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See detailEffect of antimicrobial drug on lung microbiota in healthy dogs.
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Vangrinsven, Emilie ULiege; Tutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2018, October 12)

In human and dogs, baseline differences in lung microbiota (LM) have been associated with important clinical features in chronic lung diseases (CLD) and there is growing evidence that an altered LM ... [more ▼]

In human and dogs, baseline differences in lung microbiota (LM) have been associated with important clinical features in chronic lung diseases (CLD) and there is growing evidence that an altered LM contributes to disease pathogenesis. The common use of antibiotic drugs throughout the management of CLD likely represents a major confounding factor in the study of the LM. However, the effect of antibiotic treatment on the LM in healthy individuals has not been specifically investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to assess the short and medium-term effect of an oral treatment with a large spectrum antimicrobial drug on the LM in healthy dogs. Six healthy experimental beagle dogs were included. Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (AC) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days. In each dog, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at 3 different timepoints: before administration of AC (J0) and immediately (J10) as well as 16 days (J26) after interruption of AC. In each BALF, total and differentiated cell counts were obtained and metagenetic analyses were performed on the V1-V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA after total bacterial DNA extraction and sequencing on a MiSeq Illumina sequencer. Taxonomical assignation and microbiota community analysis were done with MOTHUR V1.35 with an OTU clustering distance of 0.03. Statistical comparisons between events for microbiota community and BALF cell counts were made using Friedman test and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Statistical differences in bacterial population relative abundance between timepoints were assessed using a mixed linear model with FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Administration of AC did not induce significant changes in BALF cellular counts and had no effect on the richness, evenness and alpha diversity. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria abundance increased from J0 to J10 (mean: 12.0 to 24.1, and 12.3 to 26.2%, respectively; p<0.001) and decreased at J26 (13.1 and 9.3%; p<0.001). Firmicutes abundance decreased from J0 to J10 (45.6 to 18.3%; p<0.001) and increased at J26 (28.8%; p<0.001). Actinobacteria abundance increased at J26, compared with J0 and J10 (43.7 compared with 23.2 and 23.5% respectively; p<0.001). We failed to show significant differences between timepoints at the level of genera and species. In conclusion, in healthy dog, oral administration of a commonly used large spectrum antimicrobial drug induces significant changes in microbial population abundance at the phyla level. Most but not all of these changes normalize within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of serum Krebs Von den Lungen 6 concentration as a predisposing factor and in the diagnosis of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the West Highland white terrier.
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Roels, Elodie ULiege; Bolen, Géraldine ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September 06)

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) mimics human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and affects old dogs from the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Due to difficulties to both diagnose ... [more ▼]

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) mimics human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and affects old dogs from the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Due to difficulties to both diagnose early and follow the course of pulmonary fibrosis, numerous biomarkers have been studied in both species. In humans, the mucin Krebs Von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) has consistently been found to be increased in the serum from patients with interstitial lung disease, including IPF and is possibly involved in the IPF pathophysiological process. In CIPF, it has not yet been assessed. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of serum KL-6 concentration in CIPF as well as the association between serum KL-6 concentrations and breed predisposition for the disease. Blood was obtained from 5 groups of dogs: WHWTs affected with CIPF (n=20, 14 females (F)/6 males (M), mean age=11.0y, range [5.2-14.5]), healthy aged-matched WHWTs (n=18, 11F/7M, 10.5y [5.3-15.3]), and healthy dogs from other breeds not predisposed for CIPF: Jack Russel terriers (JR) (n=13, 8F/5M, 6.0y [3.0-9.1]), Malinois Belgian shepherds (MBS) (n=13, 5F/8M, 6.5y [2.8-10.8]) and King Charles spaniels (KCS) (n=13, 9F/4M, 6.5y [3.6-9.3]). Serum was stored at -80°C until batched analysis. KL-6 concentration was measured with a commercially available ELISA test (Canine Krebs Von den Lungen 6 Elisa kit, amsbio). Results were compared using a covariance analysis including the 5 groups defined above, gender and an interaction between groups and gender together with the effect of the age. The analysis was followed by post-hoc comparisons between groups using t-tests. Results show that only the effect of groups was significant (p=0.010). Serum KL-6 concentration was higher in healthy WHWTs (4.8+/-4.0 ng/ml) compared with KCS (1.6+/-1.8 ng/ml) and MBS (2.2+/-1.0 ng/ml) (p=0.001 and 0.013 respectively) and higher in JR (4.1+/-2.9 ng/ml) compared with KCS (p=0.016). There was no difference between CIPF (3.2+/-1.9 ng/ml) and healthy WHWTs (p=0.072). In conclusion, differences in serum KL-6 concentrations were found amongst breeds in healthy dogs, with higher concentrations observed in terrier breeds. Whether this may reflect a predisposing factor for CIPF development merits further investigations. Unlike what has been found in human IPF, KL-6 is not a good serum biomarker for diagnosis as there was no difference between CIPF and unaffected WHWTs. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a single dose of buprenorphine on rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) gastrointestinal motility
Deflers, Hélène ULiege; Gandar, Frederic ULiege; Bolen, Géraldine ULiege et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia (2018)

OBJECTIVE: To establish a noninvasive imaging protocol for rabbit gastrointestinal transit evaluation. To assess the effect of a single injection of buprenorphine on the digestive transit of rabbits via ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To establish a noninvasive imaging protocol for rabbit gastrointestinal transit evaluation. To assess the effect of a single injection of buprenorphine on the digestive transit of rabbits via this new technique. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, parallel study. ANIMALS: Fifteen specific pathogen-free male New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.68 ± 0.28 kg. METHODS: A 10 mL kg-1 barium meal was administered and the rabbits were subjected to serial radiographic and ultrasound examinations without treatment and 1 week later following a single intramuscular dose of 100 μg kg-1 of buprenorphine. Radiographic data from the stomach and caecum were collected and assigned a retention score ranging from 0 (no barium) to 3 (large amount of barium). The resulting scores and pyloric and duodenal contraction counts were analysed using a mixed linear model and are expressed as least square mean (lsm) ± standard error. Transit was estimated based on the apparition time of faeces in the pelvic area and analysed using a Wilcoxon test. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Buprenorphine treatment induced a higher lsm number of pyloric (1.73 ± 0.19 versus 0.78 ± 0.19, p < 0.01) and lsm duodenal contractions (17.35 ± 1.04 versus 13.44 ± 1.04, p < 0.01). Buprenorphine administration decreased the lsm barium retention score in the stomach (2.44 ± 0.05 versus 2.64 ± 0.05, p < 0.01), but had no effect on the lsm barium retention score in the caecum. The time to apparition of faeces in the pelvic area was not influenced by buprenorphine administration (p = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A single high dose of buprenorphine appears to have no adverse effect on gastrointestinal motility in healthy rabbits. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy.
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes (2018)

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen storage diseases but their role has been overlooked in equine PSSM. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial function is impaired in the myofibers of PSSM-affected horses. Nine horses with a history of recurrent exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis were tested for the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) mutation: 5 were tested positive (PSSM group) and 4 were tested negative (horses suffering from rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, RUO group). Microbiopsies were collected from the gluteus medius (gm) and triceps brachii (tb) muscles of PSSM, RUO and healthy controls (HC) horses and used for histological analysis and for assessment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) using high-resolution respirometry. The modification of mitochondrial respiration between HC, PSSM and RUO horses varied according to the muscle and to substrates feeding OXPHOS. In particular, compared to HC horses, the gm muscle of PSSM horses showed decreased OXPHOS- and electron transfer (ET)-capacities in presence of glutamate&malate&succinate. RUO horses showed a higher OXPHOS-capacity (with glutamate&malate) and ET-capacity (with glutamate&malate&succinate) in both muscles in comparison to the PSSM group. When expressed as ratios, our results highlighted a higher contribution of the NADH pathway (feeding electrons into Complex I) to maximal OXPHOS or ET-capacity in both rhabdomyolysis groups compared to the HC. Specific modifications in mitochondrial function might contribute to the pathogenesis of PSSM and of other types of exertional rhabdomyolyses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a P-class CpG-ODN administered by intramuscular injection on plasma cytokines and on white blood cells of healthy horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Frellstedt, Linda; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2018), 201

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic ... [more ▼]

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic injection in healthy horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and the effect of an intramuscularly administered P-class CpG-ODN on hematology and on plasma cytokines (IFN-α,IL-10, TNF-α,IFN-γ) in eight healthy horses. Intra-muscular CpG-ODN or placebo (PBS) was administered twice at a 7 days-interval. Groups were inversed after 2 months of washout period. A physical examination, complete blood count (CBC) and plasma cytokine measurements were performed from 2 days before injection up to 21 days after injection.P-class CpG-ODN injection was well tolerated with minor side effects. After the first injection a significant transient drop in circulating total leukocytes, lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes were observed. A transient drop in circulating eosinophils was also noted during 48 hours after each CpG injection. P-class CpG-ODN at a dose of 5 mg can be safely used in horses. A redistribution of white blood cells was observed in horses receiving CpG, but no change in plasma cytokines was observed at the indicated dose, route of administration and sampling times. [less ▲]

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See detailKNN-MDR: a learning approach for improving interactions mapping performances in genome wide association studies
Abo Al Chamlat, Sinan ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege

in BMC Bioinformatics (2017), 18

Background Finding epistatic interactions in large association studies like genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with the nowadays-available large volume of genomic data is a challenging and largely ... [more ▼]

Background Finding epistatic interactions in large association studies like genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with the nowadays-available large volume of genomic data is a challenging and largely unsolved issue. Few previous studies could handle genome-wide data due to the intractable difficulties met in searching a combinatorial explosive search space and statistically evaluating epistatic interactions given a limited number of samples. Our work is a contribution to this field. We propose a novel approach combining K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and Multi Dimensional Reduction (MDR) methods for detecting gene-gene interactions as a possible alternative to existing algorithms, e especially in situations where the number of involved determinants is high. After describing the approach, a comparison of our method (KNN-MDR) to a set of the other most performing methods (i.e., MDR, BOOST, BHIT, MegaSNPHunter and AntEpiSeeker) is carried on to detect interactions using simulated data as well as real genome-wide data. Results Experimental results on both simulated data and real genome-wide data show that KNN-MDR has interesting properties in terms of accuracy and power, and that, in many cases, it significantly outperforms its recent competitors. Conclusions The presented methodology (KNN-MDR) is valuable in the context of loci and interactions mapping and can be seen as an interesting addition to the arsenal used in complex traits analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailGoat breeding in the rural district of Chemini (Algeria)
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Ait Kaki, Asma; Touazi, Leghel et al

in Nature and Technology (2017), n° 16/Janvier

The Kabyle goat breed represents 10.52% of the total Algerian market (3.8 million heads). A survey of 69 farmers has been carried out in order to characterize it and its breeding in the District of ... [more ▼]

The Kabyle goat breed represents 10.52% of the total Algerian market (3.8 million heads). A survey of 69 farmers has been carried out in order to characterize it and its breeding in the District of Chemini. The questions focused on household agricultural activities, including breeding of goats, cattle, sheep, rabbits, chicken, turkeys, honeybees and the production of olive oil and figs. The goat morpho-biometric characterization was based on 18 corporal measurements. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of the farm structures defined four groups of farms, variance between groups accounting for 55.7% of total variability. The average number of goats in groups 1 to 4 was 7.2±2.8, 11.1±3.5, 22.3±1.4 and 3.4±1.0, respectively. Group 3 (n=6), showed the greatest number; it consists of older farmers (67 years old or over) not practicing arboriculture. They also have the largest numbers of sheep (48.67), rabbits (50.83), chicken (48.33) and turkeys (42). Group 4 (n=9), with the lowest number of goats, was the group of young farmers (39 years old or less), more dedicated to cattle breeding (~52 heads) and the production of olive oil (~207 trees) and figs (~47 trees). The 18 morpho-biometric variables were significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.05). The Kabyle goat is small (Height at withers: male: 68.23±0.97cm and female: 65.41±0.55cm) with long hair (male: 12.24±0.51cm, and female: 9.51±0.29cm). Its ears are drooping, its convex profile has a slightly pronounced nasal split and its dress color ranges from dark brown to black. This adapted genetic resource should be key in the development of a local production, based on a strong commitment of farmers inside a breed association, for the production of specimens corresponding to a standard, to be determined collectively. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-based partitioning of individual genomic inbreeding levels in Belgian Blue cattle.
Sole Berga, Marina ULiege; Gori, Ann-Stephan ULiege; Faux, Pierre et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2017), 49(1), 92

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding coefficients can be estimated either from pedigree data or from genomic data, and with genomic data, they are either global or local (when the linkage map is used). Recently, we ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding coefficients can be estimated either from pedigree data or from genomic data, and with genomic data, they are either global or local (when the linkage map is used). Recently, we developed a new hidden Markov model (HMM) that estimates probabilities of homozygosity-by-descent (HBD) at each marker position and automatically partitions autozygosity in multiple age-related classes (based on the length of HBD segments). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize inbreeding with our model in an intensively selected population such as the Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) cattle breed; (2) compare the properties of the model at different marker densities; and (3) compare our model with other methods. RESULTS: When using 600 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the inbreeding coefficient (probability of sampling an HBD locus in an individual) was on average 0.303 (ranging from 0.258 to 0.375). HBD-classes associated to historical ancestors (with small segments </= 200 kb) accounted for 21.6% of the genome length (71.4% of the total length of the genome in HBD segments), whereas classes associated to more recent ancestors accounted for only 22.6% of the total length of the genome in HBD segments. However, these recent classes presented more individual variation than more ancient classes. Although inbreeding coefficients obtained with low SNP densities (7 and 32 K) were much lower (0.060 and 0.093), they were highly correlated with those obtained at higher density (r = 0.934 and 0.975, respectively), indicating that they captured most of the individual variation. At higher SNP density, smaller HBD segments are identified and, thus, more past generations can be explored. We observed very high correlations between our estimates and those based on homozygosity (r = 0.95) or on runs-of-homozygosity (r = 0.95). As expected, pedigree-based estimates were mainly correlated with recent HBD-classes (r = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed high levels of autozygosity associated with small HBD segments in BBB cattle, recent inbreeding accounted for most of the individual variation. Recent autozygosity can be captured efficiently with low-density SNP arrays and relatively simple models (e.g., two HBD classes). The HMM framework provides local HBD probabilities that are still useful at lower SNP densities. [less ▲]

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See detailMoku Virus in Invasive Asian Hornets, Belgium, 2016.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; El Agrebi, Noémie ULiege et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2017), 23(12), 2109-2112

We report the detection of Moku virus in invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. This constitutes an unexpected report of this iflavirus outside Hawaii, USA, where it was recently ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of Moku virus in invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. This constitutes an unexpected report of this iflavirus outside Hawaii, USA, where it was recently described in social wasps. Although virulence of Moku virus is unknown, its potential spread raises concern for European honeybee populations. [less ▲]

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See detailReference values of two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic measurements as a function of body size in various equine breeds and in ponies.
Al-Haidar, Ali; Moula, Nassim ULiege; Leroux, Aurélia ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Cardiology (2017)

Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic reference values for the equine species using allometric regression equations based on body weight (BW) and thoracic circumference ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic reference values for the equine species using allometric regression equations based on body weight (BW) and thoracic circumference (TC). Animals: A total of 239 horses or ponies were studied, including 65 warmbloods, 33 Standardbreds, 41 Thoroughbreds, 32 Arabian horses, 28 draft horses and 40 ponies aged from 1 day to 30 years, weighing from 18 to 890 kg, with no evidence of cardiac disease. Methods: For each horse or pony, a two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed. Within each breed, the relationships between BW or TC and echocardiographic dimensions were examined using power regression equations. Predictions and their 95% prediction intervals were calculated for the echocardiographic measurements. Results: Within each breed, all echocardiographic measurements showed a significant and positive relationship with a high coefficient of determination for the estimation of the regression equations using BW and TC as the main explanatory variables. Breed-specific power regression equations as well as the 95% prediction intervals were calculated for each echocardiographic measurement as a function of BW and TC. Conclusions: In the future, the body size-corrected and breed-specific echocardiographic reference values calculated in the present study could be used to discriminate between normal and abnormal values in a given animal. [less ▲]

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See detailHost DNA released by NETosis promotes rhinovirus-induced type-2 allergic asthma exacerbation.
Toussaint, Marie; Jackson, David J.; Swieboda, Dawid et al

in Nature Medicine (2017), 23

Respiratory viral infections represent the most common cause of allergic asthma exacerbations. Amplification of the type-2 immune response is strongly implicated in asthma exacerbation, but how virus ... [more ▼]

Respiratory viral infections represent the most common cause of allergic asthma exacerbations. Amplification of the type-2 immune response is strongly implicated in asthma exacerbation, but how virus infection boosts type-2 responses is poorly understood. We report a significant correlation between the release of host double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) following rhinovirus infection and the exacerbation of type-2 allergic inflammation in humans. In a mouse model of allergic airway hypersensitivity, we show that rhinovirus infection triggers dsDNA release associated with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis. We further demonstrate that inhibiting NETosis by blocking neutrophil elastase or by degrading NETs with DNase protects mice from type-2 immunopathology. Furthermore, the injection of mouse genomic DNA alone is sufficient to recapitulate many features of rhinovirus-induced type-2 immune responses and asthma pathology. Thus, NETosis and its associated extracellular dsDNA contribute to the pathogenesis and may represent potential therapeutic targets of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Major Envelope Glycoprotein of Murid Herpesvirus 4 Promotes Sexual Transmission.
Zeippen, Caroline ULiege; Javaux, Justine; Xiao, Xue ULiege et al

in Journal of Virology (2017), 91(13),

Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Infection control has proven difficult because the key process of transmission is ill understood. Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), a ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Infection control has proven difficult because the key process of transmission is ill understood. Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus of mice, is transmitted sexually. We show that this depends on the major virion envelope glycoprotein gp150. gp150 is redundant for host entry, and in vitro, it regulates rather than promotes cell binding. We show that gp150-deficient MuHV-4 reaches and replicates normally in the female genital tract after nasal infection but is poorly released from vaginal epithelial cells and fails to pass from the female to the male genital tract during sexual contact. Thus, we show that the regulation of virion binding is a key component of spontaneous gammaherpesvirus transmission.IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses are responsible for many important diseases in both animals and humans. Some important aspects of their life cycle are still poorly understood. Key among these is viral transmission. Here we show that the major envelope glycoprotein of murid herpesvirus 4 functions not in entry or dissemination but in virion release to allow sexual transmission to new hosts. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between sedation and general anesthesia for high resolution computed tomographic characterization of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in west highland white terriers
Roels, Elodie ULiege; Couvreur, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2017)

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT ... [more ▼]

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT) findings for CIPF acquired under general anesthesia have been described previously. However, the use of general anesthesia may be contraindicated for some affected dogs. Sedation may allow improved speed and safety, but it is unknown whether sedation would yield similar results in identification and grading of CIPF lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational, method-comparison, case-control study was to compare findings from T-HRCT images acquired under sedation versus general anesthesia for WHWTs affected with CIPF (n=11) and age-matched controls (n=9), using the glossary of terms of the Fleischner Society and a scoring system. Ground-glass opacity (GGO) was identified in all affected WHWTs for both sedation and general anesthesia acquisitions, although the GGO extent varied significantly between the two acquisitions (P<0.001). Ground-glass opacity was the sole lesion observed in control dogs (n=6), but was less extensive compared with affected WHWTs. Identification and grading of a mosaic attenuation pattern differed significantly between acquisitions (P<0.001). Identification of lesions such as consolidations, nodules, parenchymal and subpleural bands, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis did not differ between acquisitions. The present study demonstrated that T-HRCT obtained under sedation may provide different information than T-HRCT obtained under general anesthesia for identification and grading of some CIPF lesions, but not all of them. These differences should be taken into consideration when general anesthesia is contraindicated and sedation is necessary for evaluating WHWTs with CIPF. [less ▲]

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See detailConserved Fever Pathways across Vertebrates: A Herpesvirus Expressed Decoy TNF-alpha Receptor Delays Behavioral Fever in Fish.
Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Forlenza, Maria et al

in Cell Host and Microbe (2017), 21(2), 244-253

Both endotherms and ectotherms (e.g., fish) increase their body temperature to limit pathogen infection. Ectotherms do so by moving to warmer places, hence the term "behavioral fever." We studied the ... [more ▼]

Both endotherms and ectotherms (e.g., fish) increase their body temperature to limit pathogen infection. Ectotherms do so by moving to warmer places, hence the term "behavioral fever." We studied the manifestation of behavioral fever in the common carp infected by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, a native carp pathogen. Carp maintained at 24 degrees C died from the infection, whereas those housed in multi-chamber tanks encompassing a 24 degrees C-32 degrees C gradient migrated transiently to the warmest compartment and survived as a consequence. Behavioral fever manifested only at advanced stages of infection. Consistent with this, expression of CyHV-3 ORF12, encoding a soluble decoy receptor for TNF-alpha, delayed the manifestation of behavioral fever and promoted CyHV-3 replication in the context of a temperature gradient. Injection of anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies suppressed behavioral fever, and decreased fish survival in response to infection. This study provides a unique example of how viruses have evolved to alter host behavior to increase fitness. [less ▲]

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