic environment, and the necessity for convergence of these two areas for the progression of future knowledge are discussed herein. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative instructional and methodological support for the Jobs@Skills - SCES - Liège-Luxembourg incubator: Guidelines for developing blended learning
Parlascino, Emmanuelle ULiege; Jérôme, Françoise ULiege; Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege et al

Report (2017)

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this ... [more ▼]

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this document presents as a handbook usable as a ready reference for guiding teachers through the different steps and attention points to be considered in the making of their blended set up. [less ▲]

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See detailParasitisme d’Apis mellifera adansonii (Latreille 1804) et de Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) par Aethina tumida (Murray 1867): premier recensement au Gabon et impact sur la domestication
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

in Entomologie Faunistique (2017), 70

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758 ... [more ▼]

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758) colonies in Africa and as a major threat during the transfer of wild colonies of Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) in hives. There is no data for Gabon and the state of wild colonies is still poorly known. Then, this study aims (1) to make a first prevalence assessment of A. tumida in wild colonies of A. mellifera and M. bocandei in Gabon; (2) to verify the effectiveness of quarantine implementation during the transfer of M. bocandei in hives against A. tumida. For that, 59 nests of A. mellifera and 25 nests of M. bocandei were inspected in two locations. Twelve nests of M. bocandei were transferred in hives with a quarantine for 4 days while 12 nests were transferred without quarantine. Aethina tumida was observed in more than 70 % of A. mellifera nests and in a single nest of M. bocandei. No damage was observed in nests of A. mellifera. More than 60 % of brood sections in quarantine or not were destroyed by A. tumida in hives. This study provided first evidence of the presence of A. tumida in Gabon and the need to develop a more effective method to domesticate M. bocandei in hives. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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