References of "Gautier, Axel"
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See detailEvaluating the Evolution of Distribution Networks under Different Regulatory Frameworks with Multi-Agent Modelling
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege et al

in Energies (2019)

In the context of increasing decentralised electricity generation, this paper evaluates the effect of different regulatory frameworks on the evolution of distribution networks. This problem is addressed ... [more ▼]

In the context of increasing decentralised electricity generation, this paper evaluates the effect of different regulatory frameworks on the evolution of distribution networks. This problem is addressed by means of agent based modelling in which the interactions between the agents of a distribution network, and an environment are described. The consumers and the distribution system operator are the agents, which act in an environment that is composed by a set of rules. For a given environment, we can simulate the evolution of the distribution network by computing the actions of the agents at every time step of a discrete time dynamical system. We assume the electricity consumers are rational agents that may deploy distributed energy installations. The deployment of such installations may alter the remuneration mechanism of the distribution system operator. By modelling this mechanism, we may compute the evolution of the electricity distribution tariff in response to the deployment of distributed generation. [less ▲]

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See detailStandards et concurrence dans les technologies de communication
Bulkaert, Justine; Gautier, Axel ULiege

in Annales des mines (2019), 5

En présence d’externalités de réseau, l’utilisation d’une norme technique commune augmente la compatibilité entre biens et de ce fait le bénéfice pour les utilisateurs. Ces dernières années, les ... [more ▼]

En présence d’externalités de réseau, l’utilisation d’une norme technique commune augmente la compatibilité entre biens et de ce fait le bénéfice pour les utilisateurs. Ces dernières années, les technologies de communication se sont développées sur la base de normes standardisées. Ces normes ont été définies par le secteur au sein d’organismes de standardisation (on parle de norme de jure). Le standard est composé de brevets dits « essentiels au standard » pour lesquels les utilisateurs de la technologie doivent obtenir une licence. L’existence de brevets essentiels crée un goulot d’étranglement, et confère un pouvoir de marché a priori important aux détenteurs de ces brevets. Se pose dès lors la question du lien entre standardisation et concurrence et l’opportunité d’une intervention régulatrice est débattue. Ce bref article discute les conséquences du processus de standardisation sur la concurrence, tant en amont qu’en aval du marché, en utilisant les technologies mobiles comme illustration. [less ▲]

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See detailUne nouvelle tarification des réseaux pour favoriser la transition énergétique
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Jacqmin, Julien ULiege

in Regards Economiques (2019), 145

La transition énergétique modifie la manière de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Dans cette transition, les prix doivent orienter les choix et donner des signaux corrects aux ... [more ▼]

La transition énergétique modifie la manière de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Dans cette transition, les prix doivent orienter les choix et donner des signaux corrects aux consommateurs. Dans ce numéro de Regards économiques, nous analysons le comportement des prosumers, les ménages qui sont à la fois producteurs et consommateurs d’énergie. Nous montrons que les tarifs en place ne donnent pas de bons signaux et qu’il faut les faire évoluer [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-consumption choice of residential PV owners under net-metering
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Hoet, Brieuc; Jacqmin, Julien ULiege et al

in Energy Policy (2019), 128

This paper studies the decision to synchronize household electricity consumption and production. While this behavior is beneficial for the energy system as a whole, it is not encouraged by a net-metering ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the decision to synchronize household electricity consumption and production. While this behavior is beneficial for the energy system as a whole, it is not encouraged by a net-metering system. Relying on a large-scale survey conducted among households with solar PV in Wallonia, we investigate the factors impacting their decision to self-consume. As many as forty percent of our respondents declare to do so, notwithstanding the lack of incentives. The multivariate regression analysis shows that female and older residents, who tend to spend more time at home during daytime, are more likely to adapt their electricity usage by displacing their load. Prosumers with high environmental motives tend to synchronize more no matter the size of their installation. We conclude that prosumers will be further encouraged to self-consume by (1) setting monetary incentives to make consumption at the time of production more attractive, by (2) providing information to prosumers relative to their consumption/production profile and (3) by encouraging the adoption of smart devices that facilitate load shifting. These policies would lead to a higher degree of synchronization that would be beneficial for the energy system. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotovoltaic solar panel in Wallonia: Estimating the rebound effect
Boccard, Nicolas; Gautier, Axel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In Wallonia (Belgium), the public support for residential solar photovoltaic panels has two interesting features. First, the subsidies for solar production, in the form of tradable green certificates ... [more ▼]

In Wallonia (Belgium), the public support for residential solar photovoltaic panels has two interesting features. First, the subsidies for solar production, in the form of tradable green certificates, were particularly generous which encouraged households to have large installations. Second, the region used a net metering system to record power exchanges with the grid. With net metering, the meter runs backwards when power is supplied to the grid. But, if production exceeds consumption on a yearly basis, the production surpluses are freely available for consumption. In this context, we test for a possible rebound effect. Based on a large sample of residential PV installation in Wallonia, we observe in our data and estimations, that a large proportion of households oversize their installation to benefit from the subsidies and, later consume most of their excess production. The effect is highly significant and production surpluses are almost entirely consumed. There are thus evidence of a strong increase in energy consumption by residential PV owners. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (8 ULiège)
See detailAlgorithmic Price Discrimination & Tacit Collusion
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege; Petit, Nicolas ULiege

Conference (2018, December 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULiège)
See detailLocal policies to reduce residential waste:Are they effective? Evidence from Wallonia.
Salem, Iman ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, August 31)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (5 ULiège)
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See detailLa fin de l’Internet neutre
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

Le paysage de l’Internet est en train de se transformer radicalement aux États-Unis. Deux décisions récentes vont modifier en profondeur la manière dont les fournisseurs d’accès à Internet (ci-après FAI ... [more ▼]

Le paysage de l’Internet est en train de se transformer radicalement aux États-Unis. Deux décisions récentes vont modifier en profondeur la manière dont les fournisseurs d’accès à Internet (ci-après FAI, tel que Proximus) et les fournisseurs de contenu (tel que YouTube) interagissent. Le 11 juin, le régulateur américain des télécoms (FCC) a édicté de nouvelles règles concernant la neutralité du net. Alors que l’Open Internet Order de 2015 et abrogé en décembre réaffirmait le principe de neutralité du net et limitait sévèrement les pratiques des FAI, les nouvelles règles parues le 11 juin (ou plutôt l’absence de règles) permettent aux FAI de faire plus ou moins ce qu’ils veulent sous la seule obligation de transparence. La même semaine, la justice américaine validait la fusion entre AT&T (un des plus importants FAI américain) et Time Warner (fournisseur de contenu), alors que continue la bataille entre Disney et le FAI Comcast pour le rachat de la Fox. A travers ces fusions, on assiste à une intégration des FAI et des fournisseurs de contenu. Dans ce focus, je reviens sur les implications de la neutralité du net. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-agent system approach to model the interaction between distributed generation deployment and the grid
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege et al

in Proc. of CIRED Workshop 2018 (2018, June)

This paper introduces a multi-agent dynamical system of the interaction between electricity consumers, the electricity distribution system operator, and the technological (generation, storage) and ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a multi-agent dynamical system of the interaction between electricity consumers, the electricity distribution system operator, and the technological (generation, storage) and regulatory (tariff design, incentive schemes) environments. For any type of environment, our dynamical system simulates the evolution of the deployment of distributed electricity generation, as well as the evolution of the cost of distribution. The system relies on the assumption that individual electricity consumers behave statistically as rational agents, who may invest in optimised distributed renewable energy installations, if they are cost-efficient compared to the retail electricity tariff. The deployment of these installations induces a change in the aggregated net consumption and generation of the users of a distribution network. By modelling the cost recovery mechanism of the distribution system operator, the system simulates the evolution of the retail electricity tariff in response to such a change in the aggregated consumption and production. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Regulation Policies in Distribution Networks through a Multi-Agent Simulator
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege; Gautier, Axel ULiege et al

in Proc. of YRS2018 (2018, May)

This paper presents a multi-agent simulator that describes the interactions between the agents of a distribution network (DN), and an environment. The agents are the users of the DN and the electricity ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a multi-agent simulator that describes the interactions between the agents of a distribution network (DN), and an environment. The agents are the users of the DN and the electricity distribution system operator. The environment is the set of rules (tariff design, technology costs, or incentive schemes) that impacts the agents interactions. For a given environment, we can simulate the evolution of the agents and the environment itself. We assume the electricity consumers are rational agents that may deploy distributed renewable energy installations if they are cost-efficient compared to the retail electricity tariff. The deployment of such installations may alter the cost recovery scheme of the distribution system operator, by inducing a change in the way the user use of the grid. By modelling the cost recovery mechanism of the distribution system operator, the system simulates the evolution of the retail electricity tariff in response to such a change in the aggregated consumption and production. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 188 (29 ULiège)
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See detailTransition énergétique: Repenser le rôle des consommateurs et du réseau
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Speech/Talk (2018)

La transition énergétique amène de nouvelles manières de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Ces nouvelles habitudes modifient fondamentalement le rôle du réseau. Le réseau de distribution ... [more ▼]

La transition énergétique amène de nouvelles manières de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Ces nouvelles habitudes modifient fondamentalement le rôle du réseau. Le réseau de distribution est amené à fournir de nouveaux services aux acteurs du marché. La présentation fera le point sur les nouveaux comportements observés dans le cadre de la transition énergétique (auto consommation, production décentralisée, économies d’énergie, etc.) et sur les moyens de les encourager. Elle se poursuivra avec une réflexion sur la tarification des réseaux et la présentation d’un simulateur tarifaire. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 ULiège)
See detailEnergy transition Integrating renewables into the grid
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, April 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULiège)
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See detailUne nouvelle tarification des réseaux pour la transition énergétique
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailDeliveroo perd elle les pédales
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Neysen, Nicolas

Article for general public (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
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See detailSmallest Salable Patent Practicing Unit and Component Licensing: Why $1is not $1
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Petit, Nicolas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The Smallest Salable Patent Pricing Unit (SSPPU) is a valuation method used as a preliminary step towards the calculation of fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) royalties for licenses over ... [more ▼]

The Smallest Salable Patent Pricing Unit (SSPPU) is a valuation method used as a preliminary step towards the calculation of fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) royalties for licenses over Standard-Essential Patents (SEPs). Under SSPPU, royalties should reflect the value added to the smallest salable component implementing the patented invention. In this paper, we discuss policy making proposals to convert SSPPU into a pricing rule that not only assists the assessment of SEPs added-value, but also forces the specification of royalties terms as a share of component costs in SEP licensing negotiations. We call this new rule SSPPU+ and we show that it distorts the distribution of surplus between SEP owners and implementers by laying down a hidden revenue-cap on standardized technologies. Furthermore, SSPPU+ imposes uniform pricing of SEPs across different industries and does not allow SEP owners to take benefit of complementarities between technologies. This pleads against a generalization of SSPPU+ at early standardization and negotiation stages. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (5 ULiège)
See detailQuels accès à quels actifs pour une libéralisation effective du secteur ferroviaire?
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULiège)
See detailPV adoption in Wallonia: The role of distribution tariffs under net metering
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULiège)
See detailPrioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Scientific conference (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULiège)