References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailOptimization of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) artificial reproduction
Hoc, Bertrand ULiege; Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Carpentier, Joachim et al

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14(4), 0216160

The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera:Stratiomyidae), is an endemic fly species from the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones of America. This saprophagous species relies ... [more ▼]

The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera:Stratiomyidae), is an endemic fly species from the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones of America. This saprophagous species relies on its environment where it finds the decomposing matter for the larvae to grow. The polyphagous diet and the macronutrient quality (mainly lipids and proteins) of these larvae make them excellent candidates for various applications such as waste and organic material management, incorporation in animal feed or alternative energy source. Although rearing development in temperate regions requires artificial processes to continuously produce high quality eggs and larvae, few studies have been conducted on the mating and oviposition processes governing H. illucens reproduction. Research conducted in semi-artificial rearing conditions showed that the number of mating varied according to the season. It has been speculated that this behavior could be due to differences in the intensity of sunlight caused by the change of seasons. This study aims at evaluating the influence of sex-ratio, density and nychthemeral cycle on H. illucens reproduction. In order to tackle this issue, an artificial set up for oviposition to collect eggs has been developed. This egg collection system aims at centralize oviposition and simplify eggs collection. Two populations with opposite sex-ratio (male-dominant and female-dominant) were selected. Their respective eggs productions have been evaluated for five breeding densities. Eggs weights varied significantly between the densities for each opposite sex-ratio population and female dominant population produced most eggs weight from 6500 individuals /m³. Finally, four nychthemeral cycles (2, 6, 12 and 18h of daily light) were simulated to evaluate the impact of light duration on reproduction. Early oviposition peak and a decrease oviposition period when H. illucens are show when exposed to increasing light duration. These experiments enable improvement of the understanding on artificial reproduction of H. illucens. [less ▲]

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See detailInsight into Salivary Gland Proteomes of Two Polyphagous Stink Bugs: Nezara viridula L. and Halyomorpha halys Stal
Serteyn, Laurent ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Proteomics (2019)

The invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys St˚al, and the southern green stink bugs (SGSBs), Nezara viridula L., are widely distributed in Europe, even if the date of introduction ... [more ▼]

The invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys St˚al, and the southern green stink bugs (SGSBs), Nezara viridula L., are widely distributed in Europe, even if the date of introduction and the diet differ. Saliva of Hemipteran pests plays essential roles in the interaction between insects and their host plants. The salivary proteomes of several aphid species have been studied and found to differ according to the species, while no comparative investigation between phytophagous stink bugs has been performed yet. Here, the salivary proteins from two bugs, BMSB and SGSB, are analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD011920 and PXD011976. A total of 238 and 305 proteins are identified in salivary glands of BMSB and SGSB, respectively. In comparison with salivary proteome from other Hemiptera, the most striking feature of the salivary gland proteomes of SGSB and BMSB is the similar pattern of protein functions between both species. Some of the proteins are speculated to play a significant role in plant–insect interactions. The results herein provide a framework for future research to elucidate the molecular basis of differential impact of piercing–sucking insects on host plants. [less ▲]

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See detailNuisibles et zoonoses
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2019, January 24)

Différents insectes nuisibles qui sont présents dans les denrées et potentialité de transmission de maladies

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See detailDetection and geographic distribution of seven facultative endosymbionts in two Rhopalosiphum aphid species
Guo, Jianqing; Liu, Xuewei; Poncelet, Nicolas ULiege et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2019)

Study of the mutualistic associations between facultative symbionts and aphids are developed only in a few models. That survey on the situation and distribution of the symbionts in a certain area is ... [more ▼]

Study of the mutualistic associations between facultative symbionts and aphids are developed only in a few models. That survey on the situation and distribution of the symbionts in a certain area is helpful to obtain clues for the acquisition and spread of them as well as their roles played in host evolution. To understand the infection patterns of seven facultative symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Wolbachia, and Arsenophonus) in Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), we collected 882 R. maidis samples (37 geographical populations) from China and 585 R. padi samples (32 geographical populations) from China and Europe. Results showed that both species were widely infected with various symbionts and totally 50.8% of R. maidis and 50.1% of R. padi were multi-infected with targeted symbionts. However, very few Rhopalosiphum aphids were infected with S. symbiotica. The infection frequencies of some symbionts were related to the latitude of collecting sites, suggesting the importance of environmental factors in shaping the geographic distribution of facultative symbionts. Also, R. maidis and R. padi were infected with different H. defensa strains based on phylogenetic analysis which may be determined by host ×symbiont genotype interactions. According to our results, the ubiquitous symbionts may play important roles in the evolution of their host aphid and their impacts on adaptation of R. padi and R. maidis were discussed as well. [less ▲]

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See detailThe taste of origin in a lady beetle: do males discriminate between females based on cuticular hydrocarbons?
Legrand, Pauline; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Marko, Istvan et al

in Physiological Entomology (2019)

The Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis originates from Asia and has established invasive populations at a worldwide scale. Recent population genetic studies have traced their invasion routes and ... [more ▼]

The Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis originates from Asia and has established invasive populations at a worldwide scale. Recent population genetic studies have traced their invasion routes and demonstrated that bottlenecks in population size have reduced their genetic diversity. As a consequence, phenotypical differences were highlighted between native and invasive populations. Among phenotypical traits, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) might reflect geographical origin of a lady beetle, especially because of their genetic basis. Here, we investigated whether (i) the CHC profiles qualitatively and quantitatively differ between females of H. axyridis from native and invasive populations; and (ii) males discriminate females from native and invasive populations using CHC profiles. CHCs were solvent-extracted before being quantified and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We detected a total of 17 CHCs from female elytra including six alkanes, three polyunsaturated and eight monounsaturated alkenes. The total quantity of CHCs differed among the populations with lady beetles from Tai’an (China) displaying a higher CHCs concentration than lady beetles from Gembloux (Belgium) and from Beijing (China) populations. Multivariate analyses detected differences in CHCs qualitative profiles, with females from Tai’an being different from the two other populations. Finally, our behavioural assays showed that females originating from the native Tai’an population were less preferred by males, while females from the invasive population were mounted more often. Our behavioural assays suggest that CHCs are not involved in discrimination of mating partners based on their origin. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of flower functional traits affecting abundance of generalist predators in perennial multiple species wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel; Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2019)

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract ... [more ▼]

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract and support large communities of natural enemies. Trait-based approaches are promising for this purpose. In the present study, conducted in an agricultural field of Belgium in 2014 and 2015, 15 flower mixtures were considered to explore the relation between the abundance of trapped generalist predators (i.e. lacewings [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae], ladybeetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] and hoverflies [Diptera: Syrphidae]) and the community-weighted means of seven flower traits. Through a redundancy analysis, it was found that the presence/absence of flower ultra-violet pattern and the morphology of the corolla (that determines the accessibility of floral resources) were the traits that significantly affected the abundance of the generalist predators in the flower mixtures. The ladybeetles Harmonia axyridis and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata as well as the lacewings Chrysoperla carnea were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers showing an ultra-violet pattern, while the opposite was observed for the ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata. As for hoverflies, Episyrphus balteatus and Eupeodes corollae were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers with open nectar. These results bring new knowledge regarding how a range of natural enemy species reacts to flower cues in diversified plant communities and should help in elaborating flower mixtures that enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of flower functional traits affecting abundance of generalist predators in perennial multiple species wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uytenbroeck, Roel; Lopes, thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2019), 13

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract ... [more ▼]

In agricultural fields, wildflower strips can be sown to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. However, issues remain regarding the composition of flower mixtures to effectively attract and support large communities of natural enemies. Trait-based approaches are promising for this purpose. In the present study, conducted in an agricultural field of Belgium in 2014 and 2015, 15 flower mixtures were considered to explore the relation between the abundance of trapped generalist predators (i.e. lacewings [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae], ladybeetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] and hoverflies [Diptera: Syrphidae]) and the community-weighted means of seven flower traits. Through a redundancy analysis, it was found that the presence/absence of flower ultra-violet pattern and the morphology of the corolla (that determines the accessibility of floral resources) were the traits that significantly affected the abundance of the generalist predators in the flower mixtures. The ladybeetles Harmonia axyridis and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata as well as the lacewings Chrysoperla carnea were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers showing an ultra-violet pattern, while the opposite was observed for the ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata. As for hoverflies, Episyrphus balteatus and Eupeodes corollae were more abundant in mixtures with a high cover of flowers with open nectar. These results bring new knowledge regarding how a range of natural enemy species reacts to flower cues in diversified plant communities and should help in elaborating flower mixtures that enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailCuticular hydrocarbon composition does not allow Harmonia axyridis males to identify the mating status of sexual partners
Legrand, Pauline; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lorge, Stéphanie ULiege et al

in Entomologia Generalis (2019), 38(3), 211-224

Males of polyandrous species have to overcome sperm competition. They should select their mate based on the reproductive status of the female to increase their own fitness. Because the sexual behavior of ... [more ▼]

Males of polyandrous species have to overcome sperm competition. They should select their mate based on the reproductive status of the female to increase their own fitness. Because the sexual behavior of lady beetles relies on semiochemicals, with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) being used for mate recognition, we developed and tested two hypotheses. First, we hypothesized that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile qualitatively and quantitatively differs between virgin and mated Harmonia axyridis females, regardless of the color morph. Second, we hypothesized that males discriminate virgin and mated females, preferring copulating with virgin females, rather than previously mated ones, to avoid sperm competition and subsequently increase their fitness. CHCs were solvent-extracted before being quantified and identified by gas chromatography. We found no qualitative differences between mated and unmated females irrespective of the morph; however, quantitative differences were detected. Specifically, the CHC profiles of mated females presented higher concentrations of alkenes, including 9-pentacosene, 9-heptacosene, and 9-hentriacontene. During dual-choice behavioral assays, males equally copulated with virgin and mated females. Our results suggest that there is no CHC-based discrimination strategy in virgin males of H. axyridis between virgin and once-mated females. We discuss alternative strategies that might be used in this lady beetle species. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasion of Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs and how to control them
Serteyn, Laurent ULiege; Ponnet, Lola; Vigneron, Quentin et al

Conference (2018, December 15)

Halyomorpha halys Stål, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is native of Eastern Asia, where it feeds on a large diversity of host plants. It was first observed outside Asia in the mid-1990’s in ... [more ▼]

Halyomorpha halys Stål, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is native of Eastern Asia, where it feeds on a large diversity of host plants. It was first observed outside Asia in the mid-1990’s in Pennsylvania (USA). Since, it has widely spread throughout the whole country. BMSB has been accidentally introduced in Switzerland, where first observations occurred in 2007. Europe presents ideal weather conditions for the pest installation and spread, as well as suitable agricultural landscapes and dense human activity. It is probable that the pest will have colonized a large part of Europe within the next decades. BMSB can feed on various plant organs but preferring fruits. It is highly polyphagous in its native region and the most of its host plants are also present in Europe. It already causes huge yield losses in various orchards, crops and vineyards in its invaded areas. Long established integrated pest management strategies have all collapsed when BMSB invaded. In the general goal of pesticide drastic reduction, there is an urgent need for research in biological control of this pest. We propose here a state of the art of such studies, concerning: entomopathogenic fungi, pheromone traps, parasitoids… Our own works on feeding behavior and salivary proteome aim to fill the gaps in the current knowledge of BMSB biology and on plant-insect interactions. We also call for scientific community and public vigilance, as the pest is already well established in neighboring countries of Benelux. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Analysis of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquito from climatic and cotton areas of Burkina Faso
Zoure, Abdou ULiege; Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Sombie, Aboubacar et al

Poster (2018, December 15)

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See detailUse of Soil and Litter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Land Uses in Southern Rwanda
Nsengimana, Venuste ULiege; Kaplin, A. Beth; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Environmental Entomology (2018)

The use of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators is a way to assess environmental changes, where ant species in particular may serve as important indicators of soil quality. This study aimed ... [more ▼]

The use of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators is a way to assess environmental changes, where ant species in particular may serve as important indicators of soil quality. This study aimed at relating the abundance of soil and litter ant species to soil parameters under different tree species, both native and exotic, and varieties of coffee and banana plantations. Variations were found in soil physicochemical parameters. A total of 30 species belonging to 14 genera, and four subfamilies, the Formicinae, Dorylinae, Myrmicinae, and Ponerinae were identifed. Higher abundance was found in coffee plantations compared to banana plantations, exotic and native tree species. Species of Camponotus cinctellus and Odontomachus troglodytes occurred in all land uses which is a sign of tolerance to a wide range of soil properties. In addition, these species, together with Myrmicaria SP02, Phrynoponera gabonensis, Camponotus SP06, Myrmicaria opaciventris, Pheidole SP03, Tetramorium simillimum, Pheidole SP01, and Tetramorium laevithorax were not strongly correlated with soil physicochemical parameters. Species of Pheidole SP02 and Camponotus SP05 were restricted to specifc soil physicochemical properties, while species of Tetramorium zonacaciae and Bothroponera talpa discriminated between native tree species, coffee plantations, soil organic carbon, sandy soil texture, and aggregate stability. We concluded that these ant species can differently indicate the soil quality depending on the land use. We recommended further studies in order to generalize these fndings [less ▲]

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See detailUse of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators of soil quality in forest plantations and agricultural lands: A Review
Nsengimana, Venuste ULiege; Beth, A. Kaplin; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Entomologie Faunistique (2018), 71

This article reviewed published papers on the use of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators of soil quality since the 1970s. Our review shows that soil and litter arthropods are litter ... [more ▼]

This article reviewed published papers on the use of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators of soil quality since the 1970s. Our review shows that soil and litter arthropods are litter transformers and ecosystem engineers. They contribute to the availability of organic matter. Their diversity, abundance, biomass, and density are suitable measures for the assessment of natural and/or anthropogenic effects on soil. However, their use is challenged by difficulties in sampling methods and the identification of soil and litter arthropod diversity up to species level, and few research projects combine both abiotic and biotic factors. We recommend further research to investigate the most suitable methods for sampling soil and litter arthropods, and create a classification of dominant groups up to species level which, along with the use of integrative methodologies, will be valuable steps towards a generalized and accepted method for the assessment of soil quality [less ▲]

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See detailRôle de la transmission des maladies dans le déclin des pollinisateurs – Synthèse bibliographique
Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Bebermans, Julien ULiege; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Entomologie Faunistique (2018), 71

L’appauvrissement de la biodiversité globale est devenu une préoccupation croissante pour notre société. Ce déclin, d’origine multifactorielle, de la diversité des organismes touche également la ... [more ▼]

L’appauvrissement de la biodiversité globale est devenu une préoccupation croissante pour notre société. Ce déclin, d’origine multifactorielle, de la diversité des organismes touche également la communauté des pollinisateurs qui assure la reproduction des plantes. Les pollinisateurs fournissent aussi un excellent service écosystémique à l'humanité, en particulier pour la sécurité alimentaire et le bien-être humain. La transmission de maladies intra- et interspécifique des pollinisateurs est un des facteurs du déclin de plus en plus étudié. L'objectif de cette revue est d’offrir une mise à jour des causes principales du déclin en se concentrant particulièrement sur l’impact de la transmission des maladies. Outre les effets synergiques de la dégradation du paysage, des pesticides, des changements climatiques et d’espèces invasives, une relation existe entre l’introduction de pollinisateurs domestiques dans de nouveaux milieux et l’émergence de nouvelles maladies. Via la globalisation des échanges commerciaux, certains agents pathogènes sont devenus des menaces importantes concernant la santé des pollinisateurs. Cependant, il subsiste encore des lacunes importantes dans la connaissance des mécanismes de transmission. Des avancées scientifiques et technologiques dans ce domaine permettraient aux autorités d’établir une réglementation sanitaire plus adaptée et ainsi contribuer à la sauvegarde à l’ensemble de la communauté des pollinisateurs. [less ▲]

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See detailFlower Strips in Wheat Intercropping System: Effect on Pollinator Abundance and Diversity in Belgium
Amy, Clara ULiege; Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

in Insects (2018), 9(3), 114

The decline of pollinators in agricultural areas has been observed for some decades, this being partly due to landscape simplification in intensive agrosystems. Diversifying agricultural landscapes by ... [more ▼]

The decline of pollinators in agricultural areas has been observed for some decades, this being partly due to landscape simplification in intensive agrosystems. Diversifying agricultural landscapes by sowing flower strips within fields could reduce these adverse effects on biodiversity. In this context, the study presented here aimed at assessing and comparing the abundance and diversity of bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) and hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) found and visiting flowers in three types of flower strips in Belgium: (i) a mixture of 11 wild flowers, (ii) a monofloral strip of Dimorphoteca pluvialis (Asteraceae) and (iii) a monofloral strip of Camelina sativa (Brassicaceae), where the last two are considered to be intercrops since they are valuable on the market, all sown within a field of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pollinators were captured with pan traps and by netting in standardised transects from May to July 2017. One-thousand one-hundred and eighty-four individuals belonging to 43 bee species and 18 hoverfly species were collected. Significant differences in hoverfly diversity were found between the different flower strips. The multifloral treatment supported a greater diversity of syrphid species. Various pollinator species visited the different flowers composing the mixture and also D. pluvialis. The pollinator community proved to be predominantly generalist, with the exception of an oligolectic species in Belgium, Andrena nitidiuscula. Moreover, the three tested flower strips were effective in attracting hoverflies, among them natural enemies of insect pests. This study opens new perspectives in the design of intercropping systems with flower strips towards the design of sustainable agro-ecosystems. Improving economic profitability of sowing flower strips could encourage farmers to diversify their agricultural systems and foster conservation biology strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Black Soldier Fly artificial reproduction
Hoc, Bertrand ULiege; Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September)

The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), is a saprophagous species whose larvae consume decomposing organic matter. The polyphagous diet and the macronutrient quality (mainly lipids and ... [more ▼]

The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), is a saprophagous species whose larvae consume decomposing organic matter. The polyphagous diet and the macronutrient quality (mainly lipids and proteins) of these larvae make them excellent candidates for various applications such as waste and organic material management, incorporation in animal and pet feed or alternative energy source. Although rearing development in temperate regions requires artificial processes to continuously produce high quality eggs and larvae, few studies have been conducted on the mating and oviposition processes governing the BSF reproduction. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical basis for the small-scale production of Black Soldier Fly meal as fish feed in Benin
Gougbedji, Mahounan ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Hoc, Bertrand ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September)

Producing fish of good quality and at a lower cost is the major objective of fish farmers. In Benin, the feeding of farmed fish is a major predicament. The food composition suffers from the lack of a ... [more ▼]

Producing fish of good quality and at a lower cost is the major objective of fish farmers. In Benin, the feeding of farmed fish is a major predicament. The food composition suffers from the lack of a reliable sources of protein. Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae could offer a real solution as they have already been used in several countries in animal production. However, the species is little known in Benin and breeding techniques are ignored by producers. The present study aims at establishing a technical reference for the breeding of this fly in Benin. A larvarium (42 cm x 29 cm x 25 cm) equipped with an automated prepupa harvesting system was manufactured for the rearing of the larvae. A total of 36,000 larvae were used in the trials. Three densities (1 larva/g, 2 larvae/g, 3 larvae/g) have been tested in triplicate in 2kg of chicken feed in order to determine the optimal load density. The experiment lasted 12 days during which growth tests (e.g. weight measures) were conducted. The quantities of fly meal produced from each treatment were evaluated as the total cost of production. Results show that the larvarium designed is suitable for H. illucens larval rearing and that the automatic prepupa harvesting system is efficient. The load density determined as ideal for good larval growth is 2 larvae per gram of chicken feed. With 40 g of 1-week-old larvae, it is possible to produce about 500g of insect meal. The overall production cost came to roughly $ 265, which makes it quite affordable. The proposed rearing system is a high-yield one and is within the reach of any fish farmer or farmer in general. Other types of substrates such as restaurant waste, manure or agricultural co-products could be explored in order to replace the chicken feed. [less ▲]

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See detailBioassays to quantify hygienic behavior in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies: a review
Leclercq, Gil; Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Journal of Apicultural Research (2018), 57(5), 663-673

Individual immunity in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) is complemented by highly evolved social behaviors. Among them, hygienic behavior has a key role involving the detection and removal of unhealthy or ... [more ▼]

Individual immunity in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) is complemented by highly evolved social behaviors. Among them, hygienic behavior has a key role involving the detection and removal of unhealthy or dead brood. Since the 1960s, several bioassays have been developed to quantify the hygienic behavior of honey bee colonies against chalkbrood, American foulbrood, and varroa infested brood. Here, we review the five main bioassays used since the late 1960s. We describe their advantages and disadvantages, including a special focus on their inherent biases. For each assay, we also discuss whether or not their use should be restricted to quantify the hygienic behavior against chalkbrood, or American foulbrood, or varroa infested brood. Overall, the bioassays involving the removal of freeze-killed brood are recommended over the bioassays relying on the removal of pin-killed brood but only for the quantification of hygienic behavior toward chalkbrood and American foulbrood. These bioassays are not recommended to quantify the hygienic behavior toward varroa infested brood, for which an accurate assessment should rely on assays based on the removal of brood artificially infested with varroa mites. Choosing an appropriate bioassay is crucial for an accurate assessment of the hygienic behavior against a defined pathogen, depending on the research question, or the goal of the breeding program. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of entomopathogenic fungi on multitrophic insect-plant interactions
Fingu Mabola, Junior ULiege; Lognoul, Marine; Bosquée, Emilie et al

Poster (2018, August 18)

Entomopathogen microorganisms such as fungi are biological control agents that are able to disturb host plant – herbivore relations due to their interactions with some target insects. Particularly, these ... [more ▼]

Entomopathogen microorganisms such as fungi are biological control agents that are able to disturb host plant – herbivore relations due to their interactions with some target insects. Particularly, these fungi grow on insect hosts, secrete secondary metabolites and finally kill them. Here, we investigated the influence of diverse entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria, Metarhizium, Aspergillus) on different insect hosts but also on non target beneficials. Aphids and bugs for herbivore guild while aphidophagous predators for tritrophic interactions were selected respectively. Multitrophic approaches were developed to determine potential effects of these fungi on the behaviour of intra- and interguild protagonists. Beside the observation of insect developmental parameters, the orientation preferences were tested by taking into consideration the insect and/or plant fungal infection status. Olfactometry devices were used, complemented by choice tests in Petri dishes and analysis of emitted volatile organic compounds. Also, electropenetrography (EPG) technique was developed to assess the changes of aphid and bug sucking feeding behaviour related to fungal infestation status. Our results are discussed in relation to the complexity of interactions at different trophic levels, with a particular focus on behavioural more than only developmental aspects of the impact of entomopathogenic fungi in plant - insect interactions. [less ▲]

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