References of "Ernst, Damien"
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See detailEnergiespecialist Damien Ernst: 'We hoeven helemaal niet minder energie te verbruiken'
Renard, Han; Ernst, Damien ULiege

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailIntroducing neuromodulation in deep neural networks to learn adaptive behaviours
Vecoven, Nicolas ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In this paper, we propose a new deep neural network architecture, called NMD net, that has been specifically designed to learn adaptive behaviours. This architecture exploits a biological mechanism called ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a new deep neural network architecture, called NMD net, that has been specifically designed to learn adaptive behaviours. This architecture exploits a biological mechanism called neuromodulation that sustains adaptation in biological organisms. This architecture has been introduced in a deep-reinforcement learning architecture for interacting with Markov decision processes in a meta-reinforcement learning setting where the action space is continuous. The deep-reinforcement learning architecture is trained using an advantage actor-critic algorithm. Experiments are carried on several test problems. Results show that the neural network architecture with neuromodulation provides significantly better results than state-of-the-art recurrent neural networks which do not exploit this mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailGovernments at COP24 should focus on building a global electricity grid – Prof. Damien Ernst
Gillman, Steve; Ernst, Damien ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailCritical Time Windows for Renewable Resource Complementarity Assessment
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This paper proposes a systematic framework to assess the complementarity of renewable resources over arbitrary geographical scopes and temporal scales which is particularly well-suited to exploit very ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a systematic framework to assess the complementarity of renewable resources over arbitrary geographical scopes and temporal scales which is particularly well-suited to exploit very large data sets of climatological data. The concept of critical time windows is introduced, and a spatio-temporal criticality indicator is proposed, consisting in a parametrised family of scalar indicators quantifying the complementarity between renewable resources in both space and time. The criticality indicator is leveraged to devise a family of optimisation problems identifying sets of locations with maximum complementarity under arbitrary geographical deployment constraints. The applicability of the framework is shown in a case study investigating the complementarity between the wind regimes in continental western Europe and southern Greenland, and its usefulness in a power system planning context is demonstrated. Besides showing that the occurrence of low wind power production events can be significantly reduced on a regional scale by exploiting diversity in local wind patterns, results highlight the fact that aggregating wind power production sites located on different continents may result in a lower occurrence of system-wide low wind power production events and indicate potential benefits of intercontinental electrical interconnections. [less ▲]

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See detailComplementarity Assessment of South Greenland Katabatic Flows and West Europe Wind Regimes
Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Berger, Mathias ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Current global environmental challenges require firm, yet diverse resolutions in the energy sector. One promising solution consists in harnessing high-quality variable renewable energy (VRE) resources in ... [more ▼]

Current global environmental challenges require firm, yet diverse resolutions in the energy sector. One promising solution consists in harnessing high-quality variable renewable energy (VRE) resources in remote locations, while using transmission links to wheel the power towards end users. In this context, a comparison of western Europe and Greenland wind regimes is proposed. By leveraging a regional atmospheric model with proven results in polar conditions, local climate associated with southern Greenland is identified to exhibit specific characteristics that facilitate extensive VRE generation levels. A methodology to assess the added value of wind harnessing in remote locations is introduced and applied on the aforementioned case study, showing superior and complementary wind generation potential in this region of Greenland with respect to selected European sites. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcement learning, energy systems and deep neural nets
Ernst, Damien ULiege

Speech/Talk (2018)

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See detailFostering Share&Charge through proper regulation
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

in Competition and Regulation in Network Industries (2018)

This article studies the emergence of Share&Charge, a German platform that organizes the sharing of charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) and the billing for the energy transactions. Share&Charge ... [more ▼]

This article studies the emergence of Share&Charge, a German platform that organizes the sharing of charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) and the billing for the energy transactions. Share&Charge follows a peer-to-peer fashion, enabling direct transactions between charging station owners and EV drivers. On the demand side, the platform, with its interactive map, makes it possible for EV owners to find a charging station in the most suitable location, for instance, at their place of work or where they live. On the offer side, Share&Charge enables station operators (private individuals or companies) to rent their charging stations and eventually to sell the electricity they produce. Charging tariffs within the charging station network are determined by the charging station operators themselves, but the platform provides indicative tariffs. Launched in September 2017, Share&Charge follows other initiatives, such as the French platforms Wattpop and ChargeMap, and the Swedish Elbnb. Share&Charge’s network is already proven to be successful with German citizens. Share&Charge adds certain elements of value at different stages of EV utilization. First, this model allows for a co-financing of charging infrastructures by individuals and businesses in the private sector by sharing the infrastructure costs among EV drivers. Besides the purchase price of EVs, the implementation of charging infrastructures and their financing represent a significant barrier to the rise of e-mobility. Share&Charge helps remove this obstacle without adding a further burden on the governmental budget. In addition, this approach follows the ‘‘user pays principle,’’ which engages in fair and effective financing. Second, the platform increases decentralized production value and facilitates its expansion. It also helps in avoiding grid congestion and energy loss, as well as increasing flexibility within the electricity market. Third, data use enables the optimization of energy demand and supply, and the optimal determination of tariffs, although these remain facultative. Models like Share&Charge could thus positively impact energy policy by tackling several upcoming obstacles associated with the development of EVs and decentralized energy production capacities. However, new forms of network structures (decentralized networks, sharing economy) and new actors (prosumers, platforms, etc.) also raise regulatory challenges. This article presents some of the legal issues associated with the development of models like Share&Charge. In particular, we study the tax framework applicable to this model, assuming that as such, it would be introduced into the Belgian market. [less ▲]

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See detailCentralised Planning of National Integrated Energy System with Power-to-Gas and Gas Storages
Berger, Mathias ULiege; Radu, David-Constantin ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (Medpower2018) (2018, November)

This paper proposes an optimisation-based framework to tackle long-term centralised planning problems of integrated energy systems with bi-directional electricity-gas carriers coupling under various ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an optimisation-based framework to tackle long-term centralised planning problems of integrated energy systems with bi-directional electricity-gas carriers coupling under various policy constraints. The framework is leveraged to gain insight into possible configurations of the future Belgian energy system, and identify the cost-optimal energy mix as well as short and long-term storage requirements to satisfy CO2 emissions reductions and energy security targets. Results shed light on the economics of a transition to a low-carbon energy system and reveal the potential of power-to-gas and storage in gas form to help achieve ambitious emissions reduction goals. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulatory Challenges for Share&Charge Models
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

in Network Industries Quarterly (2018), 20(3), 17-21

The platform Share&Charge provides an innovative solution to the lack of electric vehicles charging infrastructure, lying at the crossroad of the electricity market, the transport market and ... [more ▼]

The platform Share&Charge provides an innovative solution to the lack of electric vehicles charging infrastructure, lying at the crossroad of the electricity market, the transport market and digitalisation. This paper presents the functioning of Share&Charge and its potential, before assessing the tax treatment of operations involved in the use of the platform. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the efficiency of decentralized decision-making in self-dispatch power systems
Petitet, Marie; Perrot, Marie; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This paper focuses on market design options for operational balancing management in self-dispatch electric power systems. In particular, it investigates the most relevant timing for the balancing gate ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on market design options for operational balancing management in self-dispatch electric power systems. In particular, it investigates the most relevant timing for the balancing gate closure, when competitors can no longer modify their decisions on the setting of controllable assets and when this responsibility is simultaneously transferred to the system operator. This discussion is central in the development and implementation of the European Electricity Balancing Guideline. Based on a multi-level simulation tool with a realistic modelling of short-term power system operations including informational asymmetry between market participants and the system operator, this paper proposes the first quantitative assessment of reducing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes ahead of the imbalance settlement period. For different environments (energy mix, power plant capabilities, outages, etc…), the results highlight that postponing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes increases the operational cost of the system. Based on robust and scalable results, we show that this difference is mainly due to a better coordination of the available resources by the central decision maker. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet énergétique à 100 milliards de Damien Ernst
Scharff, Christine; Ernst, Damien ULiege

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailDistributed Control of Photovoltaic Units in unbalanced LV Distribution Networks to Prevent Overvoltages
Olivier, Frédéric ULiege; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULiege; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Proc. of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE 2018) (2018, August 12)

As more and more photovoltaic units are being installed, some LV networks have already attained their maximum hosting capacity, i.e. the maximum amount of distributed energy resources that they can ... [more ▼]

As more and more photovoltaic units are being installed, some LV networks have already attained their maximum hosting capacity, i.e. the maximum amount of distributed energy resources that they can accommodate during regular operations without suffering problems, such as overvoltages. As an alternative to network reinforcement, active network management (ANM) can, to a certain extent, increase their hosting capacity by controlling the power flows. In the framework of ANM, a distributed control scheme was previously presented. It makes use of a distress signal sent by each participating unit, when its terminal voltage is higher than 1.1 p.u. All units then proceed to absorb the maximum reactive power available. If the problem is not resolved, the units proceed to active power curtailment. This paper extends this control scheme to the case of unbalanced three-phase four-wire distribution networks with single- and/or three-phase inverters. The control scheme works by first partitioning the inverters into four groups, three for the single-phase inverters (one for each phase), and one for the three-phase converters. Each group then independently applies a distributed algorithm similar to the one previously presented. Their performance are then compared to those of two reference schemes, an on-off algorithm that models the default behaviour of PV inverters when there is an overvoltage, and the other one based on an unbalanced OPF. Its resulting total curtailed energy always lies between the two, with the on-off algorithm presenting the poorest performance, and the proposed algorithm losing its edge when the network is strongly unbalanced. [less ▲]

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See detailFostering Share&Charge through Proper Regulation
Vanrykel, Fanny ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Bourgeois, Marc ULiege

Conference (2018, June 22)

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See detailBlockchain for peer-to-peer energy exchanges: Probabilistic approach of Proof of Stake
Vangulick, David ULiege; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege

in CIRED WORKSHOP 2018 (2018, June 07)

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized ... [more ▼]

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized energy market. In the paper fro PSCC, we evaluated several designs that should allow a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to accept peer-to-peer energy exchanges supported by this technology. This acceptance is based on criteria such as a strong link with the wholesale/retail market, the resilience of the consensus to approve a block, the accuracy, traceability, privacy and security of the proposed schemes. We concluded that proof-of stake (PoS), where the choice of a node that creates a block is based on a measure of its wealth, is the only method to fulfill these requirements. In the present paper, we clarify the identification and estimation of bidding models to ensure that the PoS that we are developing is a correct response to two major issues with the PoS methodology, namely the concentration of wealth and the ”nothing to stake” issue. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain for peer-to-peer energy exchanges: design and recommendations (additional work)
Vangulick, David ULiege; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege

in CIRED Workshop 2018 Ljubljana, Slovania (2018, June 07)

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized ... [more ▼]

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized energy market. Our goal is to determine the design that should allow a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to accept peer-to-peer energy exchanges based on a distributed ledger supported by the blockchain technology. To this end, we evaluate several designs based on criteria such as the acceptance of the wholesale/retail market, the resilience of the consensus to approve a block, the accuracy, traceability, privacy and security of the proposed schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase Identification of Smart Meters by Clustering Voltage Measurements
Olivier, Frédéric ULiege; Sutera, Antonio ULiege; Geurts, Pierre ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the XX Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC 2018) (2018, June)

When a smart meter, be it single-phase or threephase, is connected to a three-phase network, the phase(s) to which it is connected is (are) initially not known. This means that each of its measurements is ... [more ▼]

When a smart meter, be it single-phase or threephase, is connected to a three-phase network, the phase(s) to which it is connected is (are) initially not known. This means that each of its measurements is not uniquely associated with a phase of the distribution network. This phase information is important because it can be used by Distribution System Operators to take actions in order to have a network that is more balanced. In this work, the correlation between the voltage measurements of the smart meters is used to identify the phases. To do so, the constrained k-means clustering method is first introduced as a reference, as it has been previously used for phase identification. A novel, automatic and effective method is then proposed to overcome the main drawback of the constrained k-means clustering, and improve the quality of the clustering. Indeed, it takes into account the underlying structure of the low-voltage distribution networks beneath the voltage measurements without a priori knowledge on the topology of the network. Both methods are analysed with real measurements from a distribution network in Belgium. The proposed algorithm shows superior performance in different settings, e.g. when the ratio of single-phase over three- phase meters in the network is high, when the period over which the voltages are averaged is longer than one minute, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain for peer-to-peer energy exchanges: design and recommendations
Vangulick, David ULiege; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege

in Proceedings of the XX Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC2018) (2018, June)

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized ... [more ▼]

Energy communities and peer-to-peer energy exchanges are expected to play an important role in the energy transition. In this context, the blockchain approach can be employed to foster this decentralized energy market. Our goal is to determine the design that should allow a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to accept peer-to-peer energy exchanges based on a distributed ledger supported by the blockchain technology. To this end, we will evaluate several designs based on criteria such as acceptance of the wholesale/retail market, the resilience of the consensus to approve a block, the accuracy, traceability, privacy and security of the proposed schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailIntra-day Bidding Strategies for Storage Devices Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
Boukas, Ioannis ULiege; Ernst, Damien ULiege; Papavasiliou, Anthony et al

in International Conference on the European Energy Market, Łódź 27-29 June 2018 (2018, June)

The problem faced by the operator of a storage device participating in a continuous intra-day (CID) market is addressed in this paper. The goal of the storage device operator is the maximization of the ... [more ▼]

The problem faced by the operator of a storage device participating in a continuous intra-day (CID) market is addressed in this paper. The goal of the storage device operator is the maximization of the cumulative rewards received over the entire trading horizon, while taking into account operational constraints. The energy trading is modeled as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process. An equivalent state representation and high-level actions are proposed in order to tackle the variable number of the existing orders in the order book. The problem is solved using deep reinforcement learning (RL). Preliminary results indicate that the agent converges to a policy that scores higher total revenues than the ``rolling intrinsic''. [less ▲]

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