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See detailDevelopment of the IBD Disk: A Visual Self-administered Tool for Assessing Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Ghosh, Subrata; Louis, Edouard ULiege; Beaugerie, Laurent et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2017), 23(3), 333-340

BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Disability Index is a validated tool that evaluates functional status; however, it is used mainly in the clinical trial setting. We describe the use of an ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Disability Index is a validated tool that evaluates functional status; however, it is used mainly in the clinical trial setting. We describe the use of an iterative Delphi consensus process to develop the IBD Disk-a shortened, self-administered adaption of the validated IBD Disability Index-to give immediate visual representation of patient-reported IBD-related disability. METHODS: In the preparatory phase, the IBD CONNECT group (30 health care professionals) ranked IBD Disability Index items in the perceived order of importance. The Steering Committee then selected 10 items from the IBD Disability Index to take forward for inclusion in the IBD Disk. In the consensus phase, the items were refined and agreed by the IBD Disk Working Group (14 gastroenterologists) using an online iterative Delphi consensus process. Members could also suggest new element(s) or recommend changes to included elements. The final items for the IBD Disk were agreed in February 2016. RESULTS: After 4 rounds of voting, the following 10 items were agreed for inclusion in the IBD Disk: abdominal pain, body image, education and work, emotions, energy, interpersonal interactions, joint pain, regulating defecation, sexual functions, and sleep. All elements, except sexual functions, were included in the validated IBD Disability Index. CONCLUSIONS: The IBD Disk has the potential to be a valuable tool for use at a clinical visit. It can facilitate assessment of inflammatory bowel disease-related disability relevant to both patients and physicians, discussion on specific disability-related issues, and tracking changes in disease burden over time. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction therapy with the selective interleukin-23 inhibitor risankizumab in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study.
Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; D'Haens, Geert et al

in Lancet (London, England) (2017), 389(10080), 1699-1709

BACKGROUND: The interleukin-23 pathway is implicated genetically and biologically in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab (BI 655066, Boehringer ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The interleukin-23 pathway is implicated genetically and biologically in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab (BI 655066, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin-23, in patients with moderately-to-severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, we enrolled patients at 36 referral sites in North America, Europe, and southeast Asia. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years, with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease for at least 3 months, assessed as moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease at screening, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 220-450, with mucosal ulcers in the ileum or colon, or both, and a Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) of at least 7 (>/=4 for patients with isolated ileitis) on ileocolonoscopy scored by a masked central reader. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 using an interactive response system to a double-blind investigational product, and stratified by previous exposure to TNF antagonists (yes vs no). Patients received intravenous 200 mg risankizumab, 600 mg risankizumab, or placebo, at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The primary outcome was clinical remission (CDAI <150) at week 12 (intention-to-treat population). Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02031276. FINDINGS: Between March, 2014, and September, 2015, 213 patients were screened, and 121 patients randomised. At baseline, 113 patients (93%) had been previously treated with at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist (which had failed in 96 [79%]). At week 12, 25 (31%) of 82 risankizumab patients (pooled 41 patients in 200 mg and 41 patients in 600 mg arms) had clinical remission versus six (15%) of 39 placebo patients (difference vs placebo 15.0%, 95% CI 0.1 to 30.1; p=0.0489). Ten (24%) of 41 patients who received 200 mg risankizumab had clinical remission (9.0%, -8.3 to 26.2; p=0.31) and 15 (37%) of 41 who received the 600 mg dose (20.9%, 2.6 to 39.2; p=0.0252). 95 (79%) patients had adverse events (32 in the placebo group, 32 randomised to 200 mg risankizumab, 31 randomised to 600 mg risankizumab); 18 had severe adverse events (nine, six, three); 12 discontinued (six, five, one); 24 had serious adverse events (12, nine, three). The most common adverse event was nausea and most common serious adverse event was worsening of underlying Crohn's disease. No deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: In this short-term study, risankizumab was more effective than placebo for inducing clinical remission in patients with active Crohn's disease. Therefore, selective blockade of interleukin-23 via inhibition of p19 might be a viable therapeutic approach in Crohn's disease. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term Outcomes with Anti-TNF Therapy and Accelerated Step-up in the Prospective Pediatric Belgian Crohn's Disease Registry (BELCRO).
Wauters, Lucas; Smets, Francoise; De Greef, Elisabeth et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2017), 23(9), 1584-1591

BACKGROUND: Accelerated step-up or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) before first remission is currently not recommended in pediatric Crohn's disease. METHODS: Five-year follow-up data from a prospective ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Accelerated step-up or anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) before first remission is currently not recommended in pediatric Crohn's disease. METHODS: Five-year follow-up data from a prospective observational cohort of children diagnosed with Crohn's disease in Belgium were analyzed. Disease severity was scored as inactive, mild, or moderate to severe. Remission or inactive disease was defined as sustained if lasting >/=2 years. Univariate analyses were performed between anti-TNF-exposed versus naive patients and anti-TNF before versus after first remission and correlations assessed with primary outcomes average disease severity and sustained remission. RESULTS: A total of 91 patients (median [IQR] age 12.7 [10.9-14.8] yrs, 53% male) were included. Disease location was 12% L1, 23% L2, and 64% L3 with 76% upper gastrointestinal and 30% perianal involvement. Disease severity was 25% mild and 75% moderate to severe. Of 66 (73%) anti-TNF-exposed patients, 34 (52%) had accelerated step-up. Anti-TNF use was associated with age (13.1 [11.5-15.2] versus 11.8 [8.7-13.8] yrs; P < 0.05), L2 (29% versus 8%; P = 0.04), and average disease severity (1.7 [1.4-1.9] versus 1.4 [1.3-1.6]; P < 0.001). Duration of anti-TNF correlated with average disease severity (r = 0.32, P = 0.002). Accelerated step-up was also associated with age (13.3 [12.1-15.9] versus 12.5 [10.2-14.1]; P = 0.02) and average disease severity (1.8 [1.6-1.9] versus 1.6 [1.3-1.8]; P = 0.002). Duration of sustained remission was similar in all patients, and no serious infections, cancer, or deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF therapy and accelerated step-up in older patients with more severe disease leads to beneficial long-term outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailPaediatric Crohn Disease: Disease Activity and Growth in the BELCRO Cohort After 3 Years Follow-up.
De Greef, Elisabeth; Hoffman, Ilse; Smets, Francoise et al

in Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (2016), 63(2), 253-8

OBJECTIVE: The Belgian registry for paediatric Crohn disease (BELCRO) cohort is a prospective, multicentre registry for newly diagnosed paediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD) (<18 years) recruited ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The Belgian registry for paediatric Crohn disease (BELCRO) cohort is a prospective, multicentre registry for newly diagnosed paediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD) (<18 years) recruited from 2008 to 2010 to identify predictive factors for disease activity and growth. METHODS: Data from the BELCRO database were evaluated at diagnosis, 24 and 36 months follow-up. RESULTS: At month 36 (M36), data were available on 84 of the 98 patients included at diagnosis. Disease activity evolved as follows: inactive 5% to 70%, mild 19% to 24%, and moderate to severe 76% to 6%. None of the variables such as age, sex, diagnostic delay, type of treatment, disease location, disease activity at diagnosis, and growth were associated with disease activity at M36. Paediatricians studied significantly less patients with active disease at M36 compared with adult physicians. Sixty percent of the patients had biologicals as part of their treatment at M36. Adult gastroenterologists initiated biologicals significantly earlier. They were the only factor determining biologicals' initiation, not disease location or disease severity at diagnosis. Median body mass index (BMI) z score evolved from -0.97 (range -5.5-2.1) to 0.11 (range -3.4-2) and median height z score from -0.15 (range -3.4-1.6) to 0.12 (range -2.3-2.3) at M36. None of the variables mentioned above influenced growth over time. CONCLUSIONS: Present treatment strategies lead to good disease control in the BELCRO cohort after 3 years. Logistic regression analysis did not show any influence of disease location or present treatment strategy on disease activity and growth, but patients under paediatric care had significantly less severe disease at M36. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical and scientific aspects related to biosimilars in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): position document of the Belgian IBD Research & Development Group (BIRD)
Vermeire, Séverine; Louis, Edouard ULiege; Dewit, Olivier et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2015), 78

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See detailGenome-Wide Copy Number Variation Scan Identifies Complement Component C4 as Novel Susceptibility Gene for Crohn's Disease.
Cleynen, Isabelle; Konings, Peter; Robberecht, Caroline et al

in Inflammatory bowel diseases (2015)

BACKGROUND: The genetic component of Crohn's disease (CD) is well known, with 140 susceptibility loci identified so far. In addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms typically studied in genome-wide ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The genetic component of Crohn's disease (CD) is well known, with 140 susceptibility loci identified so far. In addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms typically studied in genome-wide scans, copy number variation is responsible for a large proportion of human genetic variation. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide search for copy number variants associated with CD using array comparative genomic hybridization. One of the found regions was validated independently through real-time PCR. Serum levels of the found gene were measured in patients and control subjects. RESULTS: We found copy number differences for the C4S and C4L gene variants of complement component C4 in the central major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6p21. Specifically, we saw that CD patients tend to have lower C4L and higher C4S copies than control subjects (P = 5.00 x 10 and P = 9.11 x 10), which was independent of known associated classical HLA I and II alleles (P = 7.68 x 10 and P = 6.29 x 10). Although C4 serum levels were not different between patients and control subjects, the relationship between C4 copy number and serum level was different for patients and control subjects with higher copy numbers leading to higher serum concentrations in control subjects, compared with CD patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: C4 is part of the classical activation pathway of the complement system, which is important for (auto)immunity. Low C4L or high C4S copy number, and corresponding effects on C4 serum level, could lead to an exaggerated response against infections, possibly leading to (auto)immune disease. [less ▲]

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See detailConsecutive fecal calprotectin measurements to predict relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving infliximab maintenance therapy.
De Vos, Martine; Louis, Edouard ULiege; Jahnsen, Jorgen et al

in Inflammatory bowel diseases (2013), 19(10), 2111-7

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice as a marker to monitor patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. METHODS ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice as a marker to monitor patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. METHODS: This prospective multicenter study enrolled adult patients with UC in clinical remission under infliximab maintenance therapy. Fecal calprotectin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Sigmoidoscopies were performed at inclusion and at study end. Relapse was defined as a clinical need for change in treatment or an endoscopic Mayo subscore of >/=2 at week 52. Sustained deep remission was defined as a partial Mayo score <3 at all points and an endoscopic Mayo score 0 at week 52. RESULTS: Full analysis was possible for 87 of 113 included patients with UC (77%). Of these patients, 30 (34.4%) were considered to be in sustained deep remission and 13 (14.9%) to have relapsed. Calprotectin levels in patients with sustained deep remission remained very low (median < 40 mg/kg at all time points). Patients who flared had significantly higher calprotectin levels (median > 300 mg/kg) already 3 months before the flare. Further receiver operator curve analysis suggested that a calprotectin level >300 mg/kg had a reasonable sensitivity (58.3%) and specificity (93.3%) to model flare. Two consecutive calprotectin measurements of >300 mg/kg with 1-month interval were identified as the best predictor of flare (61.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: Fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice to monitor patients with UC receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. Two consecutive measurements >300 mg/kg is more specific than a single measurement for predicting relapse. [less ▲]

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See detailHost-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
Jostins, Luke; Ripke, Stephan; Weersma, Rinse K. et al

in Nature (2012), 491(7422), 119-24

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD. [less ▲]

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See detailMeta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47.
Anderson, Carl A; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lees, Charlie W et al

in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(3), 246-52

Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. [less ▲]

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See detailResequencing of positional candidates identifies low frequency IL23R coding variants protecting against inflammatory bowel disease.
Momozawa, Yukihide ULiege; Mni, Myriam ULiege; Nakamura, Kayo ULiege et al

in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(1), 43-7

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20 ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20% of the genetic variance for Crohn's disease. Several factors may account for this unexplained heritability, including rare risk variants not adequately tagged thus far in GWAS. That rare susceptibility variants indeed contribute to variation in multifactorial phenotypes has been demonstrated for colorectal cancer, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, blood pressure, type 1 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and, in the case of Crohn's disease, for NOD2 (refs. 14,15). Here we describe the use of high-throughput resequencing of DNA pools to search for rare coding variants influencing susceptibility to Crohn's disease in 63 GWAS-identified positional candidate genes. We identify low frequency coding variants conferring protection against inflammatory bowel disease in IL23R, but we conclude that rare coding variants in positional candidates do not make a large contribution to inherited predisposition to Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
Franke, Andre; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C et al

in Nature Genetics (2010), 42(12), 1118-25

We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in ... [more ▼]

We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon variants in the NLRP3 region contribute to Crohn's disease susceptibility.
Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Lemire, Mathieu; Fortin, Geneviève et al

in Nature Genetics (2009), 41(1), 71-6

We used a candidate gene approach to identify a set of SNPs, located in a predicted regulatory region on chromosome 1q44 downstream of NLRP3 (previously known as CIAS1 and NALP3) that are associated with ... [more ▼]

We used a candidate gene approach to identify a set of SNPs, located in a predicted regulatory region on chromosome 1q44 downstream of NLRP3 (previously known as CIAS1 and NALP3) that are associated with Crohn's disease. The associations were consistently replicated in four sample sets from individuals of European descent. In the combined analysis of all samples (710 father-mother-child trios, 239 cases and 107 controls), these SNPs were strongly associated with risk of Crohn's disease (P(combined) = 3.49 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.78, confidence interval = 1.47-2.16 for rs10733113), reaching a level consistent with the stringent significance thresholds imposed by whole-genome association studies. In addition, we observed significant associations between SNPs in the associated regions and NLRP3 expression and IL-1beta production. Mutations in NLRP3 are known to be responsible for three rare autoinflammatory disorders. These results suggest that the NLRP3 region is also implicated in the susceptibility of more common inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variation in the familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) and risk for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Lemire, Mathieu; Louis, Edouard ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(9), 7154

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) gene (MEFV) encodes pyrin, a major regulator of the inflammasome platform controlling caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing. Pyrin has ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) gene (MEFV) encodes pyrin, a major regulator of the inflammasome platform controlling caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing. Pyrin has been shown to interact with the gene product of NLRP3, NALP3/cryopyrin, also an important active member of the inflammasome. The NLRP3 region was recently reported to be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility. We therefore sought to evaluate MEFV as an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility gene. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: MEFV colonic mucosal gene expression was significantly increased in experimental colitis mice models (TNBS p<0.0003; DSS p<0.006), in biopsies from CD (p<0.02) and severe ulcerative colitis (UC) patients (p<0.008). Comprehensive genetic screening of the MEFV region in the Belgian exploratory sample set (440 CD trios, 137 UC trios, 239 CD cases, 96 UC cases, and 107 healthy controls) identified SNPs located in the MEFV 5' haplotype block that were significantly associated with UC (rs224217; p = 0.003; A allele frequency: 56% cases, 45% controls), while no CD associations were observed. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of variants located in this associated haplotype block identified three synonymous variants (D102D/rs224225, G138G/rs224224, A165A/rs224223) and one non-synonymous variant (R202Q/rs224222) located in MEFV exon 2 that were significantly associated with UC (rs224222: p = 0.0005; A allele frequency: 32% in cases, 23% in controls). No consistent associations were observed in additional Canadian (256 CD trios, 91 UC trios) and Scottish (495 UC, 370 controls) sample sets. We note that rs224222 showed marginal association (p = 0.012; G allele frequency: 82% in cases, 70% in controls) in the Canadian sample, but with a different risk allele. None of the NLRP3 common variants were associated with UC in the Belgian-Canadian UC samples and no significant interactions were observed between NLRP3 and MEFV that could explain the observed flip-flop of the rs224222 risk allele. CONCLUSION: The differences in association levels observed between the sample sets may be a consequence of distinct founder effects or of the relative small sample size of the cohorts evaluated in this study. However, the results suggest that common variants in the MEFV region do not contribute to CD and UC susceptibility. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.
Imielinski, Marcin; Baldassano, Robert N; Griffiths, Anne et al

in Nature Genetics (2009), 41(12), 1335-40

The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide ... [more ▼]

The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohn's disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease
Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Hansoul, Sarah ULiege; Nicolae, Dan L. et al

in Nature Genetics (2008), 40(8), 955-62

Several risk factors for Crohn's disease have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies. To advance gene discovery further, we combined data from three studies on Crohn's disease (a total ... [more ▼]

Several risk factors for Crohn's disease have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies. To advance gene discovery further, we combined data from three studies on Crohn's disease (a total of 3,230 cases and 4,829 controls) and carried out replication in 3,664 independent cases with a mixture of population-based and family-based controls. The results strongly confirm 11 previously reported loci and provide genome-wide significant evidence for 21 additional loci, including the regions containing STAT3, JAK2, ICOSLG, CDKAL1 and ITLN1. The expanded molecular understanding of the basis of this disease offers promise for informed therapeutic development. [less ▲]

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See detailThe TNF/ADAM 17 system: implication of an ADAM 17 haplotype in the clinical response to infliximab in Crohn's disease
Dideberg, Vinciane ULiege; Theatre, Emilie ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in European Journal of Clinical Investigation (2007, May), 37(Suppl. 1), 79

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See detailMulticenter randomized-control led clinical trial of probiotics (Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1) on early endoscopic recurrence of Crohn's disease after ileo-caecal resection
Van Gossum, André; Dewit, Olivier; Louis, Edouard ULiege et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2007), 13(2), 135-142

Background: Seventy percent of Crohn's disease (CD) patients exhibit anastomotic recurrence within I year after ileo-caecal surgery, Recent clinical trials suggest the beneficial use of probiotics in the ... [more ▼]

Background: Seventy percent of Crohn's disease (CD) patients exhibit anastomotic recurrence within I year after ileo-caecal surgery, Recent clinical trials suggest the beneficial use of probiotics in the control of intestinal inflammation in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis. This study is a multicenter clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an oral administration of the probiotic LA1 on early postoperative endoscopic recurrence of CD. Methods: Seventy patients with CD were enrolled prior to elective ileo-caecal resection and randomly assigned after surgery to daily treatment with either Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1, Nestle (10(10) colony-forming units, CFU) (group A, n = 34) or placebo (group B, n = 36) for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to assess the effect of LA1 on the endoscopic recurrence rate at 12 weeks. Stratification was performed according to smoking status at randomization. Results: Seven and 14 patients were excluded in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively. In intention-to-treat analysis, the mean endoscopic score was not significantly different between the two treatment groups at 3 months (LA1 versus placebo: 1.50 +/- 1.32 versus 1.22 +/- 1.37, treatment effect: P = 0.48, smoke effect: P = 0.72). The percentage of patients with severe recurrence (i3 + i4) was 21% and 15% in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.33). Using a per-protocol (PP) analysis, the mean endoscopic score was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (LA1 versus placebo groups: 1.44 +/- 1.31 versus 1.05 +/- 1.21, P = 0.32). The percentage of patients with severe recurrence (i3 + i4) was 19% and 9% in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.054). Clinical relapse rate (CDAI [CD activity index] > 150, with an increase of CDAI > 70 points or greater from baseline) in the LAI and placebo groups was 15% (4/27) and 13.5% (3/22), respectively (PP analysis: chi-square test, P = 0.91 and log-rank test: P = 0.79). Conclusion: Oral administration of the probiotic LA1 in patients with CID failed to prevent early endoscopic recurrence at 12 weeks after ileo-caecal resection. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel Crohn disease locus identified by genome-wide association maps to a gene desert on 5p13.1 and modulates expression of PTGER4.
Libioulle, Cécile ULiege; Louis, Edouard ULiege; Hansoul, Sarah ULiege et al

in PLoS Genetics (2007), 3(4), 538-543

To identify novel susceptibility loci for Crohn disease (CD), we undertook a genome-wide association study with more than 300,000 SNPs characterized in 547 patients and 928 controls. We found three ... [more ▼]

To identify novel susceptibility loci for Crohn disease (CD), we undertook a genome-wide association study with more than 300,000 SNPs characterized in 547 patients and 928 controls. We found three chromosome regions that provided evidence of disease association with p-values between 10(-6) and 10(-9). Two of these (IL23R on Chromosome 1 and CARD15 on Chromosome 16) correspond to genes previously reported to be associated with CD. In addition, a 250-kb region of Chromosome 5p13.1 was found to contain multiple markers with strongly suggestive evidence of disease association (including four markers with p < 10(-7)). We replicated the results for 5p13.1 by studying 1,266 additional CD patients, 559 additional controls, and 428 trios. Significant evidence of association (p < 4 x 10(-4)) was found in case/control comparisons with the replication data, while associated alleles were over-transmitted to affected offspring (p < 0.05), thus confirming that the 5p13.1 locus contributes to CD susceptibility. The CD-associated 250-kb region was saturated with 111 SNP markers. Haplotype analysis supports a complex locus architecture with multiple variants contributing to disease susceptibility. The novel 5p13.1 CD locus is contained within a 1.25-Mb gene desert. We present evidence that disease-associated alleles correlate with quantitative expression levels of the prostaglandin receptor EP4, PTGER4, the gene that resides closest to the associated region. Our results identify a major new susceptibility locus for CD, and suggest that genetic variants associated with disease risk at this locus could modulate cis-acting regulatory elements of PTGER4. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive effects of glucocorticoids on T cell function by upregulation of interleukin-7 receptor alpha
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See detailThymic neuroendocrine self-antigens. Role in T-cell development and central T-cell self-tolerance
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