References of "Gautier, Axel"
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See detailMergers in the Digital Economy
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Lamesch, Joé ULiege

in Information Economics and Policy (in press)

Over the period 2015-2017, the five giant technologically leading firms, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple and Microsoft (GAFAM) acquired 175 companies, from small startups to billion dollar deals. In this ... [more ▼]

Over the period 2015-2017, the five giant technologically leading firms, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple and Microsoft (GAFAM) acquired 175 companies, from small startups to billion dollar deals. In this paper, we provide detailed information and statistics on the merger activity of the GAFAM and on the characteristics of the firms they acquire. One of the most intriguing features of these acquisitions is that, in the majority of cases, the product of the target is discontinued under its original brand name post acquisition and this is especially true for the youngest firms. There are three reasons to discontinue a product post acquisition: the product is not as successful as expected, the acquisition was not motivated by the product itself but by the target's assets or R\&D effort, or by the elimination of a potential competitive threat. While our data does not enable us to screen between these explanations, the present analysis shows that most of the startups are killed in their infancy. This important phenomenon calls for tighter intervention by competition authorities in merger cases involving big techs. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling and Assessing the Impact of the DSO Remuneration Strategy on its Interaction with Electricity Users
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper presents a simulation-based methodology for assessing the impact of employing different distribution system operator’s remuneration strategies on the economic sustainability of electrical ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a simulation-based methodology for assessing the impact of employing different distribution system operator’s remuneration strategies on the economic sustainability of electrical distribution systems. The proposed methodology accounts for the uncertainties posed by the integration of distributed electricity generation resources, and the roll out of smart-meters. The different remuneration strategies analysed in this paper include notably new distribution tariffs based on individual peak power consumption and time-dependent rates that are contingent on the time of energy consumption, both requiring smart-meters to work. The distributed electricity generation resources are modelled through an optimisation framework and an investment decision process that gradually deploys household photovoltaic installations depending on their profitability and the electricity charges, including the distribution rates. The impact of the distribution system operator’s remuneration strategy is measured by an accurate modelling of the remuneration mechanism of this entity, which can adapt to various distribution tariff designs. We analyse this impact over a discrete time horizon. Our methodology is illustrated with several examples of distribution tariffs including old –based on energy consumption or on per-connection fees– as well as new –based on power consumption or time-of use fees– designs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the proposed simulation environment to the main parameters of the methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustry 4.0: An empirical analysis of its adoption in Wallonia
Paseyro Mayol, Joaquin ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Neysen, Nicolas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the factors influencing the adoption of digital technologies in the manufacturing sector; the so called Industry 4.0 phenomenon. We focus on the adoption of three particular technologies (Predictive Maintenance, Smart Production and Advanced Planning) in the Belgian region of Wallonia. In line with the claims of related qualitative studies, our findings suggest that smaller firms, which have a more restricted access to financial resources, are less prone to adopt these technologies. Our results are compatible with the notion that more digitally mature firms are more prone to be adopters. Moreover, we do not find evidence supporting the claim that more profitable firms are more likely to be adopters. Finally, we present indicative evidence regarding the efficacy of the regional governmental program which aimed to increase the diffusion of Industry 4.0. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual investments in renewable energy sources and peer-to-peer trading
Salem, Iman ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2020, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULiège)
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See detailPV adoption: the role of distribution tariffs under net metering
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Jacqmin, Julien

in Journal of Regulatory Economics (2020), 57

The deployment of decentralized productions units (DPU) like rooftop solar panels is a major challenge for a transition towards greener energy sources. Under a net metering system where the meter runs ... [more ▼]

The deployment of decentralized productions units (DPU) like rooftop solar panels is a major challenge for a transition towards greener energy sources. Under a net metering system where the meter runs backward when there is excessive PV production, the electricity produced by a solar panel is valued at the retail price. Higher retail prices thus encourage the deployment of DPU. To identify this relationship, we use data from Wallonia where tariffs are paid on a mostly volumetric base and where there are 13 different tariff zones. Using various specifications, our results suggest that in a municipality where the distribution tariff is one eurocent per kWh higher, the investment in solar PV is, all else equal, around 8% higher. [less ▲]

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See detailPrioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Somogyi, Robert

in International Journal of Industrial Organization (2020), 73

This paper analyzes two business practices on the mobile internet market, paid prioritization and zero-rating. These practices allow the internet service provider to discriminate different content types ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes two business practices on the mobile internet market, paid prioritization and zero-rating. These practices allow the internet service provider to discriminate different content types. With prioritization, the ISP delivers content at different speeds; with zero-rating, the ISP charges different prices. In recent years these practices have attracted considerable media attention and regulatory interest. When the asymmetry between content providers is limited, in particular with regard to their ability to attract traffic or to monetize it, we first show that the ISP can extract more surplus from consumers by privileging the relatively weaker content and restoring symmetry between content providers. Next, we show that the ISP chooses prioritization when traffic is highly valuable for content providers and congestion is severe, and zero-rating in all other cases. Finally, we find that a policy banning prioritization can lead to zero-rating and a reduction in consumer surplus. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork tariffs and the integration of prosumers: the Case of Wallonia
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Jacqmin, Julien; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In Wallonia, Belgium's southern region, the distribution component of the overall electricity retail tariff is essentially volumetric, i.e. based on the user' energy consumption (in euro/kWh). Residential ... [more ▼]

In Wallonia, Belgium's southern region, the distribution component of the overall electricity retail tariff is essentially volumetric, i.e. based on the user' energy consumption (in euro/kWh). Residential prosumers, moreover, are connected to the grid via a net-metering system. In this paper, we rely on a multi-agent tariff simulator -- developed in Manuel de Villena et al. (2019) — calibrated to this specific regional context to model the integration of prosumers into the distribution grid. This simulator enables us to highlight how the emergence of prosumers impacts the distribution network tariff, and to evaluate several tariff reforms currently under discussion. Without smart meters, short-run reforms can only change the structure of the tariff paid, either to all consumers or to prosumers only. In the long run, with smart meters, we consider both the introduction of a net-purchasing system and of a tariff with a capacity component. Our analysis highlights one key added value of smart meters: they can ensure a fair and sustainable financing of the distribution network. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal grid regulation with heterogeneous prosumers
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Jacqmin, Julien; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We study how metering technologies and tariffs influence heterogeneous energy consumers' decisions to become prosumers by investing in photovoltaic (PV) panels, and the effect of those choices on the cost ... [more ▼]

We study how metering technologies and tariffs influence heterogeneous energy consumers' decisions to become prosumers by investing in photovoltaic (PV) panels, and the effect of those choices on the cost recovery of grid operations. We show that net metering (where prosumers face the same price whether they buy or sell energy) leads to too much PV investment compared to the first-best outcome. We also find that consumers are attracted into prosumption independent of their self-consumption profile, i.e. the extent to which their energy consumption correlates with their production. When a net purchasing system is in place (where prosumers are charged a different price for the energy they buy from the grid than for the energy they export to the grid), consumers with relatively high levels of self-consumption are more likely to invest in PV installations, which is desirable from an efficiency standpoint as these prosumers exchange less with the grid. Even when the regulator lacks information about the self-consumption rate of prosumers, net purchasing can achieve the first-best outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition Between Integrated Incumbents and a Platform
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, November 28)

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See detailThe prosumers, the grid and the energy communities
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, November 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (5 ULiège)
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See detailWhich access to which assets for an effective liberalization of the rail sector
Bougette, Patrice; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Marty, Frederic

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In the European rail industry, the market liberalization limited to the opening of the essential facilities (the train path) to new entrants is not enough to enable competition. For an efficient and ... [more ▼]

In the European rail industry, the market liberalization limited to the opening of the essential facilities (the train path) to new entrants is not enough to enable competition. For an efficient and effective entry, temporary access to quasi-essential complementary assets like rolling stock, mechanical maintenance workshops, data, schedules, etc. is also required. Like in all network industries, the deregulation process faces anticompetitive practices undertaken by the incumbents or may be thwarted by their market power. Several observed anticompetitive practices involve distorted access to these quasi-essential facilities. Therefore, competition agencies must deal with litigation between the incumbent and new entrants. Most cases have been settled, resulting in commitments from the incumbent. We argue that such transitory and case-by-case remedies fail to produce favorable conditions for a secure and efficient entry. Thus, we propose to systematize such remedies through asymmetric and enduring ex-ante regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotovoltaic Power installation in Wallonia: Estimating the rebound effect
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULiège)
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See detailCertificats verts ou prime de rachat ? Évolution du marché des certificats verts en Wallonie
Boccard, Nicolas; Gautier, Axel ULiege

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2019), 57(1-2), 163-171

La Wallonie a mis en place en 2003 un mécanisme de certificats verts échangeables pour promouvoir le développement des énergies issues de sources renouvelables. Le marché des CV s’est trouvé dès 2007 en ... [more ▼]

La Wallonie a mis en place en 2003 un mécanisme de certificats verts échangeables pour promouvoir le développement des énergies issues de sources renouvelables. Le marché des CV s’est trouvé dès 2007 en déséquilibre avec une offre excédentaire de certificats du fait notamment du soutien différencié et généreux à la filière solaire photovoltaïque. Ce déséquilibre persistant a fait chuter le prix des CV à un prix proche du prix de rachat garanti de 65 €. Dans les faits, le mécanisme des certificats verts s’est transformé en une prime de rachat garantie qu’il est aujourd’hui nécessaire de modifier. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition Between Integrated Incumbents and a Platform
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, June 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULiège)
See detailPrioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULiège)
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See detailEvaluating the Evolution of Distribution Networks under Different Regulatory Frameworks with Multi-Agent Modelling
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege et al

in Energies (2019), 12(7), 1-15

In the context of increasing decentralised electricity generation, this paper evaluates the effect of different regulatory frameworks on the evolution of distribution networks. This problem is addressed ... [more ▼]

In the context of increasing decentralised electricity generation, this paper evaluates the effect of different regulatory frameworks on the evolution of distribution networks. This problem is addressed by means of agent based modelling in which the interactions between the agents of a distribution network, and an environment are described. The consumers and the distribution system operator are the agents, which act in an environment that is composed by a set of rules. For a given environment, we can simulate the evolution of the distribution network by computing the actions of the agents at every time step of a discrete time dynamical system. We assume the electricity consumers are rational agents that may deploy distributed energy installations. The deployment of such installations may alter the remuneration mechanism of the distribution system operator. By modelling this mechanism, we may compute the evolution of the electricity distribution tariff in response to the deployment of distributed generation. [less ▲]

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See detailStandards et concurrence dans les technologies de communication
Bulkaert, Justine; Gautier, Axel ULiege

in Annales des mines (2019), 5

En présence d’externalités de réseau, l’utilisation d’une norme technique commune augmente la compatibilité entre biens et de ce fait le bénéfice pour les utilisateurs. Ces dernières années, les ... [more ▼]

En présence d’externalités de réseau, l’utilisation d’une norme technique commune augmente la compatibilité entre biens et de ce fait le bénéfice pour les utilisateurs. Ces dernières années, les technologies de communication se sont développées sur la base de normes standardisées. Ces normes ont été définies par le secteur au sein d’organismes de standardisation (on parle de norme de jure). Le standard est composé de brevets dits « essentiels au standard » pour lesquels les utilisateurs de la technologie doivent obtenir une licence. L’existence de brevets essentiels crée un goulot d’étranglement, et confère un pouvoir de marché a priori important aux détenteurs de ces brevets. Se pose dès lors la question du lien entre standardisation et concurrence et l’opportunité d’une intervention régulatrice est débattue. Ce bref article discute les conséquences du processus de standardisation sur la concurrence, tant en amont qu’en aval du marché, en utilisant les technologies mobiles comme illustration. [less ▲]

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