References of "Habraken, Anne"
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See detailPrediction of cracks within cones processed by single point incremental forming
Betaieb, Ehssen ULiege; Yuan, Sibo ULiege; Guzman, Carlos Felipe et al

Scientific conference (2019, April 16)

Plane stress tests such as tensile tests on smooth and notched samples as well as shear tests are used to identify the set of material parameters associated with two damage models: a micromechanically ... [more ▼]

Plane stress tests such as tensile tests on smooth and notched samples as well as shear tests are used to identify the set of material parameters associated with two damage models: a micromechanically-based Gurson model and a continuum Lemaitre and Chaboche model. Finite element simulations and inverse modelling are applied on these tests to characterize the mechanical behavior of a DC01 steel sheet. The capabilities of these two damage models to predict the maximum wall angle before failure of cones formed by single point incremental forming are analyzed, showing that the Lemaitre and Chaboche model appears to be more reliable when applied on this steel sheet. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal use of high strength steel grades within bridge (OPTIBRI)
Habraken, Anne ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Bouffioux, Chantal ULiege

Report (2019)

The project aims to generate guide lines for welded bridges using High Strength Steel. The quantification of the advantage of using HSS within bridges is performed on a 21.5 m wide highway bridge, with a ... [more ▼]

The project aims to generate guide lines for welded bridges using High Strength Steel. The quantification of the advantage of using HSS within bridges is performed on a 21.5 m wide highway bridge, with a typical 80 m long inner span and a composite steel-concrete twin plate girder deck. It presents clear fatigue and stability issues. An extensive experimental and numerical campaign of fatigue on HSS samples, welded plates and welded beams as well as an experimental and numerical study of multiaxial stressed plates allow a better understanding of HSS material and HSS welded joint behaviour with or without weld post treatment. The results enhance the need of an Eurocode review. Three designs of this bridge are compared: the first bridge design (A) uses only standard S355 steel grade whereas the second design (B) uses also HSS S690 QL steel but relies on current state of Eurocodes. Finally, the third design (C) is performed based on the real measured behaviour of HSS S690 QL steel and post treated welded joints. Through different variants of the design (C), the project results demonstrate the need of updating of Eurocode to take into account the enhanced material properties of HSS and the buckling of multiaxial stressed plates. The use of S690 QL in design B (C) enables reductions of steel weight of 25% (32%) on the steel deck and 34% (39%) on main girder compared to Design A and these designs save about 50% on full penetration welding volume compared to design A [less ▲]

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See detailThermal histories and microstructures in Direct Energy Deposition of a High Speed Steel thick deposit
Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege et al

in Materials Letters (2019), 236

The results of 2D Finite Element thermal simulations of Direct Energy Deposition of a High Speed Steel thick deposit explain the observed microstructural heterogeneities over the whole height of a 36 ... [more ▼]

The results of 2D Finite Element thermal simulations of Direct Energy Deposition of a High Speed Steel thick deposit explain the observed microstructural heterogeneities over the whole height of a 36-layer deposit. The Finite Element model is validated by the recorded substrate temperature and the melt pool depth of the last clad layer experimentally measured. The correlation between the computed thermal fields and the microstructures of three points of interest located at different depths within the deposit is carried out. The effect of both the melt superheating temperature and the thermal cyclic history on the carbides type, shape and size is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de l'endommagement de fluage-fatigue d'un alliage de Nickel pour récepteur solaire
Morch, Hélène ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege

Poster (2019, January 22)

Un modèle élasto-visco-plastique basé sur le modèle de Chaboche a été implémenté afin de modéliser le comportement de tubes en alliage de nickel utilisés dans les centrales solaires à tour. Pour pouvoir ... [more ▼]

Un modèle élasto-visco-plastique basé sur le modèle de Chaboche a été implémenté afin de modéliser le comportement de tubes en alliage de nickel utilisés dans les centrales solaires à tour. Pour pouvoir estimer la durée de vie des tubes, un modèle d’endommagement basé sur les travaux de Lemaitre a également été intégré au code. Ce modèle comprend deux types d’endommagement qui sont cumulés : l’endommagement de fluage, dont l’évolution suit le modèle de Kachanov, et l’endommagement de fatigue dont l’évolution suit le modèle d’endommagement unifié de Lemaitre. Le modèle a été vérifié à partir de données expérimentales issues de la littérature. [less ▲]

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See detailDominant strengthening mechanism of AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September)

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) exhibits a very fine cellular-eutectic microstructure due to the high cooling rate during the process [1]. This high cooling rate also results in an ... [more ▼]

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) exhibits a very fine cellular-eutectic microstructure due to the high cooling rate during the process [1]. This high cooling rate also results in an extended Si solute content in solid solution inside the Al cells. Both the Si in solid solution and the Si precipitated inside the eutectic contribute to the high strength of the alloy. The aims of this poster is to determined which one is the dominant strengthening mechanism through nanoindentation and SEM-EDX tests. [1] A.I. Mertens, J. Delahaye, J. Lecomte-Beckers, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19 (2017) 1–13. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification method of an advanced constitutive law for nickel-based alloy Haynes 230 used in solar receivers
Morch, Hélène ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege

in Journal of Physics. Conference Series (2018, August), 1063

A model to study panels of thin tubes of Haynes 230 nickel alloy used in solar receivers has been developed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of these tubes is simulated using an advanced model capable of ... [more ▼]

A model to study panels of thin tubes of Haynes 230 nickel alloy used in solar receivers has been developed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of these tubes is simulated using an advanced model capable of representing specific characteristics such as viscosity, kinematic and cyclic hardening, static recovery, or dynamic recovery. The constitutive law implemented is a finite-element visco-plastic model based on the work of Chaboche. Due to its complexity, the model uses a significant number of parameters that need to be identified at several temperatures. The aim of this article is to define an efficient method for the identification of the parameters of this Chaboche model adapted to cyclic thermo-mechanical loading. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the Laser Cladding Process of M4 High Speed Steel
Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULiege; Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Hashemi, Neda et al

Conference (2018, July 12)

The manufacturing process of laser cladding of bulk and thin wall samples has been simulated with the academic non-linear finite element (FE) code LAGAMINE. This thermo-mechanical-metallurgical code ... [more ▼]

The manufacturing process of laser cladding of bulk and thin wall samples has been simulated with the academic non-linear finite element (FE) code LAGAMINE. This thermo-mechanical-metallurgical code developed in ULiege since 1984 accounts for all the interactions between the different fields (displacement, stress, temperature). Already used on the cladding of TA6V cases [1], the code is this time applied on the cladding of M4 powder. The predicted thermal field has been validated by thermocouple measurements as well as by the size of the melt pool measured by optical microscopy on cut samples. The thermal history allows predicting the maximum temperature in the melt pool as well as the number of times that the top layers are re-melted. These observations can be related with the observed microstructure (size, shape, and type of carbides) which generates different wear behavior. This thermal field explains the heterogeneity of the microstructure along the sample depth that could be seen on the micrographies. Both 2D and 3D simulations are presented. The thermo-mechanical simulations compute the stress and strain fields. The residual stresses are currently measured (X -ray and strain gage) to validate the results. A new shape of samples has been computed to allow an easy evaluation of the stress state through displacement measurements. [1] Tran, H., Tchuindjang, J.T., Paydas, H., Mertens, A., Jardin, R.T., Duchêne, L., Carrus, R., Lecomte-Beckers, J., Habraken, A.M., 2017. 3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations. Mater. Des. 128, 130-142. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Temperature Wear Behaviour of High Speed Steel Thick Deposits Obtained by Laser Cladding
Hashemi, Neda; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Dedry, Olivier ULiege et al

Conference (2018, July 12)

High Speed Steel (HSS) are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys containing very hard carbides such as V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C. Thanks to this complex microstructure, thick deposits of HSS have ... [more ▼]

High Speed Steel (HSS) are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys containing very hard carbides such as V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C. Thanks to this complex microstructure, thick deposits of HSS have been found useful in a wide variety of applications including machining, cutting or hot strip mills. Recently, laser cladding has emerged as a very promising technique for the fabrication and repair of such thick coatings as the very high cooling and solidification rates imposed by this process result in strongly refined microstructures and potentially enhanced wear resistance. In this study, the high temperature (i.e. at 300°C) wear behaviour of 3 different HSS thick deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents has been investigated and compared with a reference cast material. For all materials, the wear mechanisms have been identified as oxidative wear with contributions of third body abrasion and adhesion. Moreover, a detailed comparison of the wear behaviour of the 3 laser clad deposits, in correlation with their microstructure, allows for a deeper understanding of the effect of their different carbides types and morphologies. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective Laser Melting of AlSi10Mg : influence of the thermal history during the process on the microstructure and mechanical properties
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege et al

Conference (2018, July)

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting exhibits a very fine microstructure due to the high cooling rate undergone by the part during the process (10^3-10^7 K/s). However, the cooling rate is lower ... [more ▼]

AlSi10Mg processed by Selective Laser Melting exhibits a very fine microstructure due to the high cooling rate undergone by the part during the process (10^3-10^7 K/s). However, the cooling rate is lower at the melt pool boundary than in the melt pool core resulting in a coarser microstructure at the boundary. Furthermore, an heat affected zone (HAZ) is also present around the melt pool due to the heat input accompanying the deposition of a new layer. Those microstructural inhomogeneities act like a weak zone where tensile failure occurs. The present study aims at investing which specific zone i.e, the coarse zone or the HAZ, is the most detrimental with respect to tensile failure. To do so, the microstructures are analyzed with a particular attention for the melt pool boundary and the HAZ. The Si phase fraction and the Si precipitate spacing are measured by image analysis. Fracture features are observed on broken samples. Hardness tests are performed by nanoindentation. The HAZ exhibits low hardness due to coarse non-coherent Si precipitates. This low hardness indicates that the HAZ is the preferential region where fracture is likely to occur. This is confirmed by Si precipitate spacing within the HAZ matching with dimple spacing observed in fracture surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Geometry for Shear Test Using Axial Tensile Setup
Yuan, Sibo ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Milis, Olivier ULiege et al

in Proceedings (2018, July), 2

This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical ... [more ▼]

This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical behavior, different tests will be performed on the studied material: simple tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests. For the whole campaign, a common equipment should be employed to minimize the impact of the testing device. As a consequence, for the shear tests, the geometry of the specimen must be carefully designed in order to adapt the force value and make it comparable to the one obtained for the tensile tests. Like most of the existing shear-included tensile test specimens, the axial loading is converted to shear loading at a particular region through the effect of geometry. A symmetric shape is generally preferred, since it can restrict the in-plane rotation of the shear section, keep shear increasing in a more monotonic path and double the force level thanks to the two shear zones. Due to the specific experimental conditions, such as dimensions of the furnace and the clamping system, the position of the extensometer or the restriction of sheet thickness (related to the further studies of size effect at mesoscale and hot temperature), several geometries were brought up and evaluated in an iterative procedure via finite element simulations. Both the numerical and experimental results reveal that the final geometry ensures some advantages. For instance, a relatively low triaxiality in the shear zone, limited in-plane rotation and no necking are observed. Moreover, it also prevents any out-of-plane displacement of the specimen which seems to be highly sensitive to the geometry, and presents a very limited influence of the material and the thickness. [less ▲]

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See detailProcee,ICEM 2018 The 18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM 2018) Brussels, Belgium
Van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios; De Belie, Nele et al

Book published by MDPI - Open Access editor (2018)

this proceeding book gathers the articles of the The 18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM 2018)

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See detailSelective Laser Melting of AlSi10Mg : influence of the thermal history during the process on the microstructure and mechanical properties
Delahaye, Jocelyn ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege et al

Conference (2018, May 28)

The rupture zone in AlSi10Mg tensile specimen processed by selective laser melting is investigated. The microstructures at the melt pool boundary are analyzed. The Si phase fraction and the Si precipitate ... [more ▼]

The rupture zone in AlSi10Mg tensile specimen processed by selective laser melting is investigated. The microstructures at the melt pool boundary are analyzed. The Si phase fraction and the Si precipitate spacing are measured by image analysis and MEB-EDS analysis. Hardness tests are performed by nanoindentation. Fracture features are observed on broken samples. The Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) exhibits low hardness due to coarse non-coherent Si precipitates. This low hardness indicates that the HAZ is the preferential region where fracture is likely to occur. This is confirmed by Si precipitate spacing within the HAZ matching with dimple spacing observed in fracture surfaces. The amount of heat input can by controlled by tuning the process parameters so as to reduce the size of the HAZ and potentially improve the mechanical properties of the AlSi10Mg SLM parts. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation into the occurrence of recrystallization during the additive manufacturing of a thick Ti6Al4V deposit
Paydas, Hakan ULiege; Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Carrus, Raoul et al

Poster (2018, May 28)

A thick deposit made of superimposed layers with a constant track length strategy has been manufactured under a laser cladding process of Ti6Al4V powders. The cladded material exhibits columnar grains ... [more ▼]

A thick deposit made of superimposed layers with a constant track length strategy has been manufactured under a laser cladding process of Ti6Al4V powders. The cladded material exhibits columnar grains with epitaxial growth. The matrix inside the grains is composed of both martensite and Widmanstätten structures within the regions corresponding to the solidified melt pool. After laser cladding, conventional quenching tests have been carried out on the cladded material that aim at better enhancing conditions for the occurrence of recrystallization phenomenon. The heat treatments correspond to a furnace heating stage up to a temperature above the Beta transus (tr) followed by a defined soaking time prior to water quenching (WQ) to yield a fully martensitic structure. Two different temperatures are chosen for the annealing stage, which are 1273K and 1323K respectively. The microstructures of the cladded deposit and after subsequent quenching are characterized under both optical and scanning electron microscopes. Vickers hardness measurements are also performed to complete the metallographic characterization and to help comparing the as-cladded state with the cladded and quenched one. The thermal history on selected points of interest (POIs) within the cladded deposit is simulated thanks to a validated thermal model, thus leading to the determination of both heating rates prior to remelting, and cooling rates during solidification stage when laser cladding goes on. The conditions for the occurrence of recrystallization, in terms of temperature and critical rates during the reheating stages are discussed while taking into account the time necessary for diffusion and initial dislocation density within the parent martensitic phase. In addition, correlations are established between the cooling rate above the critical value allowing the displacive transformation of prior  into ’ lath-martensite, and the hardness of the latter phase. [less ▲]

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See detail2D FE Simulations of High Speed Steel Laser Cladding Process
Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULiege; Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Hashemi, Neda et al

Conference (2018, April 25)

A 2D Finite Element thermal model of Directed Energy Deposition (laser cladding) process of a High Speed Steel thick deposit is developed to explain the observed microstructural heterogeneities over the ... [more ▼]

A 2D Finite Element thermal model of Directed Energy Deposition (laser cladding) process of a High Speed Steel thick deposit is developed to explain the observed microstructural heterogeneities over the whole height of a 36-layer deposit. This model is validated with the substrate temperature and the melt pool depth of the last clad layer experimentally measured. The correlation of the computed thermal fields with the observed microstructures is carried out for four different deposit depths possessing different microstructures. A deeper understanding of the effect of the melt superheating temperature and the thermal cyclic history on carbide solidification is reached. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicted microstructure in repair technology of Ti-6Al-4V
Tran, Hoang Son ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege; Paydas, Hakan ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 28)

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique often used to repair components [1]. Solidification following melting and partial remelting of pre-existing layers is coupled with heat treatment of the ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique often used to repair components [1]. Solidification following melting and partial remelting of pre-existing layers is coupled with heat treatment of the solidified material due to the repeated heating and cooling cycles during building. The effect of the building strategy on the metallurgical characteristics of the material for a decreasing track length (DTL) or a constant track length (CTL) strategy is analysed.Optical Microscopy (OM), Stereo Microscopy (SM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used in order to study the microstructure. The generation of the microstructure results from the material thermal history. The updated Lagrangian FE code Lagamine developed by ArGEnCo Department of the University of Liège to model forming processes is applied here on the laser cladding process [2]. The 3D-mesh is refined in the deposit and the top of the substrate in order to accurately model heat fluxes while the bottom of the substrate is meshed as coarse as possible. To generate an optimal mesh, transition refinement elements were used. In this powder injection technique, the continuous addition of material on the substrate is modelled by the element birth technique also called “switch” within Lagamine code. The predicted thermal field is found close from the measurements of type-K thermocouples introduced inside the substrate. Such results were computed for both building strategies: decreasing track length (DTL) and constant track length (CTL) strategy. The predicted temperature histories confirm that a more uniform temperature history is applied to the deposit by the CTL choice than the DTL one. The presence in DTL case of heterogeneity within the hardness measurements and the phases observed by metallography [1] can be explained by the computed temperature distributions. A detailed analysis linking microstructure and thermal history is provided. [1] Paydas H., Mertens A., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J., Tchuindjang J.T., Laser cladding as repair, technology for Ti–6Al–4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness Materials & Design 85, 2015, 497-510. [2] Tran H.S., Tchuindjang J.T., Paydas H., Mertens A., Jardin R.T., Duchene L., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J. and Habraken A., 2017, “3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations” Mater. Des. 128, 130. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the local thermal history and microstructure on the wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick coatings
Mertens, Anne ULiege; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 28)

Fe-Cr-C-based alloys known as High Speed Steels (HSS) have been found useful in a wide variety of applications as machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their complex ... [more ▼]

Fe-Cr-C-based alloys known as High Speed Steels (HSS) have been found useful in a wide variety of applications as machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their complex microstructure containing very hard carbides (V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C). Direct laser deposition, also known as laser cladding, has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the production and repair of thick coatings made from these alloys. Indeed, the very high cooling and solidification rates imposed by laser cladding result in strongly refined out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced wear resistance. However, the progressive accumulation of heat in the deposit during fabrication leads to variations of the thermal history as a function of position inside the build, resulting in turn into local variations of microstructure and wear properties. Consequently, this work aims to investigate the influence of the local thermal history and microstructures on the wear behaviour of three HSS grades with varying contents of V, Mo and W in order to vary the type, size, morphology and amounts of the hard carbides. In a first step, 2D finite element simulations compute the thermal field during the direct laser deposition of 20 mm thick HSS deposits (a similar FE approach has already been published by the present group on Ti alloy Ti6Al4V [1]). The validated thermal history yields a deeper understanding of the microstructure generated as a function of the position inside the deposits. In a second step, the wear behaviour of the deposits is characterised at two different depths (i.e. at 2 mm from the free surface or at 2/3 of the total height) and for two constant test temperatures (i.e. room temperature [2] and 300°C) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. In analysing the results of these tests, a particular attention was given to the role of the various carbides – including their type, morphology, hardness and failure mode – in determining the wear mechanisms of laser clad HSS deposits at the two tested temperatures. [1] Tran H.S., Tchuindjang J.T., Paydas H., Mertens A., Jardin R.T., Duchene L., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J. and Habraken A., 2017, “3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations” Mater. Des. 128, 130. [2] Hashemi N., Mertens A., Montrieux H.-M., Tchuindjang J.T., Dedry O., Carrus R. and Lecomte-Beckers J., 2017, “Oxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: Influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology” Surf. Coat. Technol. 315, 519 [less ▲]

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See detailLaser Clad High Speed Steel thick deposits: Correlations between the local thermal history, the microstructures and the wear mechanisms
Mertens, Anne ULiege; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege et al

Conference (2018, January 04)

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their ... [more ▼]

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their complex microstructure containing very hard carbides as e.g. V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C. Direct laser deposition, also known as laser cladding, has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the production and repair of such thick coatings. Indeed, the very high cooling and solidification rates imposed by laser cladding result in strongly refined out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced wear resistance. However, the progressive accumulation of heat in the deposit during fabrication leads to variations of the thermal history as a function of position inside the build, resulting in turn into local variations of microstructure and wear properties. Consequently, this work aims to investigate the correlations between the local thermal history, the microstructures and the wear mechanisms of three HSS grades with varying contents of V, Mo and W so as to vary the type, size, morphology and amounts of the hard carbides. In a first step, 2D finite element simulations compute the thermal field during the direct laser deposition of 20 mm thick HSS coatings (a similar FE approach [Tran 2017] has already been published by the group on Ti alloy). The validated thermal history yields a deeper understanding of the microstructure generated as a function of the position inside the deposits. In a second step, the wear behaviour of the deposits is characterised at two different depths (i.e. at 2 mm from the free surface or at 2/3 of the total height) and for two constant test temperatures (i.e. room temperature [Hashemi 2017] and 300°C) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. In analysing the results of these tests, a particular attention was given to the role of the various carbides – including their type, morphology, hardness and failure mode – in determining the wear mechanisms of laser clad HSS deposits at the two tested temperatures. REFERENCES: Tran H.S., Tchuindjang J.T., Paydas H., Mertens A., Jardin R.T., Duchene L., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J. and Habraken A., 2017, “3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations” Mater. Des. 128, 130. Hashemi N., Mertens A., Montrieux H.-M., Tchuindjang J.T., Dedry O., Carrus R. and Lecomte-Beckers J., 2017, “Oxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: Influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology” Surf. Coat. Technol. 315, 519 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 129 (24 ULiège)