References of "Gobert, Sylvie"
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See detailStructural Changes of Seagrass Seascapes Driven by Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Abadie, Arnaud ULiege; Richir, Jonathan ULiege; Lejeune, Pierre et al

in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (2019), 7

Seascape ecology has been widely applied to marine habitats, including seagrass meadows, through various approaches all over the world for the past 30 years. However, these methods mainly study seagrass ... [more ▼]

Seascape ecology has been widely applied to marine habitats, including seagrass meadows, through various approaches all over the world for the past 30 years. However, these methods mainly study seagrass meadows on a single spatial scale and monitor a single driver of heterogeneity. Additionally, few assess the seascape’s structural evolution. This creates gaps between the scientific data provided and those required by environmental managers and stakeholders in charge of seagrass meadow conservation. To meet their expectations, in this paper we developed a new multidisciplinary approach based on the coupling of mapping techniques, particle flux, and biometric investigations in a Mediterranean Bay, the Calvi Bay (Corsica, France), to assess the structural changes of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows subject to disturbances. We focused our investigations on the structural characteristics, the spatial dynamics, and the particle fluxes of natural sand areas generated by bottom currents and dead matte patches which ensued from anchoring damages at 10, 15, and 20m depth. Natural sand patches and anchoring patches differed in size, the first the largest. They also displayed different erosion-colonization dynamics. Natural sand patches were eroded at a mean speed of 12 cm.a−1 and colonized at a rate of 7 cm.a−1. Anchoring patches showed a mean erosion speed of 3.5 cm.a−1 and a colonization rate of 6.5 cm.a−1. Regarding particle fluxes, continuous meadow, and natural patch sedimentation and resuspension rates were 3.7 gDW.m−2.d−1 and 4.1 gDW.m−2.d−1 in average, respectively. In contrast, anchoring patches at 20m depth acted as sediment traps (112.60 gDW.m−2.d−1 in winter) and showed a higher particle resuspension rate. Our results highlighted the dichotomous dynamics of seagrass seascapes influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors. Thus, the smallest anchoring patch will take about 27 years to be recolonized while the biggest requires 60 years to be covered by the plant. With an upscaling approach, together with the newest mapping tools of marine habitats, we suggest a new method to study the evolution of seagrass meadows at a large spatial scale. [less ▲]

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See detailSea chordophones make the mysterious /Kwa/ sound: identification of the emitter of the dominant fish sound in Mediterranean seagrass meadows
Bolgan, Marta ULiege; Soulard, Justine; Di Iorio, Lucia et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2019), 222

The /Kwa/ vocalization dominates the soundscape of Posidonia oceanica meadows but the identity of the species emitting this peculiar fish sound remains a mystery. Information from sounds recorded in the ... [more ▼]

The /Kwa/ vocalization dominates the soundscape of Posidonia oceanica meadows but the identity of the species emitting this peculiar fish sound remains a mystery. Information from sounds recorded in the wild indicates that the emitting candidates should be abundant, nocturnal and benthic. Scorpaena spp. combine all these characteristics. This study used an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the vocal abilities of Scorpaena spp.; morphological, histological and electrophysiological examinations were interpreted together with visual and acoustic recordings conducted in seminatural conditions. All observed Scorpaena spp. (S. porcus, S. scrofa and S. notata) share the same sonic apparatus at the level of the abdominal region. This apparatus, present in both males and females, consists of 3 bilaterally symmetrical muscular bundles, having 3–5 long tendons, which insert on ventral bony apophyses of the vertebral bodies. In all chordophones (stringed instruments), the frequency of the vibration is dependent on the string properties and not on the rate at which the strings are plucked. Similarly, we suggest that each of the 3–5 tendons found in the sonic mechanism of Scorpaena spp. acts as a frequency multiplier of the muscular bundle contractions, where the resonant properties of the tendons determine the peak frequency of the /Kwa/, its frequency spectra and pseudoharmonic profile. The variability in the length and number of tendons found between and within species could explain the high variability of /Kwa/ acoustic features recorded in the wild. Finally, acoustic and behavioural experiments confirmed that Scorpaena spp. can emit the /Kwa/ sound. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomonitoring environmental status in semi-enclosed coastal ecosystems using Zostera noltei meadows
Boutahar, L.; Maanan, M.; Bououarour, O. et al

in Ecological Indicators (2019)

Semi enclosed waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, are vulnerable ecosystems that are experiencing persistent trace element (TE) contamination. Seagrasses have been reported worldwide as valuable ... [more ▼]

Semi enclosed waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, are vulnerable ecosystems that are experiencing persistent trace element (TE) contamination. Seagrasses have been reported worldwide as valuable bioindicator species for coastal contamination monitoring purpose. This is, to our knowledge, the first time the TE contamination of semi-enclosed ecosystems has been monitored along the full latitudinal gradient of the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In these ecosystems, the dominant seagrass species is Zostera noltei. 23 TEs (Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, V, Cu, Zn, Sr, Li, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Mo, Ba, Ti, Pb, U, Bi and Hg) and four major elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca) were measured in sediments and seagrass leaf samples were collected upstream and downstream of five semi-enclosed areas. They contrasted in both climatic conditions and levels of environmental contamination. The Trace Element Pollution Index (TEPI) and the Trace Element Spatial Variation Index (TESVI) were calculated from chemical element concentrations in the samples. Of the five semi-enclosed areas, Sidi Moussa lagoon's sediments were the most contaminated (TEPI = 1.18). The TESVI differed highly between chemical elements among the five water bodies for sediments and seagrass leaves, the highest spatial variability being for Ag (TESVI = 72.01 and 21.05 respectively). For Z. noltei leaves, a latitudinal gradient of TE accumulation was recorded. A high bioconcentration factor (BCF > 1) for Cd, Mo, Sb, Ag, Zn and U indicated that the sediments were efficiently uptaken by the seagrass. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between levels of Cd, Ag, Fe, Al, Ba, Hg, Mn and Zn in sediments and in Z. noltei leaves indicated similar contamination occurrences in both environmental matrices and their bioavailability for seagrasses. Overall, leaf TE bioconcentration among and within the study sites resulted from differences in element bioavailability and environmental conditions (climatic context, hydrological conditions and human impact). Ultimately, Z. noltei is a useful bioindicator of Cd, Mo, Sb, Ag, Zn, U, Al, Fe, Mn, Ba and Hg contamination in sediments. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailChangement climatique en milieu marin Milieu physique Exemples et conséquences
Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, November 26)

http://www.mccip.org.uk/

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See detailHow does the endophytic fungal transform the Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (1813) meadow into the aegagropiles ?
Lefebvre, Laurence ULiege; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

Conference (2018, October 11)

While walking along the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, you must have already met agglomerate of vegetable fibres more or less spherical. You must have wondered what it were made of? Is it a waste? How ... [more ▼]

While walking along the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, you must have already met agglomerate of vegetable fibres more or less spherical. You must have wondered what it were made of? Is it a waste? How were it formed? Does this have a specific name? No? Well, we did it for you during my master thesis. The name of the conglomerations is Posidonia oceanca aegagropiles. It exists under two types of general shapes one was elongated and the other was more spherical it was respectively defined as ellipsoids and ovoids. These aggregations of meadow’s debris are more complicated than it sounds, in fact it’s composed of various kind of minerals whose the chemical composition is micas, carbonate exoskeleton, etc. This plant debris is structured. Indeed, the internal architecture of aegagropiles is a succession of 4 layers. Two morphotypes were observed and defined: homogeneous aegagropiles and heterogeneous. These two morphotypes are differentiated by their nucleus, fibres densely grouped in one zone for the first type and one piece of rhizome for the other type. To answer the question: “What it were they made of?” The identification of their components was carried out in order to understand the internal composition. Thereby we describe the external and internal morphology of those conglomerates. After the macroscopic description, we will try to describe the histology of the plant debris in the aegagropiles which was observed by light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on isolated debris as well as on polished thin slices. During our observations in microscopy, we followed the strange traces, this traces were very interesting because it’s the result of the biotic degradation. The biotic degradation found notably in the plant cell walls (PCWs) seemed to be in the great majority caused by a dark septate endophytic that specifically attack the middle lamella of PCWs of parenchyma cells leading to longitudinal separation of sclerenchyma resistant fibres from Posidonia leaves, scales and roots. So the combination of their biotic degradation and mechanical shake in the meadow litter appears to be the starting point of the aegagropile formation. It leads Posidonia organs to be fragmented down to resistant fibres, that accumulate in the litter and may intertwine together in pellets by rolling in the ripples marks. [less ▲]

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See detailNOTE SUR LA METHODOLOGIE DES COMPTAGES DE DENSITES DE FAISCEAUX DE POSIDONIE EN LIMITE INFERIEURE DE LA RESERVE DU LARVOTTO
Gobert, Sylvie ULiege; Personnic, Sebastien; Descamp, Pierre et al

Report (2018)

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See detailPAM fluorometry research in Posidonia oceanica
Richir, Jonathan ULiege; Abadie, Arnaud ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, April 26)

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See detailDouble offensive en Méditerranée: changement climatique et pression anthropique
Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailStructures macroscopique et microscopique et formation des aegagropiles de Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (1813)
Lefebvre, Laurence ULiege; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege; Compère, Philippe ULiege et al

Poster (2018, April 11)

Il est courant de retrouver le long de plages de Méditerranée des agglomérations de débris végétaux originaire de l’herbier à Posidonies. Ces agglomérats portent le nom d’aegagropiles de P. oceanica ... [more ▼]

Il est courant de retrouver le long de plages de Méditerranée des agglomérations de débris végétaux originaire de l’herbier à Posidonies. Ces agglomérats portent le nom d’aegagropiles de P. oceanica , ceux-ci arborent des formes sphériques et ellipsoïdes. Les objectifs principaux de ce travail étaient d’identifier les différents composants des aegagropiles de P. oceanica et de déterminer la formation de ceux-ci. Pour ce faire, différentes analyses microscopiques (MET, MEB et MO) ont été effectuées ainsi que l’usage d’un mécanisme simulant la houle. Les observations en microscopie électronique à balayage ont été réalisées à l’aide de différents détecteurs (SSD et ETD) de SE et BSE, ce qui additionnés à diverses techniques de colorations et de contrastants ont permis de répondre à de nombreux objectifs. Les aegagropiles se forment par l’hydrodynamisme qu’engendre la houle et se composent d’un assemblage de débris végétaux provenant de P. oceanica ainsi que de grains de sable. Au fil des différentes étapes du cycle de la plante et de l’hydrodynamisme, les organes de la plante se rompent, s’accumulent au sein de la litière et subissent une combinaison de dégradations biotique et abiotique. Ces organes sont majoritairement des feuilles et des morceaux de rhizomes. La dégradation biotique est notamment engendrée par des champignons noirs septés nommés « Dark Septate Endophyte - DSE » qui, en s’attaquant spécifiquement à la lamelle mitoyenne des cellules permet des scissions longitudinales. La dégradation abiotique est quant à elle engendrée par les forces hydrodynamiques. Cette combinaison entraîne dès lors un lessivage important des différents organes végétaux qui se scindent et se courbent formant finalement de fines « fibres » qui s’accumuleront et s’entremêleront ensemble des ripples-marks afin d’élaborer des aegagropiles de P. oceanica. Les aegagropiles de P. oceanica se formeront initialement avec des débris intacts de rhizomes ou bien avec des faisceaux de fibres lignifiés ronds provenant également de ces rhizomes où de nombreux grains de nature minérale s’enchevêtreront à ces débris végétaux afin de constituer une structure initiale consolidée et résistante. Ensuite, d’autres débris végétaux, majoritairement de formes plates et provenant des feuilles et de gaines foliaires de P. oceanica , s’entremêleront à cette structure afin d’obtenir une agrégation allongée. Enfin, via une fragmentation aléatoire et des mouvements suivant préférentiellement une direction, des aegagropiles de P. oceanica de formes majoritairement ellipsoïdales s’échoueront le long des plages. [less ▲]

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See detailContamination par les éléments traces en Méditerranée occidentale, focus sur la baie de Calvi et la Corse. Bilan et perspectives.
Gobert, Sylvie ULiege; Durieux, Eric; El Idrissi, Ouafa et al

Conference (2018, April 10)

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See detailEtude de la photosynthèse de Posidonia oceanica par fluorimétrie modulée
Richir, Jonathan ULiege; Abadie, Arnaud; Borges, Alberto ULiege et al

Conference (2018, April 10)

Numerous methods for measuring seagrass productivity and growth exist: evolution of O2 or CO2 (incubation chambers, optodes), biomass, shoot leaf elongation, determination of elementary contents … Another ... [more ▼]

Numerous methods for measuring seagrass productivity and growth exist: evolution of O2 or CO2 (incubation chambers, optodes), biomass, shoot leaf elongation, determination of elementary contents … Another possible method relies on pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM). This technique allows the determination of the photosynthetic quantum yield (Yield) from fluorescence re-emitted by chlorophyll a before and after the application of a saturating light pulse. The Yield determined along a gradient of irradiance draws a light curve (RLC, Rapid Light Curve) similar to photosynthesis-irradiance curves. Since spring 2015 several measurements of Posidonia oceanica photosynthetic activity have been performed at STARESO using diving-PAM fluorometers, for multiple related purposes. The results of these works show that: (i) the absorbance of light by P. oceanica leaves is lower than the average value of terrestrial plants, (ii) the Yield remains constant, being influenced neither by season nor by depth and only the strong light intensities at shallow depths cause its decrease (photoinhibition), (iii) RLCs highlight the high photochemical plasticity of the plant to environmental conditions, (iv) the maximum electron transfer rate modelled from RLCs seems to be a good indicator of the average elongation of shoot leaves and hence of shoot growth and (v) photosynthesis as a biomarker responds to short-term Cu exposures at environmentally relevant levels. Posidonia oceanica photosynthetic activity, which will further be monitored during an in situ shading experiment, is studied in parallel with the development of a new generic biomarker of stress, the ratio of concentrations of organosulfured coumpounds in the plant (dimethylsulfonioproprionate, DMSP and dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO). In conclusion, whether the scientific issue is ecophysiological, environmental, ecotoxicological, PAM fluorometry is a technical approach to consider. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des séries temporelles : exemple de la température de l’eau
Richir, Jonathan ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Champenois, Willy ULiege et al

Conference (2018, April 10)

De nombreux paramètres biologiques, environnementaux, climatologiques sont mesurés à et par STARESO depuis des décennies. Les données récoltées sont accessibles via la base de données partagée RACE de ... [more ▼]

De nombreux paramètres biologiques, environnementaux, climatologiques sont mesurés à et par STARESO depuis des décennies. Les données récoltées sont accessibles via la base de données partagée RACE de l’Université de Liège. Dans le cas de séries temporelles, les paramètres suivis sont mesurés de manière séquentielle au cours du temps. La plus représentative est sans aucun doute la série des données de température de l’eau acquise depuis près de 40 ans. La température est un paramètre important qui permet de mettre en évidence sur le long-terme des changements notamment liés au réchauffement climatique, changements qui affectent le fonctionnement des océans tant dans la physique que dans la biologie. L’analyse des séries temporelles de données nécessitent souvent un important travail préparatoire de standardisation (intervalles de mesure irréguliers, trous dans la série, évolution des méthodes d’acquisition des données …). Une fois standardisées, les séries de données peuvent être analysées avec les outils et approches statistiques propres aux séries temporelles : décomposition de la série pour en extraire la tendance générale, statistiques glissantes, calcul des anomalies, analyse des quantiles, mise en évidence d’évènements extrêmes tels les vagues de chaleurs … Tout ce travail, conséquent, doit pouvoir être partagé, vérifié, validé et permettre la mise à jour ultérieure de l’analyse. C’est le concept même de science reproductible. Cette reproductibilité est rendue notamment possible par l’utilisation du langage de programmation R. Cette communication illustre, à travers l’exemple clef de l’évolution de la température de l’eau, l’analyse des séries temporelles de données dans le cadre de STARECAPMED. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in aquatic ecosystems at the University of Liège
Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Damseaux, France ULiege; Das, Krishna ULiege et al

Poster (2018, March 29)

The use of stable isotopes as ecological tracers through isotope ratio mass spectrometry has a long history at the University of Liège, Belgium. Since at least 35 years, applications of stable isotopes in ... [more ▼]

The use of stable isotopes as ecological tracers through isotope ratio mass spectrometry has a long history at the University of Liège, Belgium. Since at least 35 years, applications of stable isotopes in aquatic ecosystems have been developed within the Laboratory of Oceanology and the Laboratory of Animal Systematic and Diversity. One research axis is the measurement of stable isotope composition (carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) in organic matter to delineate food web structure and to study animal diet, their trophic niches and their alteration by human activities. This approach assumes that the isotopic composition of a consumer (i.e. the 13C/12C, 15N/14N and 34S/32S ratios) is a proportional mix of the isotopic compositions of its food sources, with a slight enrichment towards the heavier isotope. We have successively applied this approach in different marine and freshwater habitats and ecosystems (e.g. seagrass meadows, macrophytodetritus accumulations, Antarctic benthic systems and coral reefs), in polar, temperate and tropical areas. Mediterranean food web and fish trophic ecology have received a peculiar attention. Furthermore, it has been applied to marine mammals, marine turtles, crocodilian species, Mediterranean and Antarctic benthic invertebrates, and the study of symbiotic associations (fish-sea cucumbers, tropical echinoderms and hydrothermal crustaceans). Stable isotope labelling is also used in our laboratory to study and quantify various ecological processes such as inorganic nitrogen incorporation and trophic transfers. Coupling between trophic ecology and ecotoxicology is another area of investigation. The laboratory’s facilities, renewed in 2012 and managed by Dr Gilles Lepoint, are composed of an elemental analyser and a gas chromatography coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The gas chromatography is also equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. More recently, the laboratory has been attempting to develop the measurement of stable isotope ratios of specific compounds such as amino acids, which should allow to determine more precisely the trophic position of consumers. Overall, here we aim to provide insights into the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and illustrate their utility and potential applications to better understand food web structures and species diet in aquatic ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailSeaweed distribution in Calvi bay : from 35 years of temporal changes towards R modelling of distribution maps.
Sirjacobs, Damien ULiege; Pelaprat, Corinne; Leduc, Michèle et al

Poster (2018, March 21)

During 1978-1979 and 1991-1992 periods, the STARESO and Liège University initiated an early systematic monitoring of seaweed communities along 24 reference transects (0-15 m) in Calvi bay (Corsica). This ... [more ▼]

During 1978-1979 and 1991-1992 periods, the STARESO and Liège University initiated an early systematic monitoring of seaweed communities along 24 reference transects (0-15 m) in Calvi bay (Corsica). This defined important historical references for long term dynamical studies of that remarkable coastal environment. In 2013-2015, new records of macroalgae specific composition and cover rate were collected in these reference sites, as along additional and deeper transects (0-40 m). Macroalgal distribution profiles are compiled to allow exploitation by R codes for several goals : a) Allow an improved synthesis and vision on statistics associated to distribution profiles, from average profiles at bay scale to remarquable sub-areas, particularly for the main species considered for primary production studies as the role of this biological compartment is most probably underestimated in that concern (i.e. Cystoseira (C.) brachycarpa, Dictyota dichotoma, Stypocaulon scoparium). The tools developed will also ease exploration of any questions arising concerning other important species, as for instance in terms of remarquable biological habitats (C. spinosa, C. fimbriata, ...), environmental sensitivity (C. amantaceae var. stricta), invasive trends (Caulerpa racemosa), massive blooms (filamentous algae), niche of apparently stabilized allochtone species (Sargassum sp.) or ecological ranges of species with particular biochemical properties (Janioides, Codium,...). b) Assess recent changes of species distribution in comparison with historical data, mainly concerning species having displayed significant changes between 1978-1979 and 1991-1992. c) Exploit and adapt R species distribution modelling tools to extrapolate continuous maps of macroalgae species and communities throughout the whole Calvi bay. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological effects of marine protected areas: the case of seagrass macrofaunal assemblages
Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Paillet, Charlotte; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 21)

Marine protected areas are essential for safeguarding biodiversity and its fundamental services in the face of increasing human pressures. Remarkably, few studies have assessed the responses of small ... [more ▼]

Marine protected areas are essential for safeguarding biodiversity and its fundamental services in the face of increasing human pressures. Remarkably, few studies have assessed the responses of small macrofaunal species to different protection levels in the Mediterranean Sea. Using a hierarchical sampling design spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 m) and two consecutive years, this research investigated if a marine protected area affected macrofaunal assemblages associated with Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Based on this investigation, spatial and temporal variability patterns of macrofaunal assemblages in four different protection levels were reported. In addition, potential confounding effects on these areas, such as different habitat features, were discussed. The results showed that the macrofauna is abundant and rich in taxa at the order and class levels. Decapods, mysids, ostracods and gastropods presented lower abundances in totally protected area compared with partially protected areas, while pycnogonids showed an inverse pattern. Moreover, the results showed differences among zones in assemblage composition. Although a number of natural factors can contribute to the variability of the abundance of these taxa, this study suggests that the observed patchiness is likely to occur for multiple and interrelated reasons, ranging from ecological and behavioural traits (e.g. dispersion, mobility and reproduction) of macrofaunal species to protection-dependent factors, such as fish predation. This work suggests that total protection within a marine protected area seems to contribute, at least partially (via fish predation), to the patterns observed among zones. Multiscale spatial and temporal monitoring of macrofaunal assemblages in a long-term perspective, as well as experimental manipulations that assess the contributions of each factor, are needed to discover the origin of these patterns, and better understand the ecological effects of marine protected areas. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vie en Méditerranée
Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailLa plante de la mer du milieu
Gobert, Sylvie ULiege; Abadie, Arnaud

Book published by Le livre en papier (2018)

Peu connaissent son nom et encore moins le rôle fondamental qu’elle joue à l’échelle de la Méditerranée : un habitat marin primordial, un puits de carbone pour nos émissions de gaz à effet de serre, une ... [more ▼]

Peu connaissent son nom et encore moins le rôle fondamental qu’elle joue à l’échelle de la Méditerranée : un habitat marin primordial, un puits de carbone pour nos émissions de gaz à effet de serre, une nurserie pour de nombreuses espèces, une protection contre l’érosion du littoral… Et la liste est longue ! Découvrez les secrets de cette plante qui, bien que d’aspect simple, possède une biologie très complexe. Comprenez la genèse et la dynamique des immenses prairies sous-marines qu’elle forme. Appréhendez les nombreuses relations qui lient les prairies sous-marines avec les espèces marines de Méditerranée. Sensibilisez-vous aux impacts des activités humaines sur les herbiers. Initiez-vous aux techniques scientifiques utilisées pour étudier la posidonie et apprenez quelles mesures de conservation et de gestion sont mises en place pour la préserver. A travers des schémas explicatifs et des photographies subaquatiques, laissez-vous guider dans les pairies sous-marines de Méditerranée pour découvrir leurs secrets. Poséidon est le dieu des mers et des océans dans la mythologie grecque [less ▲]

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See detailCourants et vents
Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

in Laffoley, D; Baxter, J; Pergent-Martini, C (Eds.) et al Report Card 2018 (2018)

Connaissances, prévisions, stratégie, lacune

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