References of "Guillaume, Ludovic"
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See detailComparison of different ORC typologies for heavy-duty trucks by means of a thermo-economic optimization
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Lemort, Vincent ULiege

in Energy (2019)

This study focuses on the design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a Heavy-Duty Truck (HDT): the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a Heavy-Duty Truck (HDT): the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources and their combinations, 5 possible architectures are considered. The main components (i.e. the heat exchangers, the pump and the expander) of the WHR systems are investigated and modeled. Plate type heat exchangers are considered for both the hot and cold sides of the system. Regarding the expansion devices, 5 positive displacement machine technologies, the scroll, screw, piston, vane and roots expanders, are considered and modeled while, among the turbo-expanders, the radial-inflow turbine is taken into consideration. A semi-empirical model is proposed to simulate a volumetric pump. The models of components are first confronted with experimental data. The validated models are then used as references for the design of the new components, which is achieved following similitude rules. This ultimately leads to 30 typologies that will be used with 6 of the various investigated working fluids. In order to identify the most promising system(s), a 3-step optimization tool is developed. First, the most suitable conditions are identified for the design of the ORC systems using a simplified model of an expansion machine. In the second step, the design phase, using more detailed models for the expanders and a proposed economic model for the overall system, a thermo-economic optimization is performed. In the third step, the output power for each of the obtained system models is maximized, optimizing the evaporating pressure and the superheating degree for various off-design conditions. The average power weighted using the frequency distribution of the gas operating conditions is computed and used to compare the 180 systems. Finally, because power is not the only criterion to select the most suitable system topology, additional criteria are taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical investigation of a roots expander integrated into an ORC power system
Parthoens, Antoine ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Dumont, Olivier ULiege et al

in Proceedings of Purdue 2018 (2018, July)

The performance of internal combustion engines can be improved by valorising the waste heat by means of organic Rankine Cycle power systems (ORC). This paper focuses on an expander of a truck-embedded ORC ... [more ▼]

The performance of internal combustion engines can be improved by valorising the waste heat by means of organic Rankine Cycle power systems (ORC). This paper focuses on an expander of a truck-embedded ORC system. The considered expander is a roots machine. The roots machine is a volumetric machine characterized by a theoretical internal volume ratio of 1. It is typically used as compressor under low pressure ratios (for instance, engine supercharging or air “blowers”). First, a test rig has been built to perform several tests on the volumetric machine. It is an ORC power system with a typical architecture using R245fa as working fluid (and 5% in mass oil fraction), heated oil as heat source and tap water as heat sink. Maps presenting produced powers, filling factors and isentropic efficiencies versus on one side the pressure ratio (from 1.2 to 4.5) and on the other side the shaft rotational speed (from 1000 to 11000 RPM) are investigated. The maximal delivered power is slightly above 3 kW. Concerning the filling factor the range is between 0.85 and 2.75 and the isentropic efficiency reaches a maximum about 50%. Wet expansions are envisaged leading to a deterioration of the performance. From the experimental data, a semi-empirical model is calibrated. This model is able to extrapolate the performance outside the experimental operating conditions and identify the different loss sources. Moreover, effects of overheat level and lubricating oil are also envisaged. The actual tested machine does not have an internal volumetric ratio strictly equal to 1 but is slightly larger. Such volumetric ratio implies that best efficiencies are achieved under small pressure ratios. However, these limited pressure ratios do not lead to large produced powers. To tackle this issue, simulations based on the calibrated model are driven for two expanders in series. This allows to increase the global internal volumetric ratio and shift the best performance towards higher pressure ratios. To enhance either the efficiency or the output power, the intermediate pressure (i.e. the pressure between the two expanders in series) is numerically optimized. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-design of waste heat recovery ORC systems for heavy-duty trucks by means of dynamic simulation
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Lemort, Vincent ULiege

Conference (2018, May 24)

Internal combustion engines (ICE) of heavy-duty trucks show efficiencies larger than 40% in nominal operating conditions. Despite these rather good efficiencies in comparison with smaller ICEs, a large ... [more ▼]

Internal combustion engines (ICE) of heavy-duty trucks show efficiencies larger than 40% in nominal operating conditions. Despite these rather good efficiencies in comparison with smaller ICEs, a large amount of heat is wasted to the ambient in the engine coolant circuit, in the exhaust gas and in the exhaust gas recirculation cooler. These different heat sources differ by their capacities and levels of temperatures. In order to meet the upcoming international CO2 regulations and in order to increase the competitiveness of transportation by trucks, truck industry is currently investigating the technical and economical feasibility of waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle heat engines. In this context, the present paper aims at comparing the energy and economical performance of different topologies of ORC on representative driving cycles. These topologies differ by the configuration of the different evaporators (EGR evaporator in parallel or in series with the exhaust gas evaporator), by the working fluids (R245fa, ethanol, acetone, cyclopentane and dimethylcarbonate) and by the expansion machines (volumetric expanders and radial inflow turbine). The choice of the investigated working fluids and expansion machines is justified by previous research projects whose results are summarized. Dynamic simulations are conducted with Amesim simulation tool. The control of the ORC is achieved by two different gain scheduling PIDs. Manipulated variables are the expander and pump rotational speeds and controlled variables are the expander supply pressure and temperature. The models of the components and the parameters identification process are described. Performance achieved with the different topologies are assessed in terms of fuel saving, power rejected at the condenser (which increases the cooling load of the truck) and payback time for the truck owner. Estimated fuel savings range from 2.3% to 3.2% and minimum payback time is 2 years. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge-sensitive modelling of organic Rankine cycle power systems for off-design performance simulation
Dickes, Rémi ULiege; Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege et al

in Applied Energy (2018), 212

This paper focuses on a charge-sensitive model to characterize the off-design performance of low-capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems. The goal is to develop a reliable steady-state model ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on a charge-sensitive model to characterize the off-design performance of low-capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems. The goal is to develop a reliable steady-state model that only uses the system boundary conditions (i.e. the supply heat source/heat sink conditions, the mechanical components rotational speeds, the ambient temperature and the total charge of working fluid) in order to predict the ORC performance. To this end, sub-models are developed to simulate each component and they are assembled to model the entire closed-loop system. A dedicated solver architecture is proposed to ensure high-robustness for charge-sensitive simulations. This work emphasizes the complexity of the heat exchangers modelling. It demonstrates how state-of-the-art correlations may be used to identify the convective heat transfer coefficients and how the modelling of the charge helps to assess their reliability. In order to compute the fluid density in two-phase conditions, five different void fraction models are investigated. A 2 kWe unit is used as case study and the charge-sensitive ORC model is validated by comparison to experimental measurements. Using this ORC model, the mean percent errors related to the thermal power predictions in the heat exchangers are lower than 2%. Regarding the mechanical powers in the pump/expander and the net thermal efficiency of the system, these errors are lower than 11.5% and 11.6%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of different ORC typologies for heavy-duty trucks by means of a thermoeconomic optimization
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Lemort, Vincent ULiege

in Proceedings of the 31st International conference on efficiency, cost, optimization, simulation and environmental impact of energy systems (ECOS) (2018)

This study focuses on the design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a Heavy-Duty Truck (HDT): the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a Heavy-Duty Truck (HDT): the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources and their combinations, 5 possible architectures are considered. The main components (i.e. the heat exchangers, the pump and the expander) of the WHR systems are investigated and modeled. Plate type heat exchangers are considered for both the hot and cold sides of the system. Regarding the expansion devices, 5 positive displacement machine technologies, the scroll, screw, piston, vane and roots expanders, are considered and modeled while, among the turbo-expanders, the radial-inflow turbine is taken into consideration. A semi-empirical model is proposed to simulate a volumetric pump. The models of components are first confronted against experimental data. The validated models are then used as references for the design of the new components, which is achieved following similitude rules. This leads at the end to 30 typologies that will be used with 6 of the various investigated working fluids. In order to identify the most promising system(s), a 3-step optimization tool is developed. First, the most suitable conditions are identified for the design of the ORC systems using a simplified model of expansion machine. In a second step, the design phase, using more detailed models for the expanders and a proposed economic model for the overall system, a thermo-economic optimization is performed. In a third step, the output power of the obtained system models is maximized, optimizing the evaporating pressure and the superheating degree for various off-design conditions. The average power, weighted using the frequency distribution of the gas operating conditions is computed and used to compare the 180 systems. Finally, because power is not the only criterion to select the most suitable system topology, additional criteria are taken into consideration and a decision matrix is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the design of waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycle systems for engines of long-haul trucks
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The reduction of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic activities is a strategic goal of the EU in which heavy duty vehicles can contribute in a relevant way. A promising solution is the recovery of the ... [more ▼]

The reduction of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic activities is a strategic goal of the EU in which heavy duty vehicles can contribute in a relevant way. A promising solution is the recovery of the thermal energy initially wasted by the engine, which represents around 60 % of the combustion energy. Transforming this heat into mechanical or electrical energy will thus increase the engine thermal efficiency. The conversion can be performed by means of a thermodynamic cycle (e.g. organic or non-organic Rankine cycles) using the waste heat as energy source, as it has already been developed in large stationary applications. Depending on the operating conditions, fuel consumption, and hence CO2 emissions, can theoretically be reduced by 10% to 15%. Nonetheless, the adoption of such technology in the automotive domain requires specific R&D activities to select the working fluid, the components and the most appropriate system architecture in order to achieve sustainable costs and the required level of reliability, while the transient nature of the heat sources available on the truck must be taken into account to evaluate the resulting fuel economy. In this regards, this thesis, based on experimental studies and simulation models, contributes to the characterization and the design of Waste Heat Recovery Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for engines of long haul trucks. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of void fraction and heat transfer correlations in a charge-sensitive ORC model – a comparison with experimental data
Dickes, Rémi ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Dumont, Olivier ULiege et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2017 (2017, July 02)

In order to properly evaluate the off-design performance of an ORC unit, it is important to use simulation tools that minimize the number of assumptions regarding the system state. To avoid imposing the ... [more ▼]

In order to properly evaluate the off-design performance of an ORC unit, it is important to use simulation tools that minimize the number of assumptions regarding the system state. To avoid imposing the condenser subcooling (or any other equivalent state variable), the ORC model should account for the mass repartition of working fluid through the unit in function of the operating conditions. Among the various components constituting ORC power systems, the proper modelling of the mass of working fluid enclosed in the heat exchangers is of primary importance. The goal of this work is to develop such a reliable charge-sensitive ORC model. To this end, a 2kWe recuperative ORC system is used as case study and experimental measurements are used as reference dataset. The ORC system features two brazed plate heat exchangers and one fin coil condenser. For these three heat exchangers, a large set of empirical correlations is investigated in order to evaluate both the fluids void fractions and their convective heat transfer coefficients. By comparing the models predictions with the experimental data, the study highlights the limitations of existing correlations and investigates three different correction methods to improve them. Ultimately, the analysis compares nine models of brazed plate heat exchangers, two models of condenser, three correction methods for improving the heat transfer correlations and four void fraction methods. Accounting for every combination possible, 288 different models of the ORC are compared for predicting both the heat exchangers thermal performance and the total mass enclosed in the ORC unit. Out of this study, the best modelling approach is identified and details of its charge inventory predictions are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude expérimentale et numérique d'un échangeur destiné à la récupération de chaleur fatale sur bancs d'essais de moteurs aéronautiques
Gendebien, Samuel ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Bellolio Domke, Sebastian Andres ULiege et al

in Colloque Inter-universitaire Franco-Québécois (CIFQ 2017), 22-24 mai 2017, Saint-Lô, France (2017, May)

Aujourd’hui, d’importants efforts sont réalisés dans divers secteurs afin de diminuer la consommation en énergie. En ce qui concerne le secteur aéronautique, de nombreux tests sont réalisés sur les ... [more ▼]

Aujourd’hui, d’importants efforts sont réalisés dans divers secteurs afin de diminuer la consommation en énergie. En ce qui concerne le secteur aéronautique, de nombreux tests sont réalisés sur les moteurs afin d’assurer la sécurité du transport aérien. Dans ce contexte, il a été envisagé de récupérer, recycler et valoriser l’énergie produite par le moteur au moyen d’un échangeur placé dans la cheminée d’évacuation des gaz. Pour ce faire, un prototype de modèle réduit d’échangeur récupératif sur gaz de combustion (gaz/eau ou gaz/huile) a été conçu, fabriqué et testé. Ce papier présente les caractéristiques du modèle réduit de l’échangeur développé spécifiquement pour cette application. L’ensemble du banc d’essais et le système de mesure mis en place afin de caractériser les performances de l’échangeur sont décrits. Une analyse des résultats expérimentaux est présentée. Les tests sont notamment divisés en deux parties : établissement des performances en régime monophasique et diphasique. Notons également que les performances hydrauliques de l’échangeur ont été expérimentalement déterminées. Un modèle numérique de type semi-empirique est proposé pour prédire les performances de l’échangeur. Ce dernier nécessite un calibrage des paramètres au moyen des données expérimentales afin de prédire les performances de l’échangeur sous une grande plage de conditions opératoires. Une comparaison entre résultats numériques et expérimentaux est finalement présentée. [less ▲]

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See detailNowate: Waste heat re-use for greener trucks
Lemort, Vincent ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Bettoja, Federica et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailThermo-economic optimization during preliminary design phase of organic Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery from exhaust and recirculated gases of heavy duty trucks
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Legros, Arnaud; Dickes, Rémi ULiege et al

in IMechE (Ed.) Vehicle Thermal Management Systems conference (2017)

Waste heat recovery (WHR) Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless ... [more ▼]

Waste heat recovery (WHR) Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless, the adoption of this technology in the automotive domain requires specific R&D activities going from the system definition to the on-board integration. This study focuses on the preliminary design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a HDT: the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources and their combinations, 6 possible architectures are identified. On the other hand, 4 volumetric expansion machine technologies are considered (scroll, screw, piston and vane Expanders). At the end, 24 topologies are therefore modelled considering the main components (Pump, Heat exchangers, Expansion machines). A three-step optimization method is proposed to identify the most promising system. First, the most suitable conditions are identified for the design of the ORC systems using a simple model of volumetric expansion machine. In a second step, the design phase, using more detailed models for the expansion machines, a thermos-economic optimization is performed. Finally, in a third step, the output power of the latter system models is maximized in off-design conditions, optimizing the evaporating pressure and the overheating degree. [less ▲]

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See detailProjets de Récupération de chaleur fatale suivis par l’ULg
Lemort, Vincent ULiege; Le, Van Long; Gendebien, Samuel ULiege et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailDYNAMIC MODELING OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEMS IN THE AMESIM PLATFORM
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Ameel, Bernd; Criens, Chris et al

Conference (2016, September 14)

ORC waste heat recovery is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks. Because of the transient nature of the heat sources ... [more ▼]

ORC waste heat recovery is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks. Because of the transient nature of the heat sources encountered on a truck, dynamic simulations are an essential part of the design process of ORC systems for truck applications. Dynamic models are useful for component design, control design and transient evaluation of ORC systems. To ease the burden of building numerous dynamic models of different candidate ORCs while the design process is ongoing, a library of generic dynamic models of ORCs is built in this work. These models work in synergy with a steady-state ORC design tool in which is added a function to automatically populate the parameters of the dynamic models. In this work, the dynamic model library and their parameterization process in LMS AMESim are described. The platform is largely used in automotive industry and offers a variety of libraries: Engine, Control, Two-Phase Flow, etc. Finally, the dynamic models are compared against the steady-state models and experimental data. [less ▲]

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See detailTHERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEMS FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM EXHAUST AND RECIRCULATED GASES OF HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Legros, Arnaud; Lemort, Vincent ULiege

Conference (2016, September 14)

Waste heat recovery (WHR) ORC is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless, the adoption of this ... [more ▼]

Waste heat recovery (WHR) ORC is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless, the adoption of this technology in the automotive domain requires specific R&D activities going from the system definition to the on-board integration. This study focuses on the preliminary design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a HDT: the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources and their combinations, 6 possible architectures are identified. On the other hand, 4 volumetric expansion machine technologies are considered (Scroll, Screw, Piston and Vane Expanders). At the end, 24 topologies are modelled considering only the main components (Pump, Heat exchangers, Expansion machines). A three-step optimization method is proposed to identify the most promising system. First, the most suitable design conditions are identified using a simple model of expansion machine. In a second step, the design phase, using more detailed models for the expansion machines, a thermodynamic and economic optimizations are performed. Finally, in a third step, the output power of the latter system models is maximized in off-design conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of a radial-inflow turbine integrated in an ORC system and designed for a WHR on truck application: An experimental comparison between R245fa and R1233zd
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Legros, Arnaud ULiege; Desideri, Adriano ULiege et al

in Applied Energy (2016)

The goal of this study is to experimentally compare the performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system equipped with a radial-inflow turbine for two working fluids: R245fa and R1233zd. The radial ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study is to experimentally compare the performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system equipped with a radial-inflow turbine for two working fluids: R245fa and R1233zd. The radial- inflow turbine is a small-scale prototype designed to convert the waste heat from the exhaust gases of a truck combustion engine and was developed mainly using components of truck turbochargers. It is directly connected to a high-speed synchronous generator. The bearings system of the turbine and the generator have the innovative particularity to be respectively lubricated and cooled down by the working fluid so no additional lubricant or coolant is needed. The experimental comparison is carried out over a test-rig equipped with the radial turbine. The heat wasted by the truck through the exhaust gases is sim- ulated using an electric oil boiler coupled to the ORC loop. The electrical power supplied by the turbine, limited to a maximum of 3.5 kWel by the generator, is then dissipated in a load bank composed of truck fans while the condenser is cooled by a water loop. Measurements in steady-state are performed in order to evaluate the performance of the turbine-generator set when varying the pressure ratio, the rotational speed, the inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the turbine and the lubrication flow rate of the bearings for various oil temperatures and mass flow rates. In order to identify the most suitable fluid for the Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) application, three comparison methods are proposed and discussed based on the measurements. Finally, because the turbine-generator set is the first oil-free prototype developed by the manufacturer, potential sources of improvements are discovered and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNoWaste: waste heat re-use for greener truck
Bettoja, Federica; Perosino, Andrea; Lemort, Vincent ULiege et al

in Proceedings of 6th Transport Research Arena (2016)

The present paper summarizes the key points of the European NoWaste Project, which aims at developing Rankine cycle systems for integration into long-haul trucks with the aim to convert the waste heat of ... [more ▼]

The present paper summarizes the key points of the European NoWaste Project, which aims at developing Rankine cycle systems for integration into long-haul trucks with the aim to convert the waste heat of the exhaust gases into useful energy usable in mechanical or electrical form. The first part of the paper describes the ORC system architectures defined for two different truck engines: one with EGR and the other one without EGR. For both engines, different cycle configurations and working fluids are compared in terms of energy performance and technical constraints. For both ORC systems, the paper shows the final technical choices made in terms of main components: boiler, condenser, expander and pump. The second part of the paper presents preliminary experimental results carried out on demonstrators of the two ORC systems. The objectives of these tests were to check the performance announced by the components’ manufacturers. Finally, the last part of the paper compares the cost of both systems. [less ▲]

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See detailTESTING AND MODELING A VANE EXPANDER USED IN AN ORC WORKING WITH HEXAMETHYLDISILOXANE (MM)
Vodicka, Vaclav; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Mascuch, Jakub et al

in ASME ORC 2015 (2015, October 15)

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See detailComparison and impact of waste heat recovery technologies on passenger car fuel consumption on a normalized driving cycle
Legros, Arnaud ULiege; Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Diny, Mouad et al

in Energies (2014)

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. [less ▲]

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See detailSizing models and performance analysis of waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycles for heavy duty trucks
Guillaume, Ludovic ULiege; Legros, Arnaud ULiege; Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the ASME ORC 2013 second international seminar on ORC power systems (2013, October 07)

This paper attempts to address this problematic of selecting the architecture, the expander and the working fluid for a waste heat recovery organic (or non-organic) Rankine cycle on a truck engine. It ... [more ▼]

This paper attempts to address this problematic of selecting the architecture, the expander and the working fluid for a waste heat recovery organic (or non-organic) Rankine cycle on a truck engine. It focuses especially on three expander technologies: the scroll, the piston and the screw expanders, and three working fluids: R245fa, ethanol and water. [less ▲]

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