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See detailPRESEASON ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE IN ELITE SOCCER: ISOKINETIC VERSUS FUNCTIONAL TESTS
Delvaux, François ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in XXVIII Isokinetic Medical Group Conference - Football Medicine meets the universe of sport (2019, April)

Introduction Isokinetic and functional jump tests are frequently performed for assessing physical qualities of soccer players during preseason(1, 3). The main purpose of this investigation was to explore ... [more ▼]

Introduction Isokinetic and functional jump tests are frequently performed for assessing physical qualities of soccer players during preseason(1, 3). The main purpose of this investigation was to explore, in a high-level soccer players population, the relationships between isokinetic strength and functional jump performances. Methods Thirty-eight male soccer players from a belgian first division professional soccer club were included (mean age: 24±6 years; height: 183±8 cm; weight: 77±7 kg). The test battery was composed of: an isokinetic knee assessment (Cybex Humac Norm® dynamometer (CSMI, Stoughton, USA)) in concentric (CON) mode (60 and 240°.s-1) for quadriceps and hamstrings, and in eccentric (ECC) mode for the hamstrings only (30°.s-1)(2); one-leg hop tests for distance (single hop (SH), triple hop (TH) and triple crossover hop (TCH)); one-leg vertical jump tests (counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) on force plates (Kistler®, Kistler Group, Switzerland)). Results No correlations were found between all the isokinetic (absolute or relative performances) and the jump parameters (r<0.40). Players with a low bodyweight normalized (BWN) quadriceps (Q) strength (<2.71N.m.kg-1, first quartile) showed significant reduced jump performances (maximal height of CMJ, absolute and relative peak vertical ground reaction forces of DJ, all hop test performances; p<0.05) compared to the players with high BWN Q strength (>3.14N.m.kg-1, third quartile). Hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios were not correlated with hop or vertical jump performances (r<0.40). In the past injured group (n=17), greater bilateral differences between uninjured and past injured lower limbs were found with isokinetics (Q CON 60 (mean bilateral difference (MBD): 10.3%; p<0.01), Q CON 240°.s-1 (MBD: 9.9%; p<0.05), H ECC 30°.s-1 (MBD: 16.1%; p<0.001)) than with functional tests (MBD: 2 to 9%; p>0.05) excepted for TCH (MBD: 8%; p=0.01). Concerning the group without past injury, no statistical differences were found between dominant and non dominant sides for all the isokinetic or functional variables (p>0.05). Conclusions According to our results, it might be appropriate to associate vertical jump tests or hop tests with an isokinetic assessment during a preseason soccer players screening. Furthermore, given that bilateral differences between past injured and uninjured limb were mostly highlighted by the isokinetic test than by functional tests, the isokinetic test seems to be an essential tool for preseason assessment. Finally, as a low BWN quadriceps peak torque at 60°.s-1 is related to a weak jump performance, strength and conditioning professionals should take into consideration this parameter in the player’s assessment. References (1) Bogdanis GC, Kalapotharakos VI. Knee Extension Strength and Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Imbalances in Elite Soccer Players. Int J Sports Med. 2016; 37(2):119–24. (2) Croisier J-L, Ganteaume S, Binet J, Genty M, Ferret J-M. Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36(8):1469–75. (3) Menzel H-J, Chagas MH, Szmuchrowski LA, Araujo SRS, de Andrade AGP, de Jesus-Moraleida FR. Analysis of lower limb asymmetries by isokinetic and vertical jump tests in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27(5):1370–7. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive method for detecting zero-velocity regions to quantify stride-to-stride spatial gait parameters using inertial sensors
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Joris, Laura ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2019) (2019, February 25)

We present a new adaptive method that robustly detects zero-velocity regions to accurately and precisely quantify (1) individual stride lengths (SLs), (2) individual stride velocities (SVs), (3) the ... [more ▼]

We present a new adaptive method that robustly detects zero-velocity regions to accurately and precisely quantify (1) individual stride lengths (SLs), (2) individual stride velocities (SVs), (3) the average of SL, (4) the average of SV, and (5) the cadence during slow, normal, and fast overground walking conditions in young and healthy people. The measurements involved in the estimation of these spatial gait parameters are obtained using only one inertial measurement unit attached on a regular shoe at the level of the heel. This adaptive method reduced the integration drifts across consecutive strides and improved the accuracy and precision in the spatial gait parameter estimation. The validation of the proposed algorithm has been carried out using reference spatial gait parameters obtained from a kinematic reference system. The accuracy ± precision results were for SLs: 0.0 ± 4.7 cm, −0.7 ± 4.4 cm, and −5.8 ± 5.8 cm, during slow, normal, and fast walking conditions, respectively, corresponding to −0.1 ± 4.2 %, −0.5 ± 3.2 %, and −3.3 ± 3.0 % of the respective mean SL. The accuracy ± precision results were for SVs: 0.0 ± 2.9 cm/s, −0.7 ± 3.8 cm/s, and −6.7 ± 6.7 cm/s, during slow, normal, and fast walking conditions, respectively, corresponding to −0.6 ± 3.3 %, −0.1 ± 4.5 %, and −3.5 ± 3.1 % of the respective mean SV. These validation results show a good agreement between the proposed method and the reference, and demonstrate a fairly accurate and precise estimation of these spatial gait parameters. The proposed method paves the way for an objective quantification of spatial gait parameters in routine clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailLa position trophée au service en tennis
Tubez, François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

Conference (2019, February)

Introduction : Le service est un des coups les plus importants du tennis. De nombreux outils technologiques permettent d'étudier ce geste de façon précise. C'est le cas des systèmes d'analyse ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le service est un des coups les plus importants du tennis. De nombreux outils technologiques permettent d'étudier ce geste de façon précise. C'est le cas des systèmes d'analyse tridimensionnelle. L'intérêt de ces outils est de faire évoluer les joueurs vers un geste "optimal" pour effectuer le service le plus performant et le moins traumatisant possible. L'objectif de cette étude est d'observer la séquence des actions réalisées autour de la "position trophée" et de déterminer un potentiel meilleur moment pour la décrire. Nous avons également observé l'évolution de cette position au cours du développement du joueur. Matériel, population et méthode : Une analyse cinématique 3D en laboratoire a été réalisée sur 8 joueurs adultes professionnels, 8 joueurs adolescents espoirs et 8 jeunes enfants joueurs nationaux. (Tableau 1) Les tests réalisés dans cette étude sont effectués au Laboratoire d’Analyse du Mouvement Humain de l’Université de Liège. Le laboratoire est aménagé afin de correspondre le plus possible aux dimensions et aux caractéristiques d’un terrain de tennis. Le système Codamotion est un système d’analyse tridimensionnelle qui utilise des marqueurs actifs. Il est constitué de quatre unités CX1 et de 28 marqueurs Nous avons utilisé 28 marqueurs branchés à 7 boitiers (4 marqueurs par boitier). Ceux-ci sont placés selon des repères anatomiques qui respectent les recommandations de l’International Society of Biomechanics (ISB). Résultats : Les instants de flexion maximale des genoux, de position basse du bassin, de flexion du coude à 90° et de position basse du coude semblent être ceux se rapprochant le plus de la position trophée observée chez le joueur élite. (Tableau 2) L'analyse statistique met en évidence des différences significatives entre les groupes lors de cette position trophée. Conclusion ou discussion: La séquence des actions chez les adultes commence par une flexion des membres inférieurs et se poursuit par le placement de la raquette en position haute. Cette séquence est inversée chez les enfants. Le timing des différentes phases du service est différent entre les groupes: une phase de préparation plus longue et une phase d'accélération plus courte sont observées chez les adultes. Il est désormais possible de décrire plus précisément la position trophée et ses caractéristiques, ce qui n'avait jusqu'à présent jamais été fait. Il serait intéressant pour l’entraîneur de réaliser des séances de travail spécifiques pour cette position trophée afin d'améliorer son apprentissage depuis le plus jeunes âge. [less ▲]

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See detailDyskinésie scapulaire et kinésiotape : analyse électromyographique
Tooth, Camille ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Colman, David ULiege et al

in Kinesitherapie, La Revue (2019, February), 206

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See detailEvolution of the trophy position along the tennis serve player’s development
Tubez, François ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Sports Biomechanics (2019)

The trophy position is a coaching cue for the tennis serve that usually corresponds to the racquet high point (RHP) during the preparatory action for the stroke. Mastering this position and its time of ... [more ▼]

The trophy position is a coaching cue for the tennis serve that usually corresponds to the racquet high point (RHP) during the preparatory action for the stroke. Mastering this position and its time of occurrence seems essential in overarm movements like in the tennis serve. Clinicians and coaches have a real interest in understanding the trophy position and its evolution during the development of the elite players at different ages. A 3D motion system was used to measure the kinematics of the serve. A group of high-level tennis players were selected for three different age groups: 8 adults (ITN 1), 8 teenagers (ITN 3) and 8 children (ITN 5–6). Results show a modified pattern sequence of the tennis serve between children and adult players. RHP appears earlier relative to impact for children (−0.54 ± 0.10 s) than for adults (−0.36 ± 0.11 s) and teenagers (−0.33 ± 0.05 s) (p = 0.007). At RHP, children present lower trunk transverse plane rotation (p < 0.003) and higher shoulder external rotation (p < 0.003). These positions for the child players may represent an increased risk of shoulder and trunk injury than for older players and contribute to a lower racquet resultant velocity at impact. [less ▲]

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See detailReprise des activités après chirurgie tendineuse : quels critères utiliser ?
COLLIN, Romain ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; DANIEL, Christophe ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2018), 35(4), 240-255

Objective. – This review aims to identify assessment criteria for return to sport and return to daily activitiesafter surgery of rotator cuff tendon, epicondylar tendon and patellar and Achilles tendons ... [more ▼]

Objective. – This review aims to identify assessment criteria for return to sport and return to daily activitiesafter surgery of rotator cuff tendon, epicondylar tendon and patellar and Achilles tendons.News. – Tendinous surgery is a therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies reticent to conservativetreatment and tendon ruptures. Return to daily activities and return to sport criteria after tendon surgeryare often not functional and not individualized. Therefore, it is essential to propose, along with othermusculoskeletal lesions, validated recommendations in order to estimate the timeframe for return toactivities.Prospects and projects. – We used clinical criteria such as pain, joint amplitude, isometric and isokineticforce, endurance of leg muscles and jump tests. The results of algofunctional questionnaires adapted to thestudy of the tendon structure, such as Constant score, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE),Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment adapted to the patellar tendon (VISA-P), Achilles tendon TotalRupture Score (ATRS) and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment adapted to Achilles tendon (VISA-A) arealso part of the criteria listed. In the future, it is necessary to define threshold values of the various scoresand tests proposed in order to be able to better define the time-limit before resumption of activities andto guarantee it in complete safety.Conclusion. – Numerous criteria for return to daily activities et return to sport after tendon surgery arerecorded in the literature. Of these, some seem more relevant to ensure a resumption of activities. Regar-ding the return to play, we recommend to integrate these parameters to the model defined by Creightonet al. [less ▲]

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See detail20 ans d’isocinétisme à l’épaule
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, November)

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See detailDyskinésie scapulaire chez le sportif : faut-il la contrer ?
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Tooth, Camille ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2018), 35

tThe role played by the scapula in the sporting gestures of arming-throwing or striking a projectile appearsfundamental; it concerns placement and proper scapular mobilization to facilitate the ... [more ▼]

tThe role played by the scapula in the sporting gestures of arming-throwing or striking a projectile appearsfundamental; it concerns placement and proper scapular mobilization to facilitate the functionality of theshoulder. On the other hand, an inappropriate position or mobilization of the scapula during the gesturecould limit the performance or exacerbate an injury. Scapulo-thoracic dysfunction, called dyskinesia, iscommon in the sports shoulder including the upper limb; it is observed in pathological athletes, butalso in asymptomatic sports shoulder. In the presence of a pathology of shoulder, an oriented balanceshould make it possible to identify a possible dyskinesis. The reeducative follow-up then includes a spe-cific management dedicated to the functional causes of this scapulo-thoracic dysfunction. The preventiveapproach is also essential, given the links revealed by prospective studies between the presence of dys-kinesia and the occurrence of lesions. In addition, the benefit of the preventive intervention appears tobe demonstrated during a longitudinal follow-up of athletes integrating a preventive program comparedto a control group. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention en sport : quels outils ?
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2018), 35(3), 176-181

Le suivi du risque lésionnel des sportifs implique l’utilisation d’outils validés. Sous le terme d’outils, nous privilégierons la notion de protocole d’évaluation qui englobe des dimensions variées tel ... [more ▼]

Le suivi du risque lésionnel des sportifs implique l’utilisation d’outils validés. Sous le terme d’outils, nous privilégierons la notion de protocole d’évaluation qui englobe des dimensions variées tel que les outils de mesures, les conditions de passation du test, l’expertise des opérateurs … C’est en effet la somme de ces aspects qui déterminera, in fine, la qualité d’un test. Les protocoles d’évaluation impliquent au préalable l’identification de facteurs de risque puis l’évaluation du caractère prédictif de ces facteurs de risque. En outre, le protocole utilisé devra être reproductible entre les sessions pour permettre un suivi longitudinal du sportif mais aussi, si possible, entre les opérateurs et entre les centres d’évaluation. Le développement d’outils de prévention représente donc un travail considérable mais absolument nécessaire pour s’assurer de l’efficacité de la prise en charge des sportifs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prévention des blessures sportives: modèles théoriques et éléments-clés d'une stratégie efficace
Delvaux, François ULiege; KAUX, Jean-François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2018), 35(3), 152-157

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See detailL’isocinétisme : toujours d’actualité en prévention lésionnelle ?
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Delvaux, François ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2018), 35

reasonable approach to injury prevention strategies suggests that a single technique, whatever it maybe, will not allow the identification of all risk factors. The complementarity of several tools and ... [more ▼]

reasonable approach to injury prevention strategies suggests that a single technique, whatever it maybe, will not allow the identification of all risk factors. The complementarity of several tools and techniquesseems indispensable. Clinically, many centers perform isokinetic evaluations at the beginning of theseason, as a preventive intervention in high level athletes. Various publications report the usefulnessof isokinetics in primary and secondary prevention for pathologies sometimes specific to a sport. Otherstudies question the use of isokinetics in order to predict the occurrence of a lesion, particularly forhamstrings. In this work, we discuss the possible reasons for discordant results in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of an exhaustion closed chain exercise on the EMG activity of scapular muscles stabilizers
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Deby, Morgan ULiege; Tooth, Camille ULiege et al

Poster (2018, July)

The aim of the study was to study the evolution of the EMG activity of stabilizers of the scapula during an exhaustion exercise based on the Knee Push Up Plus exercise (KPUP) to detect the appearance of ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to study the evolution of the EMG activity of stabilizers of the scapula during an exhaustion exercise based on the Knee Push Up Plus exercise (KPUP) to detect the appearance of fatigue. Ten volunteers (men, 26+/-8 years old, 181+/-9 cm, 77+/-11 kg) performed a KPUP exercise until exhaustion. Surface EMG was measured for the lower and upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles. The results show that the exhaustion exercise have induced fatigue for the upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. On the contrary, our results do not show fatigue in the lower trapezius. [less ▲]

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See detailCapsulite rétractile : approche innovante d’un cathéter péri-nerveux et revalidation
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; BENMOUNA, Karim ULiege; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Abstract Book des 16èmes Journées de l’Enseignement Post-Universitaire de la Faculté de Médecine de Liège (2018, May 05)

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See detailPubalgie et isocinétisme de la hanche
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Leroy, Martin; DEFAWE, Nathalie ULiege et al

in Julia, Marc; Bonneau, D.; Daviet, JC (Eds.) et al La pubalgie : actualités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques (2018)

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See detailLa position « armée », un instant clé dans l’apprentissage du service au tennis ? Influence de l’âge et du niveau de jeu.
Tubez, François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

Poster (2018, February 24)

Introduction Lors de la réalisation du service au tennis, la position armée semble être un instant clé essentiel à la réussite du geste. Elle est le point de départ de la phase de frappe et conditionne la ... [more ▼]

Introduction Lors de la réalisation du service au tennis, la position armée semble être un instant clé essentiel à la réussite du geste. Elle est le point de départ de la phase de frappe et conditionne la bonne réalisation de celle-ci. Dans cette étude, nous étudions les caractéristiques biomécaniques de cet instant en comparant des joueurs de niveaux et d’âges différents. Matériel et Méthode Nous avons étudié les paramètres biomécaniques de la position armée de 24 joueurs, répartis en 3 groupes de niveaux et d’âges différents. Les tests ont été réalisés dans un laboratoire aménagé avec un système d’analyse optoélectronique en 3D (Codamotion). Résultats et Discussion Nous avons pu observer des différences significatives entre certains groupes, à savoir la séquence de la gestuelle, la rotation externe d’épaule, la rotation de la ceinture scapulaire dans le plan transversal ou encore la flexion des genoux. Les analyses portant sur notre groupe de joueurs professionnels nous ont permis de déterminer les paramètres d’une position armée optimale. Conclusion Notre étude a montré l’existence de différences significatives entre les groupes au niveau des amplitudes de certaines articulations à la position armée. Le niveau de jeu et l’âge des sujets influencent donc cette position, moment clef dans la réussite du service. [less ▲]

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See detailPreseason Strength Assessment of the Rotator Muscles and Shoulder Injury in Handball Players
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Delvaux, François ULiege et al

in Journal of Athletic Training (2018), 53(2), 174-180

CONTEXT: Few researchers have identified intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury in team handball players by analyzing measurements of maximal isokinetic rotator muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: To identify ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: Few researchers have identified intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury in team handball players by analyzing measurements of maximal isokinetic rotator muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: To identify possible intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury by analyzing measurements of maximal isokinetic rotator muscle strength. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Male team handball senior divisions (the highest level) in France and Belgium. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 108 male high-level handball players (age = 24 ± 4 years, height = 189 ± 6 cm, mass = 87 ± 11 kg) were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): All players completed a preseason questionnaire and performed a bilateral isokinetic assessment of the shoulder rotator muscles. On a monthly questionnaire, players reported any shoulder injury that they sustained during the season. RESULTS: On the preseason questionnaire, 51 of 108 (47%) participants reported a history of dominant-shoulder injury. A total of 106 participants completed the in-season questionnaire, with 22% (n = 23) reporting a shoulder injury on their dominant side during the subsequent season. Fourteen percent (n = 15) sustained microtraumatic injuries, and 8% (n = 8) described a traumatic injury. Backcourt players had a 3.5-times increased risk of injury during the new season compared with players in other positions. Among the isokinetic results, no risk factor for further injury was identified in handball players with microtraumatic injuries. For traumatic injuries, the concentric maximal strength developed by the internal rotators at high speed (240°/s) in the dominant shoulder was a protective factor against the risk of further injury. CONCLUSIONS: These results can potentially identify intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury and may be used to determine potential interventions for reducing this risk in handball players. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich tool for a tennis serve evaluation? A review
Tubez, François ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Paulus, Julien ULiege et al

in International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport (2018)

For coaches, the most common and easiest way to analyse the tennis serve is to refer to their own vision. However, human vision is insufficient to observe high-speed motion with great precision. With the ... [more ▼]

For coaches, the most common and easiest way to analyse the tennis serve is to refer to their own vision. However, human vision is insufficient to observe high-speed motion with great precision. With the improvement of technology, it is now possible to study the gesture from a quantitative point of view. The quantitative evaluation of the tennis serve focuses on the kinematics and kinetics of the player but also on the stroke result, which includes the ball speed and the ball trajectory. This review aims to highlight the current tools available for players, coaches, medical staffs and biomechanical researchers, to evaluate the tennis serve. This overview will provide information to the player’s entourage in order to choose the right tools depending on their specific purposes. All of these tools can be applied in performance improvement and injury prevention. [less ▲]

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