References of "Gaspar, Charles"
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See detailTechnique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Pham Tat Thang et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2003), 7(3-4), 171-175

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See detailIs dimethyldecanal a common aggregation pheromone of Tribolium flour beetles?
Arnaud, Ludovic; Lognay, Georges; Verscheure, Marjolaine et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2002), 28(3), 523-532

Flour beetles are cosmopolitan and common pestsingrain stores and flour mills. Their ability to exploit a wide variety of stored products has contributed to their status as major pests of stored food ... [more ▼]

Flour beetles are cosmopolitan and common pestsingrain stores and flour mills. Their ability to exploit a wide variety of stored products has contributed to their status as major pests of stored food. Although it was previously reported that the same aggregation pheromone, 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD), is shared by three flour beetles species (Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, and T. freemani), the volatiles released by the other Tribolium species associated with stored products have not yet been examined. In the present study, the volatiles produced by males and females of eight Tribolium species were examined by solid phase microextraction (SPME). SPME samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experiments were conducted to identify volatiles emitted by the adults of different Tribolium species and to determine whether DMD is a common aggregation pheromone. We observed that DMD is not a common pheromone of the eight species tested, but is common to T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. freemani, and T. madens. Two other volatiles were detected, 1-pentadecene, which is shown here to be a common semiochemical of flour beetles, and 1,6-pentadecadiene, which was detected in five species (T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens). [less ▲]

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See detailAphid prey suitability as environmental effect on Adalia bipunctata reproduction.
Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Gaspar, Charles ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 563-8

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding ... [more ▼]

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding stimulants for Brassicaceae specialist insects but are generally repellent and toxic for generalist herbivores. The impact of these compounds on crucifer specialist insects are well known but their effect on generalist predators is still not well documented. Prey host plant influence on reproduction of an aphidophagous beneficial, the two spot ladybird, was determined using the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae reared on a crucifer plant, namely Brassica napus containing low GLS levels. As ladybird developmental and reproductive parameters were already shown to be strongly affected by the allelochemical presence in its preys, the unsuitable aphid and host plant combination was only momentary used to feed the A. bipunctata adults. A strong impact of the diet was observed on the beetle fecundity and the emerging offspring. Changing B. brassicae aphid to a suitable prey slowly improved the temporary negative effect of the former diet. These results enhance the food environmental effect and the importance of tritrophic relations in pest management strategies by predators. Indeed, more than the choice of the beneficial species, the prey host plant has a major influence on the potential efficacy of biological agent to control herbivore species such as aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of close habitat on the entomological diversity and abundance in carrot open fields.
Colignon, P.; Gaspar, Charles ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 481-6

Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and reduces the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Carrot represents an important cultivated species in Wallonia. To asses the impact of close habitat on both pest (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects, carrot fields were investigated during all the production duration in 2000. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weekly from June to October. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined to the family level. Approximately 90,000 insects belonging to 109 families were identified. Significant differences linked to field closed habitat were observed on 31 families. An increase of biodiversity in term of family number near set-asides and woody borders was observed. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density in vegetable crops was discussed to promote future IPM program. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased fecundity of malathion-specific resistant beetles in absence of insecticide pressure
Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Assie, Lazare Komenan et al

in Heredity (2002), 89(6), 425-429

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the ... [more ▼]

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the first case of malathion-resistance was reported in the early 1960s. The malathion-specific resistant phenotype has now almost completely replaced the susceptible one in red flour beetle populations. In the present study, several life-history traits that could influence the fitness of the insects were compared between insecticide-susceptible and malathion-specific resistant populations of the red flour beetle. On average, egg fertility and egg-to-adult development time did not differ between susceptible and resistant populations. However, the fecundity of resistant females was greater than that of susceptible ones. Generally, differences in development time between insecticide resistant and susceptible populations are considered as having more effect on fitness than do differences in fecundity. However, the observed increased female fecundity may participate, in combination with the previously observed increased male reproductive success, to the development and the stability of malathion-specific resistance in T. castaneum. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of aphid host plant on development and reproduction of the third trophic level, the predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Hastir, P. et al

in Environmental Entomology (2001), 30(5), 947-952

Secondary plant substances, also called allelochemicals, play a major role in pest infestations. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products are powerful phagostimulants for herbivores feeding on ... [more ▼]

Secondary plant substances, also called allelochemicals, play a major role in pest infestations. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products are powerful phagostimulants for herbivores feeding on Brassicaceae and deter the noncrucifer feeders but are tolerated by some generalist phytophagous insects such as the peach-potato aphid, Myzυs persicas Sultzer. Do the allelochemical substances only effect the herbivores or do they also influence the predators of the pest? Broad bean, Viciafaba L (GLS free), oilseed rape, Brassica tiapus L (low GLS level), and white mustard, Sinajris alba L. (high GLS level), were used in this work as host plant for the prey. Although the two latter Brassicaceae species had positive effects on aphid reproductive rates, host plants displayed mixed influences on the performance of the predaceous twospotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. Both rape and mustard shortened development duration and increased adult weight of the twospotted lady beetle. No significant difference of lady beetle mortality was observed, depending on the prey host plant. Whereas, rape-fed M. persicae enhanced larger egg production and larvae emergence, mustard-fed M.. persicae induced lower fecundity and egg viability of the beetles. Fitness of M. persicae on high GLS plant-fed A. bipunctata was lower than the other plants. Biological parameters of aphid predators are closely linked to chemical composition of Brassicaceae species. This work on allelochemical impact gave opportunities to better understand interactions of the plant-aphid-lady beetle tritrophic model and demonstrated that successful biological control of pests must integrate the environmental aspects of each trophic level. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULiege et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailOviposition preferences of Episyrphus balteatus.
Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 269-75

A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey ... [more ▼]

A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey. Such offspring must generally feed on the host plant aphids previously selected by the mother. Some factors involved in the selection of the oviposition site of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer include aphids associated to chemical stimuli, aphid colony size and host plant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that there will not only be a rank order hierarchy of preference for aphid prey species reared on the same host plant but that a similar hierarchy of different host plant of one aphid species could be established. Therefore we compared the number of eggs laid on different combinations of host plant and aphid species. Vicia faba L., secondary metabolites free, Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L., containing low and high levels of glucosinolates respectively were used. The latter compounds are well known allelochemicals from Brassicaceae having a strong influence on specialist and generalist insects from both phytophagous and entomophagous levels. These experiments enhance the importance of tritrophic interactions in biological control of pests by underlining the host plant influence on aphidophagous predators, either directly or through the odours emitted by the phytophagous prey. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of aphidophagous ladybird populations in a vegetable crop and implications as biological agents.
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Colignon, P.; Hastir, P. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 333-40

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial insects are two ways to increase natural control of pests. Whether massive releases of entomophagous insects are expensive and time consuming, the preservation of predator natural populations can be expected by reducing and by adapting chemical treatments in crop fields. Vegetable cultivated areas increased in Belgium for several years, mainly Fabaceae species such as peas and beans. In this work, the evolution of ladybird species population was assessed from May to June in broad bean fields (Vicia faba L.) between Waremme and Hannut, in Hesbaye. Weekly, the aphid and aphidophagous beetle populations were collected from yellow traps and determined on plants by visual observations. Even if five ladybird species were identified, three of them represented more than 95% of the collected insects (Coccinella septempunctata L., Propylea quatuor-decimpunctata L. and Psyllobora vingintiduopunctata L.). Evolution of coccinellid populations during the cultivation season was discussed in relation to the presence of potential aphid preys and the agrochemical treatments which were applied. Integrated pest management in vegetable fields constitute a reliable way to increase the quality level of fresh vegetables in terms of pesticide residue limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases of Aulacorthum solani and Acyrthosiphon pisum: partial purification and characterization.
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege et al

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B (2001), 129(1), 165-71

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile isothiocyanates which affect the GST system. A comparison of the GST of two aphid species, the generalist Aulacorthum solani found on Brassicaceae and the Fabaceae specialist Acyrthosiphon pisum, was made to try to explain their respective feeding behaviour. Differences of GST were determined among the two aphid species based on purification by affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and on kinetic studies. Purification yields using an epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B column were highly different for the two aphid species (18% and 34% for A. solani and A. pisum, respectively). These variations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. While only a 27-kDa band was observed for A. pisum, two bands of approximately 25-kDa were visualized for the generalist aphid, A. solani. Considering the kinetic results, differences of Km and Vmax were observed following the aphid species when a range of substrates (CDNB and DCNB) and GSH concentrations were tested. Studies on the detoxification enzymes of generalist and specialist herbivores would be undertaken to determine accurately the effect of the host plant on the organisms eating them, particularly in terms of biochemical and ecological advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection of grain-hosts by Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and oviposition preferences of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Col.: Curculionidae) in insect-infested maize
Danho, M.; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Arnaud, Louis ULiege et al

in Proceeding of 17th annual meeting of the international society of chemical ecology (2000)

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See detailSélection des grains-hôtes par Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera, Bostrychidae) en présence de grains préalablement infestés par Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)
Danho, M.; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2000), 130(1), 3-9

The selection of grain-hosts by the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus was investigated in environments containing both uninfested maize grains and grains previously infested by the maize weevil ... [more ▼]

The selection of grain-hosts by the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus was investigated in environments containing both uninfested maize grains and grains previously infested by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The grain-host selection preference of P. truncatus was reflected in the number of adults in each type of grain and the number of damaged grains. Results showed that P. truncatus individuals were significantly more attracted to uninfested grains than to infested grains. Several densities (according to egg density) of S. zeamais infested maize grains mixed together with uninfested grains were exposed to P. truncatus. The larger grain borer damaged significantly more uninfested grains relative to infested ones. Infested grains seemed to have a deterrent effect on the larger grain borer. We hypothesised that this behaviour was due to larval activity and to deterrent substances deposited on maize by adults of the maize weevil. To verify the first hypothesis, adults of P. truncatus were placed with uninfested grains and infested grains bearing immature stages of S. zeamais. Results showed that the infested grains were preferentially damaged during the first two weeks, while three and four weeks after infestation with S. zeamais the uninfested grains were more damaged by P. truncatus. These observations indicated a close relationship between the development of S. zeamais larvae inside maize grains and the selection of grain-host by 19 truncatus. To test the second hypothesis, adults of P. truncatus were placed together with uninfested maize grains, and with infested grains that had been cleaned of substances deposited by S. zeamais using different organic solvents (n-hexane, ether-diethylene and methanol). Results showed that the larger grain borer damaged indiscriminately both infested and uninfested grains. Therefore, the deterrent effect of S. zeamais against P. truncatus was also associated with the existence of substances deposited on the grain surface by adult weevils [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of host plants on specialist/generalist aphids and on the development of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege

in European Journal of Entomology (2000), 97(4), 481-485

The aim of this work was to determine the impact of allelochemicals (glucosinolates/isothiocyanates) from Brassicaceae (Brassica napus and Sinapis alba) at two trophic levels in relation to biological ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to determine the impact of allelochemicals (glucosinolates/isothiocyanates) from Brassicaceae (Brassica napus and Sinapis alba) at two trophic levels in relation to biological control efficacy. The impact of these plants on aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and ladybird Adalia bipunctata (L.) biology can be assessed by observation of several developmental parameters: mortality, development duration and adult weight. Sub-lethal toxicity can also be measured through the reproductive parameters of fecundity and/or egg viability. While both specialist and generalist aphids were positively influenced by Brassicaceae species, mixed effects are recorded in ladybird performances following the aphid species/host plant combinations. Significant differences appeared according to aphid host plant and aphid species. This work enhanced the influence of Brassicaceae plants either as cultivated species (B. napus) or as set-aside (S. alba) on both pests and beneficial insects. The allelochemical presence in plants must be taken into account in programs of integrated pest management due to their direct influence on biological control agents [less ▲]

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See detailConcentration effects of selected insecticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Dembele, K.; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2000), 45(1), 49-54

The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present ... [more ▼]

The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration-response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of insecticides- after which AChE activity was measured in the brain. The highest concentrations of carbofuran (2.44 mg • L-1)- chlorfenvinphos (2.9 mgL-1), and diazinon (2.5 mg.L-1) killed at] the test animals after only 4 h, although there was no statistically significant difference from the control group's brain AChE activity. The lowest concentration significantly inhibited brain AChE after 96 h. Chlorfenvinphos was the most potent inhibitor in vivo and chlorpyrifos the least active inhibitor after 96 h of exposure time. In vitro experimentation with the same pesticide indicated that several concentrations inhibited 50% of the AChE activity (I50) ranging from 4.1 x 10-7 to 8.12X 10-4 M in both single inhibitory action and joint inhibitory effect. The results suggest that in biomonitoring programs carp brain AChE can be a good diagnostic tool for chronic OP nd C pollution. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid host plant and food suitability for aphidophagous larvae: impact on ladybird reproductive performance.
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege

in The BCPC Conference: Pests and diseases, Volume 3. Proceedings of aninternational conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel,Brighton, UK, 13-16 November 2000 (2000)

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See detailMise en evidence de la tolerance de Tribolium castaneum a l'egard d'une formulation a base de terre de diatomees.
Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Rigaux, M.; Arnaud, L. et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2000), 23(10),

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See detailLa résistance au malathion augmente le succès reproducteur des mâles de Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Arnaud, Louis ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (1999), 35(Supp.), 65-70

Malathion-specific resistance in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is widespread and stable even in the absence of pesticide exposure. In order to understand this stability, both malathion ... [more ▼]

Malathion-specific resistance in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is widespread and stable even in the absence of pesticide exposure. In order to understand this stability, both malathion resistant and susceptible males were placed, without pesticide, in competition but were given equal access to susceptible females. Females were then isolated and their progeny was tested for malathion susceptibility. In most cases, malathion resistance was present at a greater rate than expected. The results suggest that, in T. castaneum, selection for malathion resistance is not traded against male reproductive success. This phenomenon could explain the maintenance of malathion-specific resistance in field populations of this stored product insect [less ▲]

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See detailJoint action of combination of pollutants on the acetylcholinesterase activity of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Dembele, K.; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Gaspar, Charles ULiege

in Proceeding of 51st International Symposium on Crop Protection (1999)

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See detailIs the Kashin-Beck disease induced by mycotoxins?
Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Chasseur, C.; Debouck, C. et al

in Proceeding of International Symposium on Kashin-Beck disease and related disorders (1999)

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