References of "Giraud, Gwennan"
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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of a tubectomy program and post-op monitoring in Macaca fascicularis, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

Conference (2020, February 10)

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit ... [more ▼]

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit population growth but very few monitoring data are available. Therefore, the efficiency and implications of such programs require a careful examination. Our research aims to assess the adequacy and implications of a three-year sterilization program in wild female long-tailed macaques in Ubud, Bali. We present the rationales behind the selected methods (surgical approach of endoscopic tubectomy and giant trapping cages for captures) and we describe the demographic population model used to establish the objectives of population growth control. We then present the outcomes of this program and the postoperative monitoring results. 137 females underwent tubectomy over four successive campaigns between 2017 and 2019, which represented 45% of the sexually mature females of the population. The survival rate was very high (96%) six months after sterilization and no major postoperative complication were recorded. No novel pregnancy in treated females was observed, reflecting a 100% success rate of the procedure. Moreover, the surgical approach was also applicable for pregnant females since 26% of the treated females were pregnant at the time of the surgery and 77% of them experienced term delivery. Overall, this study case demonstrates the safety and efficiency of tubectomy sterilization as mean of population control in wild macaques. A demographical and behavioural monitoring is currently in progress to provide a global evaluation of the implications of such programs [less ▲]

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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of an endoscopic tubectomy procedure and post-op monitoring
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Polet, Roland ULiege; Gede, Soma et al

Conference (2019, October 10)

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See detailRole of reproductive status in social network of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Larrivaz, Marine; Wandia, Nengah et al

Conference (2019, October 02)

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See detailAnalyser les avantages et inconvénients des stérilisations de primates en milieux anthropisés: une étude de cas des macaques balinais
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Broens, Damien ULiege; Delooz, Sophie ULiege et al

Conference (2018, October 18)

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène ... [more ▼]

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène s’accroit en Asie où certaines espèces survivent et tirent profit des habitats anthropisés et de leurs ressources, alors que d’autres sont en déclin. Récemment, les programmes de contrôle des naissances (via stérilisation permanente ou contraception) se multiplient afin de contrôler l’expansion locale de certaines populations dites « à problème ». Cette approche représente une alternative plus éthique à l’élimination, voire dans certains cas à la translocation. Cependant, les effets et les implications de ces programmes restent largement méconnus. Très peu d’études décrivent la manière dont la stérilité provoquée impacte ou non l’environnement social et le comportement des individus traités, ainsi que de leur groupe. L’objectif de notre recherche est d’investiguer les réponses physiologiques, comportementales et sociales de macaques à longue-queue (Macaca fascicularis) femelles adultes inclues depuis 2017 dans un programme de stérilisation (par ligature des trompes) dans le sanctuaire Monkey Forest Ubud à Bali, en Indonésie. A travers un monitoring éthologique comportemental (basé sur +/- 1000 heures de données focales collectées depuis 2017 via la méthode du focal individuel de 15 minutes combiné à des scans de groupe à intervalle de 5 minutes) et démographique (via comptages mensuels systématiques) à long-terme, nous mesurons le niveau d’activités que les femelles mobilisent au regard de leur condition (stérilisées vs. contrôles) et nous quantifions les indicateurs comportementaux d’anxiété (agressions et comportements autodirigés) afin d’évaluer également les implications des stérilisations en termes de bien-être. Pour cette communication, nous décrirons dans un premier temps le contexte de la population cible (i.e., forte densité démographique, et intensification du conflit humain-macaque et de la tension sociale au sein des groupes de macaques), les objectifs du programme de stérilisation (i.e., taux de croissance visé et modélisation du nombre de femelles à stériliser), et les méthodologies utilisées pour les captures et les stérilisations. Dans un second temps, nous présenterons les résultats préliminaires sur le suivi des femelles stérilisées et les différences éventuelles observées avec les femelles contrôles. Lors la première année qui suit leur stérilisation, les femelles montrent des budgets d’activités globalement similaires aux femelles contrôles. Ce résultat à court-terme s’explique par la technique de stérilisation sélectionnée (i.e., ligature des trompes) qui n’annule pas la production de stéroïdes ovariens, et ainsi n’impacte pas directement le comportement. La seconde étape de nos recherches consiste maintenant à analyser l’évolution du profil comportemental sur le long-terme afin d’évaluer l’impact éventuel des cycles non-féconds répétés et de l’absence permanente de nouveaux jeunes chez les femelles stérilisées. Ces implications seront discutées à travers une analyse des avantages et des inconvénients de ce type de programme. [less ▲]

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See detailHabituation of chimpanzees at Loango National Park (Gabon)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Deschner, Tobias

in Primate Tidings (2017, June), 36

Primate habituation work is an important preliminary step to field research and requires several precautions to respect (wearing masks, remaining as neutral as possible…). The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ... [more ▼]

Primate habituation work is an important preliminary step to field research and requires several precautions to respect (wearing masks, remaining as neutral as possible…). The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) of Loango National Park (Gabon) have been the subject of a great ape habituation project conducted by the Max Plank Institute since 2005, in collaboration with the ANPN. Recently (2014) this project split in two habituation programs between gorillas and chimpanzees. The interest of this study site is truly particular given the huge variety of habitats and the very large area of the home range used by the studied population of chimpanzees. After a brief description of the species and the study site, I will present here the different types of preliminary data which are collected to evaluate the progress of the habituation work. I will also briefly describe some specific behaviors which have been identified at this study site, such as stick tool use on Binga Binga Honeybee nests. This is the beginning of very fruitful future research projects. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Gunst, Noelle et al

in Primates: Journal of Primatology (2017)

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the ... [more ▼]

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between social tension and demographic density of commensal long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali (Indonesia)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege

Master's dissertation (2015)

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope ... [more ▼]

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope with high-density conditions. We tested the validity of these models for free-ranging M. fascicularis, considered as less despotic than M. mulatta on which the models have been originally tested by comparing free-ranging and captive populations. Allowing the increasing ecological validity of our research’s conclusions, the free-ranging macaques we studied had a time window of life in high density condition long enough to set up an efficient and well-established social coping strategies. The study sites of Ubud and Uluwatu consisted of respectively six and five groups of M. fascicularis. We collected demographic data using a procession counting method, and behavioural data using focal and all-occurrence sampling methods. We assessed home range size using the daily group’s GPS location. Although Ubud is a crowded space while Uluwatu is not, we recorded less home range overlap between groups in Ubud in comparison to Uluwatu. Although global aggression did not differ between both populations, aggressive and submissive time increased whereas affiliative time decreased when density increased. According to the activity budget, while time spent in affiliative contacts was shorter in higher density condition, time spent in distant affiliative behaviours was longer. Females of both populations spent longer aggressive time than males but, although they increased more submissive time and decreased more affiliative time, their increase of aggressive time was lower than this of males when density increased. A plateau in aggressions occurred when density increased. In the study conditions, macaques seem to become more hierarchically structured that known for the species. However, some evidences seem to indicate they could become less despotic as well, supporting the coping model originally tested on M. mulatta. Macaca fascicularis could be expected to combine two different coping strategies to cope with high densities. [less ▲]

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See detailInterview: Comment les macaques s'adaptent à leur surnombre
Buvelot, Eric; Giraud, Gwennan ULiege

Article for general public (2015)

Gwennan Giraud est une étudiante en éthologie de l’université de Liège qui est venue à Bali pour faire des recherches sur les macaques d’Ubud et d’Uluwatu. Cette jeune Française de 26 ans, originaire de ... [more ▼]

Gwennan Giraud est une étudiante en éthologie de l’université de Liège qui est venue à Bali pour faire des recherches sur les macaques d’Ubud et d’Uluwatu. Cette jeune Française de 26 ans, originaire de Bordeaux, étudie comment ce singe s’adapte ici aux situations de forte densité et parfois de surpopulation de sa propre espèce et partage avec nous ses premières impressions sur les conditions moderne d’existence de ce macaca fascicularis, plus communément appelé macaque crabier ou macaque à longue queue. Si notre contributeur Ron Lilley a déjà écrit dans nos pages sur ce spécimen de primate qu’on ne trouve qu’en Asie, mettons le en vedette une nouvelle fois ce mois-ci pour rappeler qu’il est, lui aussi, une icône incontournable de Bali… [less ▲]

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