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See detailValidated assessment of gait sub-phase durations in older adults using an accelerometer-based ambulatory system
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; GILLAIN, Sophie ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2018) (in press)

Validated extraction of gait sub-phase durations using an ambulatory accelerometer-based system is a current unmet need to quantify subtle changes during the walking of older adults. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Validated extraction of gait sub-phase durations using an ambulatory accelerometer-based system is a current unmet need to quantify subtle changes during the walking of older adults. In this paper, we describe (1) a signal processing algorithm to automatically extract not only durations of stride, stance, swing, and double support phases, but also durations of sub-phases that refine the stance and swing phases from foot-worn accelerometer signals in comfortable walking of older adults, and (2) the validation of this extraction using reference data provided by a gold standard system. The results show that we achieve a high agreement between our method and the reference method in the extraction of (1) the temporal gait events involved in the estimation of the phase/sub-phase durations, namely heel strike (HS), toe strike (TS), toe-off (TO), maximum of heel clearance (MHC), and maximum of toe clearance (MTC), with an accuracy and precision that range from ‒3.6 ms to 4.0 ms, and 6.5 ms to 12.0 ms, respectively, and (2) the gait phase/sub-phase durations, namely stride, stance, swing, double support phases, and HS to TS, TO to MHC, MHC to MTC, and MTC to HS sub-phases, with an accuracy and precision that range from ‒4 ms to 5 ms, and 9 ms to 15 ms, respectively, in comfortable walking of a thirty-eight older adults ( (mean ± standard deviation) 71.0 ± 4.1 years old). This demonstrates that the developed accelerometer-based algorithm can extract validated temporal gait events and phase/sub-phase durations, in comfortable walking of older adults, with a promising degree of accuracy/precision compared to reference data, warranting further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the effect of a second closely-timed PRP infiltration for tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in British Journal of Sports Medicine (in press)

Introduction: Some clinical series have previously evaluated the effect of PRP in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathies. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Some clinical series have previously evaluated the effect of PRP in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathies. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of successive infiltrations which is arguably likely to increase the risks of complications. Methods: Our study is a single blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial on 20 leisure sportsmen (2 groups, respectively 1 or 2 infiltrations of pure PRP) with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies, rebel to classical management. PRP was obtained using an aphaeresis machine. The one-year follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, while algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations were carried out up to 3 months. Results: The concentration of the PRP used was similar in both groups. The VAS significantly decreased with time over the 3-month follow-up period (p=0.002), with no difference observed between the two groups (p=0.2). Values obtained with the pressure algometer increased with time across both groups over the 3-month follow-up period (p<0.0001), and values were significantly higher for Group 1 (p=0.001). The IKDC score increased with time in both groups over the follow-up period (p=0.034), with values again significantly higher for Group 1 (p=0.0026). The VISA-P score increased with time in both groups over the follow-up period (p=0.0023), with no difference observed between the groups (p=0.41). No improvements in isokinetic physical performance were observed in either group. However, pain during E30 significantly decreased over the 3-month follow-up period (p=0.027) for patients in both groups. No improvement in either jumping performances or in pain was observed in either group during opto-jump evaluation. No improvements in US findings were observed. After one year, 90% patients of group 1 did not report anymore pain during daily activities, in comparison with only 20% in group 2. Conclusions: A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich tool for a tennis serve evaluation? A review
Tubez, François ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Paulus, Julien ULiege et al

in International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport (2018)

For coaches, the most common and easiest way to analyse the tennis serve is to refer to their own vision. However, human vision is insufficient to observe high-speed motion with great precision. With the ... [more ▼]

For coaches, the most common and easiest way to analyse the tennis serve is to refer to their own vision. However, human vision is insufficient to observe high-speed motion with great precision. With the improvement of technology, it is now possible to study the gesture from a quantitative point of view. The quantitative evaluation of the tennis serve focuses on the kinematics and kinetics of the player but also on the stroke result, which includes the ball speed and the ball trajectory. This review aims to highlight the current tools available for players, coaches, medical staffs and biomechanical researchers, to evaluate the tennis serve. This overview will provide information to the player’s entourage in order to choose the right tools depending on their specific purposes. All of these tools can be applied in performance improvement and injury prevention. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie des sports olympiques de ballon en salle. Partie 3 : le volley-ball et comparaison des 3 sports
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Roberjot, Mathieu; DELVAUX, François ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2017), 34(4), 217-222

In volleyball, there is no contact between opponents (excepting faults). Overloading injuries are very frequent, and often involve the knee joint(jumper’s knee), the shoulders (cuff injuries), or the ... [more ▼]

In volleyball, there is no contact between opponents (excepting faults). Overloading injuries are very frequent, and often involve the knee joint(jumper’s knee), the shoulders (cuff injuries), or the spine (spondylolysis). Ankle sprains is the most common trauma, mainly occurring during theattack phase and in the defense position at the net. Among the three Olympic indoor ball sports, volleyball produces the least number of seriousinjuries due to the absence of contact between opponents. Trauma prevalence is mainly observed during games and when the playing surface isinappropriate. [less ▲]

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See detailNormalizing shoulder EMG: an optimal set of maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests considering reproducibility
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Tubez, François ULiege; WANG, François-Charles ULiege et al

in Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology (2017), 37

Normalization of the electromyography (EMG) signal is often performed relatively to maximal voluntary activations (MVA) obtained during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC). The first aim was to ... [more ▼]

Normalization of the electromyography (EMG) signal is often performed relatively to maximal voluntary activations (MVA) obtained during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC). The first aim was to provide an inter-session reproducible protocol to normalize the signal of eight shoulder muscles. The protocol should also lead to a level of activation >90% of MVA for >90% of the volunteers. The second aim was to evaluate the influence of the method used to extract the MVA from the EMG envelope on the normalized EMG signal. Thirteen volunteers performed 12 MVICs twice (one-week interval). Several time constants (100 ms to 2 s) were compared when extracting the MVA from the EMG envelope. The EMG activity was also acquired during an arm elevation. Our results show that a combination of nine MVIC tests was required to meet our requirements including reproducibility. Both the number of MVIC tests and the size of the time constant influence the normalized EMG signal during the dynamic activity (variations up to 15%). A time constant of 1 s was a good compromise to extract the MVA. These findings are valuable to improve the reproducibility of EMG signal normalization. [less ▲]

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See detailA gait cycle partitioning method using a foot-worn accelerometer system
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; Bruls, Olivier ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, November 30)

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See detailA gait cycle partitioning method using a foot-worn accelerometer system
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; Bruls, Olivier ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, November 30)

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See detailTraumatologie des sports olympiques de ballon en salle. Partie 2 : le handball
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Roberjot, Mathieu; DELVAUX, François ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2017)

Frequent often-rough contact between players explains why handball has one of the highest injury rates (mainly contusion) recorded at the LondonOlympic Games. Ankle injuries predominated. Head injuries ... [more ▼]

Frequent often-rough contact between players explains why handball has one of the highest injury rates (mainly contusion) recorded at the LondonOlympic Games. Ankle injuries predominated. Head injuries (commotion), shoulder injuries (dislocation and instability), and knee injuries (anteriorcruciate ligament tears) were also common. Wingmen are in constant activity both as attackers and defenders, making them the players with thehighest risk of injury. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the effect of a second closely-timed PRP infiltration for tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Le Goff, Caroline ULiege et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2017, September), 5(Supplement 1), 20-21

INTRODUCTION: Although PRP is very popular in sport, especially since it was removed from the doping list, it remains controversed in literature (3). Up to now, there exists no general agreement on the ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Although PRP is very popular in sport, especially since it was removed from the doping list, it remains controversed in literature (3). Up to now, there exists no general agreement on the preparation and the use of PRP. Some clinical series have previously evaluated the effect of PRP in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathies. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of two or three successive infiltrations. The multiplication of infiltrations is arguably likely to increase the risks of complications, and this treatment can be expensive. PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate whether two infiltrations of PRP prove more effective than a single treatment. METHODS: Our study is a single blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial on leisure sportsmen with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies, rebel to classical management, including physiotherapy, shock wave therapy… Twenty patients suffering from proximal patellar tendinopathies for over than 3 months were enrolled into the study. PRP was obtained using an aphaeresis machine (1). The subjects were split into two randomized groups and beneficed of 1 or 2 infiltrations of pure PRP, respectively. The one-year followup evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISAP scores, while algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations were carried out up to 3 months. RESULTS: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups (913.20 ± 65.60 × 103/ L for group 1 and 917.90 ± 63.08for group 2, with virtually no red (<0.001 × 106/ L) nor white cells (<0.001 × 103/ L) in either group). The VAS significantly decreased with time over the 3 month followup period (p = 0002), with no difference observed between the two groups (p = 0.2). Values obtained with the pressure algometer increased with time across both groups over the 3 month followup period (p < 0.0001), and values were significantly higher for Group 1 (p = 0.001). The IKDC score increased with time in both groups over the followup period (p = 0.034), with values again significantly higher for Group 1 (p = 0.0026). The VISAP score increased with time in both groups over the followup period (p = 0.0023), with no difference observed between the groups (p = 0.41). No improvements in isokinetic physical performance were observed in either group. However, pain during E30 significantly decreased over the 3 month followup period (p = 0.027) for patients in both groups. No improvement in either jumping performances or in pain was observed in either group during optojump evaluation. No improvements in US findings were observed. However, an increase of the sagittal hypoechoic area was observed in Group1 (p = 0.0038). After one year, 90% patients of group 1 did not report anymore pain during daily activities, in comparison with only 20% in group 2. In group 1, 20% of subjects still described pain during work activities and 40% during practicing sports versus 40% and 70%, respectively, in group 2. One patient in each group did not return to sport; both subjects still experienced pain through daily and occupational work activities. Six subjects among the group 1 (67%) and 7 among the group 2 (78%) returned to their former sport, and 55% of both groups to the former level than before the tendinopathy. However, 44% of the group 1 and 78% of the group 2 still experienced pain during sports activities. The practiced sports were football, handball, cycling, running, fitness.On the other hand, patients with only few months of symptoms did not evolved more favorably than those with symptoms for longer. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between 1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups after a followup period of 3 months. A second closely timed infiltration of PRP to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term (2). However, there remains a need to evaluate the longer term results. REFERENCES: Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Bruyere O, Rodriguez De La Cruz C, Forthomme B, Brabant G, Lapraille S, Lonneux V, Noel D, Le Goff C, Gothot A, Collette J, Crielaard JM. One injection of plateletrich plasma associated to a submaximal eccentric protocol to treat chronic jumper's knee. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015 Sep;55(9):95361 Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Forthomme B, Le Goff C, Buhler F, Savanier B, Delcour S, Gothot A, Crielaard JM. Using plateletrich plasma to treat jumper's knees: Exploring the effect of a second closelytimed infiltration. J Sci Med Sport. 2016 Mar;19(3):2004. Kaux JF, Drion P, Croisier JL, Crielaard JM. Tendinopathies and plateletrich plasma (PRP): from preclinical experiments to therapeutic use. J Stem Cells Regen Med. 2015 May 30;11(1):717. A10 [less ▲]

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See detailReliability of unipodal and bipodal counter movement jump landings in a recreational male population
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Paulus, Julien ULiege et al

in European Journal of Sport Science (2017), 17(9), 1143-1152

Movement patterns during landing have been suggested to be related to injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-session reliability of kinematic variables and ground reaction ... [more ▼]

Movement patterns during landing have been suggested to be related to injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-session reliability of kinematic variables and ground reaction forces during landing in a population of male recreational athletes after a counter movement jump. Both unipodal and bipodal landings were evaluated. Furthermore, the possibility to improve landing reliability with a verbal instruction was also studied. Twenty- four male volunteers with no history of lower-extremity trauma were randomly assigned to two groups (with and without verbal landing instruction). An optoelectronic 3D system and force plates were used to measure the lower-limb joint angles and the ground reaction forces during landing. Intraclass correlation values show moderate to excellent inter-session reliability for the bipodal task (ICC average: 0.80, range: 0.46 to 0.97) and poor to excellent reliability for the unipodal task (ICC average: >0.75, range: 0.20 to 0.95). However, large standard errors of measurement values at the ankle joint at impact (27.6 ± 11.5°) and for the vertical ground reaction forces (394 ± 1091 N) show that some variables may not be usable in practice. The verbal instruction had a negative effect on the reliability of unipodal landing but improved the reliability of bipodal landing. These findings show that the reliability of a landing task is influenced by its motor complexity as well as the instruction given to the subject. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of compliant mechanisms for deployable structures
Dewalque, Florence ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 101

This paper studies the dynamics of tape springs which are characterised by a highly geometrical nonlinear behaviour including buckling, the formation of folds and hysteresis. An experimental set-up is ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the dynamics of tape springs which are characterised by a highly geometrical nonlinear behaviour including buckling, the formation of folds and hysteresis. An experimental set-up is designed to capture these complex nonlinear phenomena. The experimental data are acquired by the means of a 3D motion analysis system combined with a synchronised force plate. Deployment tests show that the motion can be divided into three phases characterised by different types of folds, frequencies of oscillation and damping behaviours. Furthermore, the reproducibility quality of the dynamic and quasi-static results is validated by performing a large number of tests. In parallel, a nonlinear finite element model is developed. The required model parameters are identified based on simple experimental tests such as static deformed configurations and small amplitude vibration tests. In the end, the model proves to be well correlated with the experimental results in opposite sense bending, while in equal sense, both the experimental set-up and the numerical model are particularly sensitive to the initial conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximal voluntary isometric contraction tests for normalizing surface EMG of scapular stabilizers muscles
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Tubez, François ULiege; Soulier, Maxime et al

Conference (2017, July 04)

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See detailExperimental characterisation of tape spring nonlinear compliant mechanisms
Dewalque, Florence ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 29)

Tape springs are compliant mechanisms used as alternative to kinematic joints, for example, in deployable space structures. To reach a detailed understanding of their highly nonlinear behaviour, involving ... [more ▼]

Tape springs are compliant mechanisms used as alternative to kinematic joints, for example, in deployable space structures. To reach a detailed understanding of their highly nonlinear behaviour, involving buckling, the formation of folds, nonlinear vibrations and hysteresis, an experimental set-up is designed. Dynamic and quasi-static tests are performed, as well as small amplitude vibration tests and large amplitude deployments in order to collect data in a broad variety of cases. The acquisition equipment consists of a 3D motion analysis system which triangulates the position of active markers and a force plate. The reproducibility of the acquisitions is assessed and the parameters affecting the measurements are identified. In the end, a finite element model is developed and correlated with the experimental results. [less ▲]

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See detailRelevance of early stretching in overhead athletes
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Tubez, François ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 16)

Overhead athletes often develop, over time, a tightness of the posterior structures of the shoulder, which may be associated with injuries. Ten symptomatic (with pain) and ten asymptomatic players with a ... [more ▼]

Overhead athletes often develop, over time, a tightness of the posterior structures of the shoulder, which may be associated with injuries. Ten symptomatic (with pain) and ten asymptomatic players with a tight shoulder were compared and the effect of a self-applied stretching program was evaluated. Before and after the stretching program, pain and stiffness of the shoulder were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that risk factors for shoulder pain such as glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total range of motion deficit may only be limited in symptomatic athletes. The mobility of the shoulder was significantly improved after the stretching program for both groups. Pain was reduced when present. Because of the limited differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes, clinicians may find it advantageous to initiate early prevention or rehabilitation programs. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the laboratory context and the size of the markers set on the tennis serve evaluation
Tubez, François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 15)

The purpose of this study was to identify the influence on the tennis serve evaluation of 1/ the test environment and 2/ the number of the markers placed of the player. Two different studies were ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to identify the influence on the tennis serve evaluation of 1/ the test environment and 2/ the number of the markers placed of the player. Two different studies were performed. The first compared a 4 vs. 28 marker set in a laboratory the same day. The second compared a 4 markers test in a laboratory with a 4 markers test on an official tennis court one week apart. We observed similar results between the different tests of both studies. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie des sports olympiques de ballon en salle. Partie 1: le basket-ball
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Roberjot, Mathieu; DELVAUX, François ULiege et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2017), 34(2), 108-113

Basketball, handball and volleyball are three indoor ball sports played in the Olympic Games. An important solicitation of the upper limbs is acommon characteristic of these three sports. The main ... [more ▼]

Basketball, handball and volleyball are three indoor ball sports played in the Olympic Games. An important solicitation of the upper limbs is acommon characteristic of these three sports. The main objective of this review of the literature is to analyze the types of injury occurring in thesethree indoor ball games, looking for the specific localizations and their potential causes. Each sport will be discussed in a specific publication.Basketball is a very popular sport with a growing number of participants. The intensity of the game has increased as it has become more physical,leading to an increasing number of injuries. Ankle sprain is the most common injury in basketball. Back pain, finger fracture and tendon injury(jumper’s knee) or knee injury (anterior cruciate ligament tears) are also common. The main mechanism of traumatic injury is direct contact withthe opponent (during games) but there is also an increasing number of over-solicitation injuries. The length of time players must avoid sportsactivities after injury depends on the type of injury involved. [less ▲]

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See detailMotion analysis: a prevention tool
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; CROISIER, Jean-Louis ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege et al

Conference (2017, April 28)

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See detailFactors to be considered to perform a kinematic evaluation of the tennis serve
Tubez, François ULiege; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege et al

in Journal of Medecine and Science in Tennis (2017), 22

With the 2D video cameras and later the appearance of 3D measurement methods, the tennis serve has been increasingly studied. In order to improve the biomechanical evaluation of the tennis serve. Our goal ... [more ▼]

With the 2D video cameras and later the appearance of 3D measurement methods, the tennis serve has been increasingly studied. In order to improve the biomechanical evaluation of the tennis serve. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive view of the major factors of an evaluation protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithm for Temporal Gait Analysis Using Wireless Foot-Mounted Accelerometers
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege; Bruls, Olivier ULiege et al

Book published by Springer (2017)

We present a new signal processing algorithm that extracts five gait events: heel strike, toe strike, heel-off, toe-off, and heel clearance from only two accelerometers attached on the heels of the ... [more ▼]

We present a new signal processing algorithm that extracts five gait events: heel strike, toe strike, heel-off, toe-off, and heel clearance from only two accelerometers attached on the heels of the subjects usual shoes. This algorithm first uses a continuous wavelet-based segmentation that parses the signal of consecutive strides into motionless periods defining relevant local acceleration signals. Then, the algorithm uses versatile techniques to accurately extract the five gait events from these local acceleration signals. We validated, on a stride-by-stride basis, the extraction of these gait events by comparing the results with reference data provided by a kinematic 3D analysis system and a video camera. The accuracy and precision achieved by the extraction algorithm for healthy subjects, the reduced number of accelerometer units required, and the validation results obtained, encourage us to further study this system in pathological conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; DELVAUX, François ULiege; SCHAUS, Jean ULiege et al

in Journal of Hand Therapy (2016), 29(4), 496-504

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure ... [more ▼]

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. Objectives: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). Methods: The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman’s correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some sub scales of the SF-36) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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