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See detailTemporal grouping effects in musical short-term memory
Gorin, Simon ULiege; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Memory (in press)

Recent theoretical accounts of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory (STM) have proposed the existence of domain-general mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order information. These accounts are ... [more ▼]

Recent theoretical accounts of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory (STM) have proposed the existence of domain-general mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order information. These accounts are based on the observation of similar behavioural effects across several modalities, such as temporal grouping effects. Across two experiments, the present study aimed at extending these findings, by exploring a STM modality that has received little interest so far, STM for musical information. Given its inherent rhythmic, temporal and serial organisation, the musical domain is of interest for investigating serial order STM processes such as temporal grouping. In Experiment 1, the data did not allow to determine the presence or the absence of temporal grouping effects. In Experiment 2, we observed that temporal grouping of tone sequences during encoding improves short-term recognition for serially presented probe tones. Furthermore, the serial position curves included micro-primacy and micro-recency effects, which are the hallmark characteristic of temporal grouping. Our results suggest that the encoding of serial order information in musical STM may be supported by temporal positional coding mechanisms similar to those reported in the verbal domain. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of serial order short-term memory effects across verbal and musical domains
Gorin, Simon ULiege; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Memory & Cognition (2018), 46(3), 464-481

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See detailDoes Semantic Knowledge Influence Serial Order Processing In Short-term Memory?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Conference (2017, May 31)

Introduction: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal items associated with richer LTM representations are better recalled in VSTM. These LTM aspects are generally considered as being independent from serial order processing, that is, the ability to maintain the order in which verbal items appears within a sequence. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that serial order processing in VSTM can also interact with LTM knowledge, focusing more specifically on the interactions with semantic knowledge. Method: Forty participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words; verbal lists were either semantically related or they were not. The words were grouped by groups of 3 semantically related words (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) in the related condition. Results: We observed no effect of semantic grouping on the proportion of order errors. However, semantic grouping dramatically influenced the pattern of transposition errors: while statistically less inter-group transpositions (i.e. erroneously recalling one item from one semantic category to another) were observed in the related condition, we also observed statistically more intra-group transpositions (i.e. transposing two items within the same semantic category). Discussion: These results show that semantic knowledge can influence serial order processing in VSTM. They also support recent theoretical proposals stating that serial order processing strongly interact with the activation within the semantic system. [less ▲]

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See detailLa similarité sémantique influence-t-elle le traitement de l’ordre en mémoire à court terme ?
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2017)

Introduction: La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) est une fonction cognitive permettant le maintien temporaire d’informations langagières. Certains travaux suggèrent que cette fonction dépend ... [more ▼]

Introduction: La mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) est une fonction cognitive permettant le maintien temporaire d’informations langagières. Certains travaux suggèrent que cette fonction dépend fortement des représentations linguistiques ancrées en mémoire à long-terme (MLT) : les items verbaux associés à des représentations en MLT plus robustes ou plus riches facilitent le rappel des items en MCT. Ces aspects de MLT sont généralement considérés comme ayant peu d’influence sur la rétention de l’ordre sériel en MCT, c’est-à-dire l’ordre dans lequel les items verbaux apparaissent au sein d’une séquence. L’objectif de cette étude était de démontrer que la capacité de rétention des aspects sériels en MCT peut également interagir avec les connaissances en MLT, en ciblant plus particulièrement les interactions avec les connaissances sémantiques. Méthode: Quarante participants ont réalisé une tâche de MCT dans laquelle ils étaient invités à écouter puis immédiatement rappeler dans l’ordre des listes composées de 6 mots ; les mots au sein des listes étaient soit sémantiquement liés ou non. Les mots étaient regroupés par groupes sémantiques de 3 mots (par exemple, arbre, feuille, branche, nuage, ciel, pluie) pour les listes avec liens sémantiques. Résultats: Nous n’avons observé aucun effet du groupement sémantique sur la proportion globale d’erreurs d’ordre. Par contre, les groupements sémantiques avaient une incidence sur le type d’erreurs de transposition : dans les listes avec liens sémantiques, nous avons observé un taux de transpositions intragroupe (c’est-à-dire, un échange de la position sérielle de deux items au sein du même groupement sémantique) plus élevé par rapport aux positions sérielles équivalentes dans les listes sans liens sémantiques. . Discussion: Ces résultats montrent que des connaissances sémantiques en MLT peuvent influencer le traitement de l’ordre sériel en MCT. Ces résultats mettent en cause un certain type de modèles de la MCT qui considèrent des mécanismes spécifiques pour le traitement de l’ordre sériel sans aucune interaction avec les bases de connaissances linguistiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic similarity interacts with serial order processing in short-term memory
Kowialiewski, Benjamin ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2017)

Background: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal ... [more ▼]

Background: Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is a cognitive function allowing the temporary storage of linguistic information. This function strongly rely on stored long-term memory (LTM) knowledge: verbal items associated with richer LTM representations are better recalled in VSTM. These LTM aspects are generally considered as being independent from serial order processing, that is, the ability to maintain the order in which verbal items appear within a sequence. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that serial order processing in VSTM can also interacts with LTM knowledge, focusing more specifically on the interactions with semantic knowledge. Method: Forty participants performed a VSTM task in which they were invited to listen and recall in the correct serial order lists composed of 6 words; verbal lists were either semantically related or they were not. The words were grouped by groups of 3 semantically related words (e.g. three, leaf, branch, cloud, sky, rain) in the related condition. Results: We observed no effect of semantic grouping on the proportion of order errors. However, semantic grouping dramatically influenced the pattern of transposition errors: while statistically less inter-group transpositions (i.e. erroneously recalling one item from one semantic category to another) were observed in the related condition, we also observed statistically more intra-group transpositions (i.e. transposing two items within the same semantic category). Discussion: These results show that semantic knowledge can influence serial order processing in VSTM. They also support recent theoretical proposals stating that serial order processing strongly interact with the activation within the semantic system. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon serial order processes in musical and verbal short-term memory: evidence from a novel serial order probe recognition paradigm
Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

in Ginsborg, Jane; Lamont, Alexandra; Philips, M (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (2015, August 21)

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See detailDomain generality of serial order processing in short-term memory : Evidence from musical and verbal domains.
Majerus, Steve ULiege; Gorin, Simon ULiege

Conference (2014, May 27)

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors ... [more ▼]

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors to be domain-general, at least as regards verbal and visual STM domains. Here we provide further evidence for domain-specific item STM processes and domain-general order STM processes by comparing item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. The musical domain is particularly relevant here given its reliance on different kinds of sequential processes (e.g., tones successions, rhythm). Using an interindividual differences approach, we administered to a group of young healthy adults different tasks requiring retention of item identity for words or tones, and tasks requiring retention of serial order information for word sequences or note sequences, as well as a task measuring retention abilities for rhythmic information. For the item STM tasks, we observed strong intercorrelations for within-domain WM measures, but not between-domain WM measures, after controlling for general WM abilities. For the serial order STM tasks, we observed a specific association with the rhythm STM task. These results highlight the importance of temporal sequential processes, as measured by the rhythm STM task, as a driving factor of domain-general STM processes in verbal and musical domains. They furthermore confirm the domain-specificity of item STM processes. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions with musical long-term memory are a critical component of musical working memory
Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2013, August 10)

The nature and mechanisms of working memory (WM) for musical information remain poorly understood. The aim of this study is to show that musical WM strongly depends upon long-term memory (LTM) mechanisms ... [more ▼]

The nature and mechanisms of working memory (WM) for musical information remain poorly understood. The aim of this study is to show that musical WM strongly depends upon long-term memory (LTM) mechanisms and requires access to the long-term musical knowledge base. Two groups of participants (musicians and non-musicians) participated first in an implicit learning task during which they heard for about 30 minutes a continuous sequence of tones governed by a new musical grammar. Then, they performed an immediate serial recall task of musical sequences of increasing length; half of the sequences were constructed in accordance to the rules of the new grammar presented during the implicit learning task. Participants have to reproduce the sequences by humming and their performances were calculated on the basis of the deviation between their production and the stimulus needed to be reproduced. The results showed a significant advantage for the lists governed by the grammar previously learned. Overall, this study shows that performance on a musical WM task is enhanced by musical knowledge stored in LTM. This study is the first to demonstrate the dependency of musical WM on musical LTM knowledge, implying that existing models of musical WM need to be extended to account for this WM-LTM interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction between short-term and long-term memory in the musical domain: the impact of musical knowledge and musical expertise
Gorin, Simon ULiege; Majerus, Steve ULiege

Poster (2013, May 28)

While verbal short-term memory (STM) has received considerable research interest, STM for music has been given considerably less attention. The aim of this study is to show that STM for musical stimuli is ... [more ▼]

While verbal short-term memory (STM) has received considerable research interest, STM for music has been given considerably less attention. The aim of this study is to show that STM for musical stimuli is grounded in LTM, as has been shown for verbal STM. Interactions between LTM and musical STM were studied by exploring the impact of musical knowledge and musical expertise on STM performance. The role of musical knowledge was investigated by an implicit musical learning task, where participants were incidentally exposed to a sequence of tones whose succession was governed by an artificial musical grammar; after exposure, a musical STM task was presented where participants had to reproduce tone sequences of increasing length, half of the sequences being legal (obeying to the artificial musical grammar of the incidental learning task). The role of musical expertise was explored by administering the same task to two participant groups: adults with no musical training and adult musicians. For the role of newly acquired musical knowledge, the non-musician participants showed a significant advantage for reproducing legal musical sequences, showing that they had incidentally learned new musical knowledge and that this knowledge supports STM performance. The musicians did not present an incidental musical learning effect in STM recall, but overall outperformed the non-musicians for reproducing both legal and illegal tone sequences, showing an overall effect of musical expertise. This study is the first to document STM-LTM interactions in the musical domain, and this for both new and existing musical knowledge. [less ▲]

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