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See detailMessenger RNA sequencing and pathway analysis provide novel insights into the susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis Infection in Chickens
Li, P.; Fan, W.; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Genetics (2018), 9(JUL),

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Controlling poultry SE infection will have great practical significance for human public health ... [more ▼]

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Controlling poultry SE infection will have great practical significance for human public health, as poultry are considered to be important sources and carriers of the disease. In this study, the splenic transcriptomes of challenged-susceptible (S), challenged-resistant (R) and non-challenged (C) chicks (3-days old, specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn) were characterized in order to identify the immune-related gene markers and pathways. A total of 934 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in comparisons among the C, R and S birds. First reported here, the DEGs involved in the Forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway, especially FoxO3, were identified as potential markers for host resistance to SE infection. The challenged-susceptible birds exhibited strong activation of the FoxO signaling pathway, which may be a major defect causing immune cell apoptosis as part of SE-induced pathology; these S birds also showed weak activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related genes, contrasting with strong splenic activation in the R birds. Interestingly, suppression of several pathways in the immune response against Salmonella, including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and Jak-STAT, was only found in S birds and there was evidence of cross-talk among these pathways, perhaps contributing to susceptibility to Salmonella infection. These findings will help facilitate understanding resistance and susceptibility to SE infection in the earliest phases of the host immune response through Salmonella-induced pathways, provide new approaches to develop strategies for SE prevention and treatment, and may enhance innate resistance by genetic selection in animals. © 2018 Li, Fan, Everaert, Liu, Li, Zheng, Cui, Zhao and Wen. [less ▲]

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See detailSplenic microRNA expression profiles and integration analyses involved in host responses to Salmonella enteritidis infection in chickens
Li, P.; Fan, W.; Li, Q. et al

in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (2017), 7(AUG),

To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, next generation sequencing was applied to explore the altered splenic ... [more ▼]

To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, next generation sequencing was applied to explore the altered splenic expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and deregulated genes in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Birds were either infected or not (controls, C) and those challenged with SE were evaluated 24 h later and separated into two groups on the basis of the severity of clinical symptoms and blood load of SE: resistant (R, SE challenged-slight clinical symptoms and <10 5 cfu / 10 μL), and susceptible (S, SE challenged-severe clinical symptoms and >10 7 cfu/10 μL). Thirty-two differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in spleen, including 16 miRNAs between S and C, 13 between R and C, and 13 between S and R. Through integration analysis of DE miRNAs and mRNA, a total of 273 miRNA-target genes were identified. Functional annotation analysis showed that Apoptosis and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and adaptive immune response were significantly enriched (P < 0.05). Interestingly, apoptosis pathway was significantly enriched in S vs. C, while NOD-like receptor pathway was enriched in R vs. C (P < 0.05). Two miRNAs, gga-miR-101-3p and gga-miR-155, in the hub positions of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, were identified as candidates potentially associated with SE infection. These 2 miRNAs directly repressed luciferase reporter gene activity via binding to 3'-untranslated regions of immune-related genes IRF4 and LRRC59; over-expressed gga-miR-155 and interference gga-miR-101-3p in chicken HD11 macrophage cells significantly altered expression of their target genes and decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings facilitate better understanding of the mechanisms of host resistance and susceptibility to SE infection in chickens. © 2017 Li, Fan, Li, Wang, Liu, Everaert, Liu, Zhang, Zheng, Cui, Zhao and Wen. [less ▲]

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See detailZhao et al. Reply
Zhao, J. Z.; Fan, W.; Verstraete, Matthieu ULiege et al

in Physical Review Letters (2017), 118(23), 239602

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See detailQuasi-One-Dimensional Metal-Insulator Transitions in Compound Semiconductor Surfaces
Zhao, J. Z.; Fan, W.; Verstraete, Matthieu ULiege et al

in Physical Review Letters (2016), 117

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