References of "Garcia, Lionel"
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See detailPROSE: a PYTHON framework for modular astronomical images processing
Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Timmermans, Mathilde ULiege; Pozuelos, Francisco J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2022), 509

To reduce and analyse astronomical images, astronomers can rely on a wide range of libraries providing low-level implementations of legacy algorithms. However, combining these routines into robust and ... [more ▼]

To reduce and analyse astronomical images, astronomers can rely on a wide range of libraries providing low-level implementations of legacy algorithms. However, combining these routines into robust and functional pipelines requires a major effort that often ends up in instrument-specific and poorly maintainable tools, yielding products that suffer from a low level of reproducibility and portability. In this context, we present PROSE, a PYTHON framework to build modular and maintainable image processing pipelines. Built for astronomy, it is instrument-agnostic and allows the construction of pipelines using a wide range of building blocks, pre-implemented or user-defined. With this architecture, our package provides basic tools to deal with common tasks, such as automatic reduction and photometric extraction. To demonstrate its potential, we use its default photometric pipeline to process 26 TESS candidates follow-up observations and compare their products to the ones obtained with ASTROIMAGEJ, the reference software for such endeavours. We show that PROSE produces light curves with lower white and red noise while requiring less user interactions and offering richer functionalities for reporting. [less ▲]

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See detailTOI-2257 b: A highly eccentric long-period sub-Neptune transiting a nearby M dwarf
Schanche, N.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Günther, M. N. et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Thanks to the relative ease of finding and characterizing small planets around M dwarf stars, these objects have become cornerstones in the field of exoplanet studies. The current paucity of planets in ... [more ▼]

Thanks to the relative ease of finding and characterizing small planets around M dwarf stars, these objects have become cornerstones in the field of exoplanet studies. The current paucity of planets in long-period orbits around M dwarfs make such objects particularly compelling as they provide clues about the formation and evolution of these systems. In this study, we present the discovery of TOI-2257 b (TIC 198485881), a long-period (35 d) sub-Neptune orbiting an M3 star at 57.8pc. Its transit depth is about 0.4%, large enough to be detected with medium-size, ground-based telescopes. The long transit duration suggests the planet is in a highly eccentric orbit ($e \sim 0.5$), which would make it the most eccentric planet that is known to be transiting an M-dwarf star. We combined TESS and ground-based data obtained with the 1.0-m SAINT-EX, 0.60-m TRAPPIST-North and 1.2-m FLWO telescopes to find a planetary size of 2.2 $R_{\oplus}$ and an orbital period of 35.19 days. In addition, we make use of archival data, high-resolution imaging, and vetting packages to support our planetary interpretation. With its long period and high eccentricity, TOI-2257 b falls in a novel slice of parameter space. Despite the planet's low equilibrium temperature ($\sim$ 256 K), its host star's small size ($R_* = 0.311 \pm{0.015}$) and relative infrared brightness (K$_{mag}$ = 10.7) make it a suitable candidate for atmospheric exploration via transmission spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailprose: A Python framework for modular astronomical images processing
Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Timmermans, Mathilde ULiege; Pozuelos, Francisco J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021)

To reduce and analyse astronomical images, astronomers can rely on a wide range of libraries providing low-level implementations of legacy algorithms. However, combining these routines into robust and ... [more ▼]

To reduce and analyse astronomical images, astronomers can rely on a wide range of libraries providing low-level implementations of legacy algorithms. However, combining these routines into robust and functional pipelines requires a major effort which often ends up in instrument-specific and poorly maintainable tools, yielding products that suffer from a low-level of reproducibility and portability. In this context, we present prose, a Python framework to build modular and maintainable image processing pipelines. Built for astronomy, it is instrument-agnostic and allows the construction of pipelines using a wide range of building blocks, pre-implemented or user-defined. With this architecture, our package provides basic tools to deal with common tasks such as automatic reduction and photometric extraction. To demonstrate its potential, we use its default photometric pipeline to process 26 TESS candidates follow-up observations and compare their products to the ones obtained with AstroImageJ, the reference software for such endeavors. We show that prose produces light curves with lower white and red noise while requiring less user interactions and offering richer functionalities for reporting. [less ▲]

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See detailA large sub-Neptune transiting the thick-disk M4 V TOI-2406
Wells, R. D.; Rackham, B. V.; Schanche, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 653

Context. Large sub-Neptunes are uncommon around the coolest stars in the Galaxy and are rarer still around those that are metal-poor. However, owing to the large planet-to-star radius ratio, these planets ... [more ▼]

Context. Large sub-Neptunes are uncommon around the coolest stars in the Galaxy and are rarer still around those that are metal-poor. However, owing to the large planet-to-star radius ratio, these planets are highly suitable for atmospheric study via transmission spectroscopy in the infrared, such as with JWST. Aims: Here we report the discovery and validation of a sub-Neptune orbiting the thick-disk, mid-M dwarf star TOI-2406. The star's low metallicity and the relatively large size and short period of the planet make TOI-2406 b an unusual outcome of planet formation, and its characterisation provides an important observational constraint for formation models. Methods: We first infer properties of the host star by analysing the star's near-infrared spectrum, spectral energy distribution, and Gaia parallax. We use multi-band photometry to confirm that the transit event is on-target and achromatic, and we statistically validate the TESS signal as a transiting exoplanet. We then determine physical properties of the planet through global transit modelling of the TESS and ground-based time-series data. Results: We determine the host to be a metal-poor M4 V star, located at a distance of 56 pc, with properties Teff = 3100 ± 75 K, M* = 0.162 ± 0.008M⊙, R* = 0.202 ± 0.011R⊙, and [Fe∕H] = −0.38 ± 0.07, and a member of the thick disk. The planet is a relatively large sub-Neptune for the M-dwarf planet population, with Rp = 2.94 ± 0.17R⊕ and P= 3.077 d, producing transits of 2% depth. We note the orbit has a non-zero eccentricity to 3σ, prompting questions about the dynamical history of the system. Conclusions: This system is an interesting outcome of planet formation and presents a benchmark for large-planet formation around metal-poor, low-mass stars. The system warrants further study, in particular radial velocity follow-up to determine the planet mass and constrain possible bound companions. Furthermore, TOI-2406 b is a good target for future atmospheric study through transmission spectroscopy. Although the planet's mass remains to be constrained, we estimate the S/N using amass-radius relationship, ranking the system fifth in the population of large sub-Neptunes, with TOI-2406 b having a much lower equilibrium temperature than other spectroscopically accessible members of this population. [less ▲]

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See detailSix transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
Leleu, A.; Alibert, Y.; Hara, N. C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 649

Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their ... [more ▼]

Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152‒0.070+0.073 to 2.87‒0.13+0.14 Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02‒0.23+0.28 to 0.177‒0.061+0.055 times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes. [less ▲]

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See detailTrappist-1h transmission spectrum: knowing the star
Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Rackham, Benjamin; Moran, Sarah et al

Conference (2021, March 09)

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star hosting seven rocky planets, all accessible for atmospheric characterization by transit spectroscopy with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. However, those ... [more ▼]

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star hosting seven rocky planets, all accessible for atmospheric characterization by transit spectroscopy with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. However, those measurements can be impacted by heterogeneities in the host star photosphere, as any spectral difference between the transited chord and the rest of the stellar disk can result in signals of stellar origin able to mimic or hide those of planetary ones . Although it makes the study of the planets atmospheres more challenging, it represents a unique opportunity to learn about the photospheric structure of the star. We use new HST/WFC3 infrared observations to put constraints on the outermost planet atmosphere, TRAPPIST-1h, while modeling the stellar photosphere. We show that TRAPPIST-1h is not likely to host an H/He dominated atmosphere and find no evidence of stellar contamination within its transmission spectrum. Finally we explore new avenues to probe time-varying heterogeneities at the surface of TRAPPIST-1, pushing towards a detailed atmospheric characterization of rocky planets around cool stars. [less ▲]

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See detailSPECULOOS: Ultracool dwarf transit survey. Target list and strategy
Sebastian, Daniel ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Ducrot, Elsa ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 645

Context. One of the most promising avenues for the detailed study of temperate Earth-sized exoplanets is the detection of such planets in transit in front of stars that are small and near enough to make ... [more ▼]

Context. One of the most promising avenues for the detailed study of temperate Earth-sized exoplanets is the detection of such planets in transit in front of stars that are small and near enough to make it possible to carry out a thorough atmospheric characterisation with next-generation telescopes, such as the James Webb Space telescope (JWST) or Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). In this context, the TRAPPIST-1 planets form a unique benchmark system that has garnered the interest of a large scientific community. <BR /> Aims: The SPECULOOS survey is an exoplanet transit survey targeting a volume-limited (40 pc) sample of ultracool dwarf stars (of spectral type M7 and later) that is based on a network of robotic 1 m telescopes especially designed for this survey. The strategy for brighter and earlier targets leverages on the synergy with the ongoing TESS space-based exoplanet transit survey. <BR /> Methods: We define the SPECULOOS target list as the sum of three non-overlapping sub-programmes incorporating the latest type objects (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] ≲ 3000 K). Programme 1 features 365 dwarfs that are small and near enough to make it possible to detail atmospheric characterisation of an `Earth-like' planet with the upcoming JWST. Programme 2 features 171 dwarfs of M5-type and later for which a significant detection of a planet similar to TRAPPIST-1b should be within reach of TESS. Programme 3 features 1121 dwarfs that are later than M6-type. These programmes form the basis of our statistical census of short-period planets around ultracool dwarf stars. <BR /> Results: Our compound target list includes 1657 photometrically classified late-type dwarfs, with 260 of these targets classified, for the first time, as possible nearby ultracool dwarf stars. Our general observational strategy was to monitor each target between 100 and 200 h with our telescope network, making efficient use of the synergy with TESS for our Programme 2 targets and a proportion of targets in our Programme 1. <BR /> Conclusions: Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we expect to detect up to a few dozen temperate, rocky planets. We also expect a number of them to prove amenable for atmospheric characterisation with JWST and other future giant telescopes, which will substantially improve our understanding of the planetary population of the latest-type stars. <P />Catalogue of the sources is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A100">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A100</A> [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the SPECULOOS exoplanet search project
Sebastian, Daniel ULiege; Pedersen, P. P.; Murray, C. A. et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2020, December 01), 11445

SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars) aims to perform a transit search on the nearest (< 40 pc) ultracool (< 3000K) dwarf stars. The project's main motivation is to discover ... [more ▼]

SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars) aims to perform a transit search on the nearest (< 40 pc) ultracool (< 3000K) dwarf stars. The project's main motivation is to discover potentially habitable planets well-suited for detailed atmospheric characterisation with upcoming giant telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and European Large Telescope (ELT). The project is based on a network of 1m robotic telescopes, namely the four ones of the SPECULOOS-Southern Observatory (SSO) in Cerro Paranal, Chile, one telescope of the SPECULOOS-Northern Observatory (SNO) in Tenerife, and the SAINTEx telescope in San Pedro Martir, Mexico. The prototype survey of the SPECULOOS project on the 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope (Chile) discovered the TRAPPIST-1 system, composed of seven temperate Earth-sized planets orbiting a nearby (12 pc) Jupiter-sized star. In this paper, we review the current status of SPECULOOS, its first results, the plans for its development, and its connection to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and JWST. [less ▲]

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See detailπ Earth: A 3.14 day Earth-sized Planet from K2's Kitchen Served Warm by the SPECULOOS Team
Niraula, Prajwal; de Wit, Julien; Rackham, Benjamin V. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2020), 160

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation of 7.45 S[SUB]⊕[/SUB]. The detection was made using publicly available data from K2's Campaign 15. We observed three additional transits with SPECULOOS Southern and Northern Observatories, and a stellar spectrum from Keck/HIRES, which allowed us to validate the planetary nature of the signal. The confirmed planet is well suited for comparative terrestrial exoplanetology. While exoplanets transiting ultracool dwarfs present the best opportunity for atmospheric studies of terrestrial exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope, those orbiting mid-M dwarfs within 100 pc such as EPIC 249631677b will become increasingly accessible with the next generation of observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailA super-Earth and a sub-Neptune orbiting the bright, quiet M3 dwarf TOI-1266
Demory, B.-O.; Pozuelos Romero, Francisco José ULiege; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 642

We report the discovery and characterisation of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune transiting the bright (K = 8.8), quiet, and nearby (37 pc) M3V dwarf TOI-1266. We validate the planetary nature of TOI-1266 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery and characterisation of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune transiting the bright (K = 8.8), quiet, and nearby (37 pc) M3V dwarf TOI-1266. We validate the planetary nature of TOI-1266 b and c using four sectors of TESS photometry and data from the newly-commissioned 1-m SAINT-EX telescope located in San Pedro Mártir (México). We also include additional ground-based follow-up photometry as well as high-resolution spectroscopy and high-angular imaging observations. The inner, larger planet has a radius of R = 2.37[SUB]-0.12[/SUB][SUP]+0.16[/SUP] R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and an orbital period of 10.9 days. The outer, smaller planet has a radius of R = 1.56[SUB]-0.13[/SUB][SUP]+0.15[/SUP] R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] on an 18.8-day orbit. The data are found to be consistent with circular, co-planar and stable orbits that are weakly influenced by the 2:1 mean motion resonance. Our TTV analysis of the combined dataset enables model-independent constraints on the masses and eccentricities of the planets. We find planetary masses of M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 13.5[SUB]-9.0[/SUB][SUP]+11.0[/SUP] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] (<36.8 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 b and 2.2[SUB]-1.5[/SUB][SUP]+2.0[/SUP] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] (<5.7 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 c. We find small but non-zero orbital eccentricities of 0.09[SUB]-0.05[/SUB][SUP]+0.06[/SUP] (<0.21 at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 b and 0.04 ± 0.03 (< 0.10 at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 c. The equilibrium temperatures of both planets are of 413 ± 20 and 344 ± 16 K, respectively, assuming a null Bond albedo and uniform heat redistribution from the day-side to the night-side hemisphere. The host brightness and negligible activity combined with the planetary system architecture and favourable planet-to-star radii ratios makes TOI-1266 an exquisite system for a detailed characterisation. [less ▲]

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See detailGJ 273: On the formation, dynamical evolution and habitability of a planetary system hosted by an M dwarf at 3.75 parsec
Pozuelos Romero, Francisco José ULiege; Suárez, Juan C.; de Elía, Gonzalo C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 641(A23), 19

Planets orbiting low-mass stars such as M dwarfs are now considered a cornerstone in the search for life-harbouring planets. GJ273 is a planetary system orbiting an M dwarf only 3.75 pc away, composed of ... [more ▼]

Planets orbiting low-mass stars such as M dwarfs are now considered a cornerstone in the search for life-harbouring planets. GJ273 is a planetary system orbiting an M dwarf only 3.75 pc away, composed of two confirmed planets, GJ273b and GJ273c, and two promising candidates, GJ273d and GJ273e. Planet GJ273b resides in the habitable zone. Currently, due to a lack of observed planetary transits, only the minimum masses of the planets are known.Despite being an interesting system, the GJ273 planetary system is still poorly studied. We aim at precisely determine the physical parameters of the individual planets, in particular to break the mass--inclination degeneracy to accurately determine the mass of the planets. Moreover, we present thorough characterisation of planet GJ273b in terms of its potential habitability. We explored the planetary formation and hydration phases of GJ273 during the first 100 Myr. Then, we analysed the stability of the system. We also searched for regions which may harbour minor bodies such as an asteroid belt and Kuiper belt analogues. We found that the four-planet configuration of the system allows us to break the mass-- inclination degeneracy with the following masses: $2.89\leq M_{\mathrm{b}}\leq3.03\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, $1.18\leq M_{\mathrm{c}}\leq1.24\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, $10.80\leq M_{\mathrm{d}}\leq11.35\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$, and $9.30\leq M_{\mathrm{e}}\leq9.70\,\mathrm{M}_\oplus$. That is an Earth-mass planet, a super-Earth and two mini-Neptunes. Moreover, GJ273b is found to be an efficient water captor and GJ273c likely a dry planet. Several stable regions are predicted where minor bodies might reside. We comprehensively discuss the habitability of GJ273b. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotometry and performance of SPECULOOS-South
Murray, C. A.; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege; Pedersen, P. P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020), 495

SPECULOOS-South, an observatory composed of four independent 1-m robotic telescopes, located at ESO Paranal, Chile, started scientific operation in 2019 January. This Southern hemisphere facility operates ... [more ▼]

SPECULOOS-South, an observatory composed of four independent 1-m robotic telescopes, located at ESO Paranal, Chile, started scientific operation in 2019 January. This Southern hemisphere facility operates as part of the Search for Habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars (SPECULOOS), an international network of 1-m-class telescopes surveying for transiting terrestrial planets around the nearest and brightest ultracool dwarfs (UCDs). To automatically and efficiently process the observations of SPECULOOS-South, and to deal with the specialized photometric requirements of UCD targets, we present our automatic pipeline. This pipeline includes an algorithm for automated differential photometry and an extensive correction technique for the effects of telluric water vapour, using ground measurements of the precipitable water vapour. Observing very red targets in the near-infrared can result in photometric systematics in the differential light curves, related to the temporally-varying, wavelength-dependent opacity of the Earth's atmosphere. These systematics are sufficient to affect the daily quality of the light curves, the longer time-scale variability study of our targets and even mimic transit-like signals. Here we present the implementation and impact of our water vapour correction method. Using the 179 nights and 98 targets observed in the I + z' filter by SPECULOOS-South since 2019 January, we show the impressive photometric performance of the facility (with a median precision of ∼1.5 mmag for 30-min binning of the raw, non-detrended light curves) and assess its detection potential. We compare simultaneous observations with SPECULOOS-South and TESS, to show that we readily achieve high- precision, space-level photometry for bright, UCDs, highlighting SPECULOOS-South as the first facility of its kind. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a CCD cosmic ray event simulator against Gaia in-orbit data
Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Lucsanyi, David et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2018, July)

ESA's astrometry mission Gaia was launched in 2013 to establish the most accurate and complete map of the Milky Way by. measuring the distance, position, proper motion, and astrophysical characteristics ... [more ▼]

ESA's astrometry mission Gaia was launched in 2013 to establish the most accurate and complete map of the Milky Way by. measuring the distance, position, proper motion, and astrophysical characteristics of two billion stars. It contains the largest focal plane ever own in space comprising 106 CCDs. To downlink to Earth only useful data, an on board algorithm was designed to discriminate between e.g. stars and cosmics- ionizing tracks left by energetic particles. A cosmic ray event generation simulator was developed to train and optimize this on-board source detection algorithm. We can now validate this model against Gaia data. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecphot: a suite for SPECULOOS data analysis
Garcia, Lionel ULiege

Poster (2018, June 14)

SPECULOOS is a new exoplanet transit survey based on a network of 1m-class robotic telescopes whose objective is to explore the ~1000 nearest ultra cool dwarf stars (spectral type M7 and latter) for ... [more ▼]

SPECULOOS is a new exoplanet transit survey based on a network of 1m-class robotic telescopes whose objective is to explore the ~1000 nearest ultra cool dwarf stars (spectral type M7 and latter) for transiting terrestrial planets. In order to process the data that it produces every night, an automatic pipeline has been deployed and produce daily reports that sometimes motivate further analysis. We present here Specphot: a suite currently being developed to conduct such analysis through a highly modular pipeline. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Assessment of Pre-Series Fast Beam Wire Scanner Prototypes for the Upgrade of the CERN LHC Injector Complex
Sirvent, Jose Luis; Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Tassan-Viol, Jean et al

in Proceedings of the International Beam Instrumentation Conference (2017, August)

A new generation of beam wire scanner (BWS), for transversal beam profile monitoring, is under development on the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade project at CERN. Two pre-series prototypes have been ... [more ▼]

A new generation of beam wire scanner (BWS), for transversal beam profile monitoring, is under development on the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade project at CERN. Two pre-series prototypes have been built and installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron and Proton Synchrotron Booster, to assess the performance of the upgraded BWS concept. This contribution shows the outcome of the measurement campaigns carried out on the first BWS prototypes, both in the laboratory and with proton beams. An evaluation of a high dynamic range acquisition system for the measurement of the secondary showers [less ▲]

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