References of "Fauconnier, Marie-Laure"
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See detailEssentielles les huiles ?
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Dupuis, Henri

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailToxicité du muguet
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege

Speech/Talk (2019)

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See detailRosmarinus officinalis essential oil as an effective antifungal and herbicidal agent
Ben Kaab, Sofiène ULiege; Bettaieb Rebey, Iness ULiege; Hanafi, Marwa ULiege et al

in Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research (2019)

In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides, great interest has been focused on environment-friendly biological control agents and botanicals that preserve biodiversity. In this context, our study ... [more ▼]

In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides, great interest has been focused on environment-friendly biological control agents and botanicals that preserve biodiversity. In this context, our study aimed to assess the antifungal and herbicidal activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (EO) to find an alternative to synthetic pesticides. The chemical composition of R. officinalis essential oil was determined by gaz chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Results showed that R. officinallis EO was rich in monoterpenes and the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (54.6%), camphor (12.27%) and α-pinene (7.09%). However, under laboratory condition, two tests were carried out. The first one consisted on the study of EO antifungal activity using ELISA microplates and the second one consisted on evaluating the effect of EO on seedling growth of weeds. It was confirmed that this EO significantly inhibits spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium italicum and at 6 mM, the percentage of inhibition reached 100% on Fusarium oxysporum. Indeed, EO slows down seedling growth of Trifolium incarnatum, Silybum marianum, and Phalaris minor. In fact, EO at 5 mM completely inhibits seed germination. On the other hand, another experiment was carried out to evaluate the herbicidal activity by spraying EO on weeds. This showed that a novel herbicide formulation was set up for the first time to improve the activity of R. officinalis EO on post-emergence. Overall, R. officinalis EO can be suggested as a potential eco-friendly pesticide and suitable source of natural compounds potentially usable as natural pesticides. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de composés organiques volatils (COVs) émis lors de l'interaction hôte - pathogène par des souches produisant des mycotoxines.
Josselin, Laurie ULiege; De Boevre, Marthe; De Clerck, Caroline ULiege et al

Poster (2019, April 03)

Method for the qualitative detection (SPME) of VOCs emitted by toxigenic (mycotoxin-producing) and non-toxigenic (non mycotoxin-producing) strains.

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See detailOptimization of ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of flavonoids from sweet potato leaves by response surface methodology
Mu, Tai-Hua; Sun, Hongnan; Liu, Jiang et al

in Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2019)

Ultrasonic–microwave synergistic extraction was used to extract flavonoids from sweet potato leaves (SPL) by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for flavonoids extraction were 1:40 (g/ml ... [more ▼]

Ultrasonic–microwave synergistic extraction was used to extract flavonoids from sweet potato leaves (SPL) by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for flavonoids extraction were 1:40 (g/ml) of solid–liquid ratio, 57°C of extraction temperature, 76 s of extraction time, and 72% (v/v) ethanol for 2 times, the highest extraction efficiency was 91.65 ± 3.37%. After purification, the flavonoids purity reached to 76.10 ± 3.11 (%, DW). The result of high‐performance liquid chromatography revealed 11 compounds including astragalin (473.8 ± 7.3 mg/g, DW), quercetrin (86.5 ± 0.7 mg/g, DW), 4,5‐chlorogenic acid (76.4 ± 0.5 mg/g, DW), isoquercitrin (62.4 ± 0.4 mg/g, DW), tiliroside (18.8 ± 0.3 mg/g, DW), quercetin (12.5 ± 0.2 mg/g, DW), 3,4,5‐chlorogenic acid (6.5 ± 0.2 mg/g, DW), caffeic acid (6.1 ± 0.2 mg/g, DW), kaempferol (6.0 ± 0.2 mg/g, DW), myricetrin (5.9 ± 0.1 mg/g, DW), and rhamnetin (4.3 ± 0.1 mg/g, DW) in sweet potato leaf flavonoids, which possessed good antioxidant activity compared to soy isoflavones, ginkgo biloba extract, and propolis flavone. The IC50 value of sweet potato leaf flavonoids was 13.26 ± 0.09 μg/ml in ferric reducing antioxidant power and 5.41 ± 0.21 in 2, 2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐ 6‐sulphonic acid) scavenging capacity, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailEpoxiconazole exposure affects terpenoid profiles of oilseed rape plantlets based on a targeted metabolomic approach
Durenne, Bastien ULiege; Blondel, Alodie; Druart, Philippe et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2019)

Epoxiconazole is a broad-spectrum fungicide described as highly persistent in soil and as such can be considered as an abiotic agent like other problematic agrochemicals. Furthermore, the plant ... [more ▼]

Epoxiconazole is a broad-spectrum fungicide described as highly persistent in soil and as such can be considered as an abiotic agent like other problematic agrochemicals. Furthermore, the plant phenotyping tool involving non-invasive monitoring of plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be useful in the identification of metabolic markers for abiotic stress. We therefore decided to profile the VOCs from secondary metabolism of oilseed rape through a dose-response experiment under several epoxiconazole concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1). VOC collections of 35-day-old whole plantlets were performed through a dynamic headspace sampling technique under defined and controlled conditions. The plantlets grew freely within a home-made, laboratory and high-throughput glass chamber without any disturbance. Putative metabolic markers were analysed using a targeted metabolomic approach based on TD-GC-MS method coupled with data acquisition in SIM mode in order to focus on terpenes and sulphur-containing volatiles. Chromatograms of emitted terpenes were achieved accurately for the 35-day-old oilseed rape plantlets. We also analysed the presence of sulphur-containing volatiles in samples of shoot and root tissues using an innovative DHS-TD-GC-MS method, but no difference was found between qualitative profiles. Nevertheless, we demonstrated through this experiment that sesquiterpenes such as β-elemene and (E,E)-α-farnesene are involved in epoxiconazole dose-response. In particular, (E,E)-α-farnesene could serve as a metabolic marker of fungicide exposure for oilseed rape plantlets. [less ▲]

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See detailStress-related accumulation of arabidopsides: impact on chloroplast membranes
Genva, Manon ULiege; Deleu, Magali ULiege; Andersson, M.X. et al

Poster (2019, April)

Oxylipins are crucial agents in plant defense mechanisms. While free oxylipins are well studied, roles of esterified oxylipins remain unclear. Esterified oxylipins are structurally diverse metabolites ... [more ▼]

Oxylipins are crucial agents in plant defense mechanisms. While free oxylipins are well studied, roles of esterified oxylipins remain unclear. Esterified oxylipins are structurally diverse metabolites that were found in diverse plant species, suggesting that those may be more ubiquitous that currently thought. Among those, galactolipids containing (dn)OPDA were discovered, firstly in A. thaliana, but also in other plants. Those molecules, named arabidopsides, are highly induced under stress conditions, as it accumulates up to 8 percent of plant lipids, but their precise contributions in plant defense mechanisms are still unknown. Arabidopsides are directly formed in plant chloroplast membranes from galactolipids. Accumulation of arabidopsides in such high quantity in chloroplast membranes may modify their properties (e.g. photosynthetic activity). This study aims to understand the impact of arabidopside presence in chloroplast membranes on their properties using biomimetic plant membranes via complementary in silico and in vitro approaches. Interfacial properties of arabidopsides and non-oxidized galactolipids were studied using Langmuir film balance. Results showed that arabidopsides possess different interfacial properties compared to non-oxidized chloroplast lipids. Arabidopsides ability to permeabilize chloroplast membranes was also studied in vitro. Arabidopsides A and B are able to permeabilize chloroplast membranes while arabidopside D is not. In conclusion, arabidopside production by plants under stress conditions may modify chloroplast membrane properties such as its permeability. As chloroplast membrane lipid composition is essential to its photosynthetic ability, such changes may also affect its function. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between natural herbicides and lipid bilayers mimicking the plant plasma membrane
Lebecque, Simon ULiege; Lins, Laurence ULiege; Dayan, Franck E. et al

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2019), 10

Natural phytotoxic compounds could become an alternative to traditional herbicides in the framework of sustainable agriculture. Nonanoic acid, sarmentine and sorgoleone are such molecules extracted from ... [more ▼]

Natural phytotoxic compounds could become an alternative to traditional herbicides in the framework of sustainable agriculture. Nonanoic acid, sarmentine and sorgoleone are such molecules extracted from plants and able to inhibit the growth of various plant species. However, their mode of action is not fully understood and despite clues indicating that they could affect the plant plasma membrane, molecular details of such phenomenon are lacking. In this paper, we investigate the interactions between those natural herbicides and artificial bilayers mimicking the plant plasma membrane. First, their ability to affect lipid order and fluidity is evaluated by means of fluorescence measurements. It appears that sorgoleone has a clear ordering effect on lipid bilayers, while nonanoic acid and sarmentine induce no or little change to these parameters. Then, a thermodynamic characterization of interactions of each compound with lipid vesicles is obtained with isothermal titration calorimetry, and their respective affinity for bilayers is found to be ranked as follows: sorgoleone > sarmentine > nonanoic acid. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations give molecular details about the location of each compound within a lipid bilayer and confirm the rigidifying effect of sorgoleone. Data also suggest that mismatch in alkyl chain length between nonanoic acid or sarmentine and lipid hydrophobic tails could be responsible for bilayer destabilization. Results are discussed regarding their implications for the phytotoxicity of these compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailDes huiles essentielles pour protéger les grains
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; De Muelenaere, Michel

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailNew essential oils with interesting biological activities from endemic plants of Côte d'Ivoire: Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum and Zanthoxylum psammophilum
Tanoh, Amenan Evelyne ULiege; Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Kenne Kemene, Tierry ULiege et al

Poster (2019, February 04)

New essential oils with interesting biological activities from endemic plants of Côte d’Ivoire: Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum (Ake Assi) and Zanthoxylum psammophilum (Ake Assi). Evelyne A. Tanoh1 ... [more ▼]

New essential oils with interesting biological activities from endemic plants of Côte d’Ivoire: Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum (Ake Assi) and Zanthoxylum psammophilum (Ake Assi). Evelyne A. Tanoh1*, Fatimata Nea1, Tierry K. Kenne2, Manon Genva2, Matthew Saive2, Felix Z. Tonzibo1, Marie-Laure Fauconnier2. 1 Laboratory of Biological Organic Chemistry, UFR-SSMT, University Felix Houphouet-Boigny, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire 2 Laboratory of Natural Molecules Chemistry, University of Liège, Gembloux Agro- Bio Tech, 2, Passage of Deportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium According to OMS nearly 80% of the population depend on traditional medicine given the strong growth in the use of natural products from plants1. Many Rutaceae plants are already used in traditional medicine for their biological properties such as anticancer and antioxidant activities. Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum (Ake Assi) and Zanthoxylum psammophylum (Ake Assi) are endemic Rutaceae to Côte d’Ivoire. In order to determine if those plants could be used in medicine, the aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activities of essential oils extracted from both plants. Essential oils of our plants isolated from the leaves, trunk bark and roots. Their chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. In vitro biological properties were determined using two activities: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The analysis of the essential oils of leaves, trunk bark and roots of Z. psammophylum exhibit the predominance of two unusual methyl ketones, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in leaves and trunk bark. These compounds have biological properties according to the literature2. The root is rich in thymol. Z. mezoneurispinosum oil is rich in alpha pinene for leaves and trunk bark, while the root is rich in gamma-elemene and cyclosativene. Cyclosativene is known for its biological activities3. The essential oils of both plants showed in increasing order antioxidant value in the leaves, trunk bark and roots. A measure of anti-inflammatory activity was found to in decreasing order in the root, followed by leaves and trunk bark. These plants could constitute a source of active molecules for traditional medicine in Côte d'Ivoire. However, although these plants are endemic in this country, they are not abundant and it is necessary to limit and protect the distribution of nurseries to produce plants and reintroduce these species into their natural habitat. References 1- O.M.S, 2002. : Besoins et potentiel. N° 4. 6 p. 2- Saini Mukesh and al, (2014). J. Agric. Food. Chem, 62: 4342 – 4348. 3- Kang Min-Seung, Lee Hoi-Seon, (2018). Applied Biological chemistry 61 (6): pp 653 – 659. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an essential oil-based new tool for pest-management in orchards : research methodology
Werrie, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Jean Le Goff, Guillaume; Hance, Thierry et al

Poster (2019, February 04)

The rosy apple aphid (Disaphys plantaginea) and the pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) are responsible for large yield decreases in both apple and pear orchads through sap sucking and desease spreading. To ... [more ▼]

The rosy apple aphid (Disaphys plantaginea) and the pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) are responsible for large yield decreases in both apple and pear orchads through sap sucking and desease spreading. To manage them, farmers use a range of phytosanitary products, that are sometimes very damaging to the environment/health. TREE INJECTION aims to propose an alternative technique based on an essential oil formulation that will be injected directly in the tree vascular system. Essential oils are natural insecticides developed by some plants through evolution, by injecting them directly in the tree, we hope to increase their persistence and avoid negative impact in the environment. The first objective is to select the essential oil (or the blend) presenting the strongest insecticidal and/or harmful properties (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterent) by rearing insects on artificial diets. Secondly, the possible phytotoxicity of these essential oils on trees will then be evaluated along with their translocation and impact within the plant. This will be monitored by designing a Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect essential oil components within different organs of the tree (leaves, fruits) as well as phloem and xylem saps. Thirdly, the impact of formulation techniques such as micro-emulsion or other encapsulation techniques on the biodisponibility and persistence will be under investigation. Finally, the efficiency of these treatments will be evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailArabidopside interactions with plant membranes
Genva, Manon ULiege; Deleu, Magali ULiege; Andersson, Mats X. et al

Poster (2019, February 04)

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See detailInvestigating the effect of plants on PAHs dissipation and bioaccessibility in brownfield contaminated soils (3 and 6 months cultures).
Davin, Marie ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2019, February 04)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistant organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, damaging ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistant organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, damaging ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, experiences have been carried on to understand and develop techniques based on bioremediation and phytoremediation. The main objective of the study was to investigate the potential of plants (Medicago sativa L. or Trifolium pratense L.) as PAHs bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. The first step was to adapt a bioaccessibility measurement protocol, using Tenax® beads, to the studied contaminated soil. Meanwhile soil samples were cultured in pots with one of the plant species for three, six, nine, and twelve months and compared to unplanted soil samples. Each modality was repeated five times for a total of 60 samples. PAHs desorption kinetics were established for 15 PAHs and described by a site distribution model. A common Tenax® beads extraction time (24 h) was established as a comparison basis for PAHs bioaccessibility assessments. Bioaccessible and residual PAHs were quantified using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD) on the three and six months samples, as the experiment is still underway. Preliminary results will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCarcass traits and lamb meat quality assessment of Beni G uil's PGI sheep from eastern Morocco
Belhaj, K.; Tikent, A.; Mansouri, A. et al

Poster (2019, February)

In Morocco, Breeding is one of the primordial sectors in the national economy, playing an important socio-economic role. The "ANOC" a Moroccan national association for sheep and goat breeders, has ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, Breeding is one of the primordial sectors in the national economy, playing an important socio-economic role. The "ANOC" a Moroccan national association for sheep and goat breeders, has achieved the "PGI Beni Guil Sheep". Many breeders from eastern Morocco contributed into this labialization process and an agreement between "ANOC" and the certification body “NORMACERT” has been signed to certify the labeling of meat from Beni Guil lambs. The first batch of labeled lambs was produced in 2012 [1]. The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of the carcass and meat quality of "Beni Guil" female lambs reared in this semi-arid region (eastern plateau of Morocco), because female lambs are most available for slaughter during all the year, whereas male lambs are generally fattened and reserved for the festival of sacrifice "Aid Aladha". [less ▲]

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See detailVariability of essential oil composition and biological activities of Lantana rhodesiensis Moldenke from Côte d'Ivoire.
Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Tanoh, Amenan Evelyne ULiege; Kenne Kemene, Tierry ULiege et al

Conference (2019, February)

Lantana rhodesiensis Moldenke is an herb or small shrub under two meters tall which is often multi-stemmed 1. It is used in traditional medicine for several treatments like diabetes1, rheumatism2, and ... [more ▼]

Lantana rhodesiensis Moldenke is an herb or small shrub under two meters tall which is often multi-stemmed 1. It is used in traditional medicine for several treatments like diabetes1, rheumatism2, and arterial hypertension3. The aim of the present study was to determine the variation in the chemical composition of essential oils of L. rhodesiensis from Côte d’Ivoire. It also aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves, stems and fruits of L. rhodesiensis from two localities of Northern Côte d’Ivoire. Essential oil composition was determined by GC-MS. The study of the antioxidant activity of leave essential oils was carried out by the DPPH and FRAP method; the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of protein denaturation method. Results showed that the main constituents present in most essential oils extracted from leaves, fruits and stems were β-caryophyllene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene and α-humulene. However, thymol was the major component in three leave samples. The stem oils are also dominated by caryophyllene oxide or thymol. It may be concluded that the sesquiterpenes were the predominant molecules in all essential oil samples of L. rhodesiensis from Northern Côte d'Ivoire. The results of the biological activities carried out on the leave essential oil samples showed that these oils have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study showed the interest of L. rhodesiensis for the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes in traditional medicine. L. rhodesiensis is a potential source for isolating new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules. 1. Piero, N. M. et al. J Dev. Drugs 4, 2 (2015). 2. Ruffo CK, Birnie A, Tengnas B. Edible wild plants of Tanzania p418 (2002). 3. JeanBangou, M., Kiendrebeogo, M., Compaoré, M. & Coulibaly, A. Y. J. Biol. Sci. 11, 31–38 (2011). [less ▲]

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See detailLes huiles essentielles : enjeux et perspectives
Kenne Kemene, Tierry ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, January 28)

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See detailEffect of ingredients on the quality of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour
Liu, X; Mu, T; Sun, H et al

in Journal of Food Science and Technology (2019)

Response surface methodology was used to analyze effects of the amounts of pregelatinized potato flour (PGPF), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), egg white protein (EWP), and water on the dough ... [more ▼]

Response surface methodology was used to analyze effects of the amounts of pregelatinized potato flour (PGPF), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), egg white protein (EWP), and water on the dough fermentation and physical properties of gluten-free (GF) steamed bread based on potato flour. The results showed that PGPF, HPMC, EWP, and water at the appropriate amounts improved the maximum dough height (H m ), specific volume (SV) and hardness, as well as H m correlated with SV (R 2 = 0.6993) and hardness (R 2 = 0.7273). Moreover, the optimal formulation contained 4.84 g/100 g PGPF, 1.68 g/100 g HPMC, 5.87 g/100 g EWP, and 69.69 g/100 g water, potato flour basis. Furthermore, the dietary fiber, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and estimated glycemic index of the steamed GF bread were, respectively, 3.17-, 1.56-, 1.44-, and 0.75-fold of those of steamed wheat bread. The optimized steamed GF bread was found to be acceptable according to the results of sensory analysis. Information collected within this study may provide further insight for optimizing the formulation of steamed GF bread based on potato flour. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms in cyanogenic glucoside and cyano-aminoacid content in natural accessions of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and selection for improved agronomic performance
Aouida, Marwa; Rook, Fred; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca et al

in Plant Breeding (2019)

Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an important annual forage legume. It is used as a cover crop, green manure, pasture legume and for silage and hay production. Its seeds can be used as a source of highly ... [more ▼]

Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an important annual forage legume. It is used as a cover crop, green manure, pasture legume and for silage and hay production. Its seeds can be used as a source of highly digestible protein and minerals in animal diets. However, their utilization as a feedstuff for monogastric animals is hindered by the fact that the seeds contain cyanogenic antinutritional factors that reduce their palatability. An effective utilization of V. sativa seeds as a successful monogastric feed stuff requires selection for higher protein availability and minimization of the cyanogenic antinutritional factors content. In this study, we selected one natural accession named Mjez Ibeb, from a collection of 25 accessions and cultivars, based on its superior agronomic performance and its naturally occurring genetic variation for cyanogenic traits. We investigated the genetic variation that exists for the cyanogenesis trait in more detail and analysed the seeds of 133 lines derived from accession Mjez lbeb. Of these, 40 naturally polymorphic lines that showed deficiencies in cyanogenesis and cyano‐amino acid content, were subsequently selected for detailed chemical analysis. Cyanogenic glucosides and cyano‐amino acid concentrations varied widely in the 40 lines. Multivariate analysis was performed and three lines (L16, L21, L18) with low content of cyanogenic compounds were identified. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical composition of Tunisian Nigella sativa L. at different growth stages and assessment of the phytotoxic potential of its organic fractions
Zribi, Ines; Ghezal, Nadia; Sbai, Haifa et al

in Plant Biosystems (2019), 153(2), 205-212

The present study was conducted to study some biochemical characteristics of Tunisian Nigella sativa at different developmental stages of plant growth (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) and to ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to study some biochemical characteristics of Tunisian Nigella sativa at different developmental stages of plant growth (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) and to screen the chemical constituents and the phytotoxic activity of their organic extracts on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The GC–MS analysis of petroleum ether fractions revealed that N. sativa seeds were rich in linoleic acid (58% of total fatty acids), oleic acid (22% of total fatty acids) and palmitic acid (12% of total fatty acids). The fatty acid composition of aerial parts showed an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids accompanied by a concomitant decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids levels during the developmental stage. The phytochemical investigation showed that among the organic extracts, the methanolic extract from aerial parts harvested at the fruiting stage contained the highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The phytotoxic study revealed that N. sativa negatively affected the growth of lettuce plants. This effect was largely dependent on the developmental stage at which material was collected and the nature of extracting solvent. The methanolic extract of aerial parts harvested at the vegetative stage was the most active on seedling growth of lettuce. [less ▲]

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