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See detailπ Earth: A 3.14 day Earth-sized Planet from K2's Kitchen Served Warm by the SPECULOOS Team
Niraula, Prajwal; de Wit, Julien; Rackham, Benjamin V. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2020), 160

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation of 7.45 S[SUB]⊕[/SUB]. The detection was made using publicly available data from K2's Campaign 15. We observed three additional transits with SPECULOOS Southern and Northern Observatories, and a stellar spectrum from Keck/HIRES, which allowed us to validate the planetary nature of the signal. The confirmed planet is well suited for comparative terrestrial exoplanetology. While exoplanets transiting ultracool dwarfs present the best opportunity for atmospheric studies of terrestrial exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope, those orbiting mid-M dwarfs within 100 pc such as EPIC 249631677b will become increasingly accessible with the next generation of observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailTRAPPIST-1: Global Results of the Spitzer Exploration Science Program Red Worlds
Ducrot, Elsa ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 640(A112), 44

With more than 1000 hours of observation from Feb 2016 to Oct 2019, the Spitzer Exploration Program Red Worlds (ID: 13067, 13175 and 14223) exclusively targeted TRAPPIST-1, a nearby (12pc) ultracool dwarf ... [more ▼]

With more than 1000 hours of observation from Feb 2016 to Oct 2019, the Spitzer Exploration Program Red Worlds (ID: 13067, 13175 and 14223) exclusively targeted TRAPPIST-1, a nearby (12pc) ultracool dwarf star orbited by seven transiting Earth-sized planets, all well-suited for a detailed atmospheric characterization with the upcoming JWST. In this paper, we present the global results of the project. We analyzed 88 new transits and combined them with 100 previously analyzed transits, for a total of 188 transits observed at 3.6 or 4.5 $\mu$m. We also analyzed 29 occultations (secondary eclipses) of planet b and eight occultations of planet c observed at 4.5 $\mu$m to constrain the brightness temperatures of their daysides. We identify several orphan transit-like structures in our Spitzer photometry, but all of them are of low significance. We do not confirm any new transiting planets. We estimate for TRAPPIST-1 transit depth measurements mean noise floors of $\sim$35 and 25 ppm in channels 1 and 2 of Spitzer/IRAC, respectively. most of this noise floor is of instrumental origins and due to the large inter-pixel inhomogeneity of IRAC InSb arrays, and that the much better interpixel homogeneity of JWST instruments should result in noise floors as low as 10ppm, which is low enough to enable the atmospheric characterization of the planets by transit transmission spectroscopy. We construct updated broadband transmission spectra for all seven planets which show consistent transit depths between the two Spitzer channels. We identify and model five distinct high energy flares in the whole dataset, and discuss our results in the context of habitability. Finally, we fail to detect occultation signals of planets b and c at 4.5 $\mu$m, and can only set 3$\sigma$ upper limits on their dayside brightness temperatures (611K for b 586K for c). [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal analysis of the TRAPPIST Ultra-Cool Dwarf Transit Survey
Lienhard, F.; Queloz, D.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020), 497(3), 3790

We conducted a global analysis of the TRAPPIST Ultra-Cool Dwarf Transit Survey - a prototype of the SPECULOOS transit search conducted with the TRAPPIST-South robotic telescope in Chile from 2011 to 2017 ... [more ▼]

We conducted a global analysis of the TRAPPIST Ultra-Cool Dwarf Transit Survey - a prototype of the SPECULOOS transit search conducted with the TRAPPIST-South robotic telescope in Chile from 2011 to 2017 - to estimate the occurrence rate of close-in planets such as TRAPPIST-1b orbiting ultra-cool dwarfs. For this purpose, the photometric data of 40 nearby ultra-cool dwarfs were reanalysed in a self-consistent and fully automated manner starting from the raw images. The pipeline developed specifically for this task generates differential light curves, removes non-planetary photometric features and stellar variability, and searches for transits. It identifies the transits of TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c without any human intervention. To test the pipeline and the potential output of similar surveys, we injected planetary transits into the light curves on a star-by-star basis and tested whether the pipeline is able to detect them. The achieved photometric precision enables us to identify Earth-sized planets orbiting ultra-cool dwarfs as validated by the injection tests. Our planet-injection simulation further suggests a lower limit of 10 per cent on the occurrence rate of planets similar to TRAPPIST-1b with a radius between 1 and 1.3 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and the orbital period between 1.4 and 1.8 d. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Transiting Hot Jupiters from the WASP Survey: WASP-150b and WASP-176b
Cooke, Benjamin F.; Pollacco, Don; Almleaky, Y. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2020), 159

We report the discovery of two transiting exoplanets from the WASP survey, WASP-150b and WASP-176b. WASP-150b is an eccentric (e = 0.38) hot Jupiter on a 5.6 day orbit around a V = 12.03, F8 main-sequence ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of two transiting exoplanets from the WASP survey, WASP-150b and WASP-176b. WASP-150b is an eccentric (e = 0.38) hot Jupiter on a 5.6 day orbit around a V = 12.03, F8 main-sequence host. The host star has a mass and radius of 1.4 ${M}_{\odot }$ and 1.7 ${R}_{\odot }$ respectively. WASP-150b has a mass and radius of 8.5 ${M}_{{\rm{J}}}$ and 1.1 R[SUB]J[/SUB], leading to a large planetary bulk density of 6.4 ρ[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-150b is found to be ∼3 Gyr old, well below its circularization timescale, supporting the eccentric nature of the planet. WASP-176b is a hot Jupiter planet on a 3.9 day orbit around a V = 12.01, F9 sub-giant host. The host star has a mass and radius of 1.3 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] and 1.9 R[SUB]☉[/SUB]. WASP-176b has a mass and radius of 0.86 M[SUB]J[/SUB] and 1.5 R[SUB]J[/SUB], respectively, leading to a planetary bulk density of 0.23 ρ[SUB]J[/SUB]. [less ▲]

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See detail$\pi$ Earth: a 3.14 days Earth-sized Planet from \textit{K2}'s Kitchen served warm by the SPECULOOS Team
Niraula, Prajwal; de Wit, Julien; Rackham, Benjamin V. et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95$R_\oplus$) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57\,pc, EPIC~249631677. The planet has a period of $\sim$3.14 days, i.e. ${\sim}\pi$, with an ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95$R_\oplus$) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57\,pc, EPIC~249631677. The planet has a period of $\sim$3.14 days, i.e. ${\sim}\pi$, with an instellation of 7.5\,S$_{\oplus}$. The detection was made using publicly available data from \textit{K2}'s Campaign 15. We observed three additional transits with SPECULOOS Southern and Northern Observatories, and a stellar spectrum from Keck/HIRES, which allowed us to validate the planetary nature of the signal. The confirmed planet is well suited for comparative terrestrial exoplanetology. While exoplanets transiting ultracool dwarfs present the best opportunity for atmospheric studies of terrestrial exoplanets with the \textit{James Webb Space Telescope}, those orbiting mid-M dwarfs within 100\,pc such as EPIC~249631677b will become increasingly accessible with the next generation of observatories (e.g., \textit{HabEx, LUVOIR, OST}). [less ▲]

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See detailA Rare Pair of Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs Identified by the SPECULOOS Telescopes
Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Burdanov, A. et al

in The Messenger (2020), 180

Brown dwarfs — stellar objects unable to sustain hydrogen fusion in their cores because of their low masses — continuously cool over their lifetimes. Evolution models have been created to reproduce this ... [more ▼]

Brown dwarfs — stellar objects unable to sustain hydrogen fusion in their cores because of their low masses — continuously cool over their lifetimes. Evolution models have been created to reproduce this behaviour, and to allow mass and age determination using their luminosity, temperatures, spectral types and other parameters. However, these models have not yet been fully validated or calibrated with observations. During a commissioning run of the SPECULOOS telescopes, we serendipitously discovered a rare double-line eclipsing binary, a member of the 45 Myr-old moving group Argus. This discovery permitted us to determine the masses, radii and ages of the brown dwarfs, and with their luminosities make a comparison to evolution models. The models reproduce these measurements remarkably well, although a measured offset in luminosity could result in systematic underestimation of brown dwarf masses by 20 to 30%. Calibrating these models is necessary as they are also used to infer the masses of young, directly imaged exoplanets such as those found at the VLT. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotometry and performance of SPECULOOS-South
Murray, C. A.; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege; Pedersen, P. P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020), 495

SPECULOOS-South, an observatory composed of four independent 1-m robotic telescopes, located at ESO Paranal, Chile, started scientific operation in 2019 January. This Southern hemisphere facility operates ... [more ▼]

SPECULOOS-South, an observatory composed of four independent 1-m robotic telescopes, located at ESO Paranal, Chile, started scientific operation in 2019 January. This Southern hemisphere facility operates as part of the Search for Habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars (SPECULOOS), an international network of 1-m-class telescopes surveying for transiting terrestrial planets around the nearest and brightest ultracool dwarfs (UCDs). To automatically and efficiently process the observations of SPECULOOS-South, and to deal with the specialized photometric requirements of UCD targets, we present our automatic pipeline. This pipeline includes an algorithm for automated differential photometry and an extensive correction technique for the effects of telluric water vapour, using ground measurements of the precipitable water vapour. Observing very red targets in the near-infrared can result in photometric systematics in the differential light curves, related to the temporally-varying, wavelength-dependent opacity of the Earth's atmosphere. These systematics are sufficient to affect the daily quality of the light curves, the longer time-scale variability study of our targets and even mimic transit-like signals. Here we present the implementation and impact of our water vapour correction method. Using the 179 nights and 98 targets observed in the I + z' filter by SPECULOOS-South since 2019 January, we show the impressive photometric performance of the facility (with a median precision of ∼1.5 mmag for 30-min binning of the raw, non-detrended light curves) and assess its detection potential. We compare simultaneous observations with SPECULOOS-South and TESS, to show that we readily achieve high- precision, space-level photometry for bright, UCDs, highlighting SPECULOOS-South as the first facility of its kind. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Eclipsing Substellar Binary in a Young Triple System discovered by SPECULOOS
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege et al

in Nature Astronomy (2020), 43

Mass, radius, and age are three of the most fundamental parameters for celestial objects, enabling studies of the evolution and internal physics of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. Brown dwarfs are ... [more ▼]

Mass, radius, and age are three of the most fundamental parameters for celestial objects, enabling studies of the evolution and internal physics of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. Brown dwarfs are hydrogen- rich objects that are unable to sustain core fusion reactions but are supported from collapse by electron degeneracy pressure. As they age, brown dwarfs cool, reducing their radius and luminosity. Young exoplanets follow a similar behaviour. Brown dwarf evolutionary models are relied upon to infer the masses, radii and ages of these objects. Similar models are used to infer the mass and radius of directly imaged exoplanets. Unfortunately, only sparse empirical mass, radius and age measurements are currently available, and the models remain mostly unvalidated. Double-line eclipsing binaries provide the most direct route for the absolute determination of the masses and radii of stars. Here, we report the SPECULOOS discovery of 2M1510A, a nearby, eclipsing, double-line brown dwarf binary, with a widely-separated tertiary brown dwarf companion. We also find that the system is a member of the $45\pm5$ Myr-old moving group, Argus. The system's age matches those of currently known directly-imaged exoplanets. 2M1510A provides an opportunity to benchmark evolutionary models of brown dwarfs and young planets. We find that widely-used evolutionary models do reproduce the mass, radius and age of the binary components remarkably well, but overestimate the luminosity by up to 0.65 magnitudes, which could result in underestimated photometric masses for directly-imaged exoplanets and young field brown dwarfs by 20 to 35%. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS
Quinn, Samuel N.; Becker, Juliette C.; Rodriguez, Joseph E. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 158

We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite detection of a multi-planet system orbiting the V = 10.9 K0 dwarf TOI-125. We find evidence for up to five planets, with varying confidence. Three ... [more ▼]

We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite detection of a multi-planet system orbiting the V = 10.9 K0 dwarf TOI-125. We find evidence for up to five planets, with varying confidence. Three transit signals with high signal-to-noise ratio correspond to sub-Neptune-sized planets (2.76, 2.79, and 2.94 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB]), and we statistically validate the planetary nature of the two inner planets (P [SUB] b [/SUB] = 4.65 days, P [SUB] c [/SUB] = 9.15 days). With only two transits observed, we report the outer object (P [SUB].03[/SUB] = 19.98 days) as a planet candidate with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also detect a candidate transiting super-Earth (1.4 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB]) with an orbital period of only 12.7 hr and a candidate Neptune-sized planet (4.2 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB]) with a period of 13.28 days, both at low signal-to-noise ratio. This system is amenable to mass determination via radial velocities and transit-timing variations, and provides an opportunity to study planets of similar size while controlling for age and environment. The ratio of orbital periods between TOI-125 b and c (P [SUB] c [/SUB]/P [SUB] b [/SUB] = 1.97) is slightly lower than an exact 2:1 commensurability and is atypical of multiple planet systems from Kepler, which show a preference for period ratios just wide of first-order period ratios. A dynamical analysis refines the allowed parameter space through stability arguments and suggests that despite the nearly commensurate periods, the system is unlikely to be in resonance. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-169, WASP-171, WASP-175, and WASP-182: three hot Jupiters and one bloated sub-Saturn mass planet discovered by WASP-South
Nielsen, L. D.; Bouchy, F.; Turner, O. D. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 489(2), 2478-2487

We present the discovery of four new giant planets from the Wide Angle Search for Planets-South (WASP-South), three hot Jupiters and one bloated sub-Saturn mass planet: WASP-169b, WASP-171b, WASP-175b ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of four new giant planets from the Wide Angle Search for Planets-South (WASP-South), three hot Jupiters and one bloated sub-Saturn mass planet: WASP-169b, WASP-171b, WASP-175b, and WASP-182b. Besides the discovery photometry from WASP-South we use radial velocity measurements from CORALIE and HARPS and follow-up photometry from EulerCam, TRAPPIST-North and -South, and SPECULOOS. WASP-169b is a low-density Jupiter (M=0.561 ± 0.061 {M_Jup}, R=1.304^{+0.150}_{-0.073} {R_Jup}) orbiting a V = 12.17 F8 subgiant in a 5.611 d orbit. WASP-171b is a typical hot Jupiter (M=1.084 ± 0.094 {M_Jup}, R=0.98^{+0.07}_{-0.04} {R_Jup}, P = 3.82 d) around a V = 13.05 G0 star. We find a linear drift in the radial velocities of WASP-171 spanning 3.5 yr, indicating the possibility of an additional outer planet or stellar companion. WASP-175b is an inflated hot Jupiter (M = 0.99 ± 0.13 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], R = 1.208 ± 0.081 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], P = 3.07 d) around a V = 12.04 F7 star, which possibly is part of a binary system with a star 7.9 arcsec away. WASP-182b is a bloated sub-Saturn mass planet (M = 0.148 ± 0.011 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], R = 0.850 ± 0.030 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) around a metal-rich V = 11.98 G5 star ([Fe/H] = 0.27 ± 0.11). With an orbital period of P = 3.377 d, it sits right in the apex of the sub-Jovian desert, bordering the upper and lower edge of the desert in both the mass-period and radius-period plane. WASP-169b, WASP- 175b, and WASP-182b are promising targets for atmospheric characterization through transmission spectroscopy, with expected transmission signals of 121, 150, and 264 ppm, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailLatest news of SPECULOOS and TRAPPIST-1
Ducrot, Elsa ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege

in EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 (2019, September 01)

This talk will present the latest news of the SPECULOOS photometric survey, its installation, operations and progress. And will then focus on its most valuable discovery for now, the TRAPPIST-1 (aka ... [more ▼]

This talk will present the latest news of the SPECULOOS photometric survey, its installation, operations and progress. And will then focus on its most valuable discovery for now, the TRAPPIST-1 (aka SPECULOOS-1) system. We will notably discuss the important results brought by the intensive multi-epoch multi-wavelengths photometric follow of this unique system. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-180Ab: Doppler tomography of an hot Jupiter orbiting the primary star in a visual binary
Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019)

We report the discovery and characterisation of WASP-180Ab, a hot Jupiter confirmed by the detection of its Doppler shadow and by measuring its mass using radial velocities. We find the 0.9 ± 0.1 M[SUB ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery and characterisation of WASP-180Ab, a hot Jupiter confirmed by the detection of its Doppler shadow and by measuring its mass using radial velocities. We find the 0.9 ± 0.1 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], 1.24 ± 0.04 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet to be in a misaligned, retrograde orbit around an F7 star with T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 6500 K and a moderate rotation speed of vsin i[SUB]⋆[/SUB] = 19.9 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The host star is the primary of a V = 10.7 binary, where a secondary separated by ̃5″ (̃1200 AU) contributes ̃ 30% of the light. WASP-180Ab therefore adds to a small sample of transiting hot Jupiters known in binary systems. A 4.6-day modulation seen in the WASP data is likely to be the rotational modulation of the companion star, WASP-180B. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based follow-up observations of TRAPPIST-1 transits in the near-infrared
Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Lederer, S. M.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 487

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is a favourable target for the atmospheric characterization of temperate earth-sized exoplanets by means of transmission spectroscopy with the forthcoming James Webb Space ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is a favourable target for the atmospheric characterization of temperate earth-sized exoplanets by means of transmission spectroscopy with the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). A possible obstacle to this technique could come from the photospheric heterogeneity of the host star that could affect planetary signatures in the transit transmission spectra. To constrain further this possibility, we gathered an extensive photometric data set of 25 TRAPPIST-1 transits observed in the near-IR J band (1.2 μm) with the UKIRT and the AAT, and in the NB2090 band (2.1 μm) with the VLT during the period 2015-18. In our analysis of these data, we used a special strategy aiming to ensure uniformity in our measurements and robustness in our conclusions. We reach a photometric precision of 0.003 (RMS of the residuals), and we detect no significant temporal variations of transit depths of TRAPPIST-1 b, c, e, and g over the period of 3 yr. The few transit depths measured for planets d and f hint towards some level of variability, but more measurements will be required for confirmation. Our depth measurements for planets b and c disagree with the stellar contamination spectra originating from the possible existence of bright spots of temperature 4500 K. We report updated transmission spectra for the six inner planets of the system which are globally flat for planets b and g and some structures are seen for planets c, d, e, and f. [less ▲]

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See detailThe L 98-59 System: Three Transiting, Terrestrial-size Planets Orbiting a Nearby M Dwarf
Kostov, Veselin B.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Barclay, Thomas et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 158

We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovery of three terrestrial-size planets transiting L 98-59 (TOI-175, TIC 307210830)—a bright M dwarf at a distance of 10.6 pc. Using the Gaia ... [more ▼]

We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovery of three terrestrial-size planets transiting L 98-59 (TOI-175, TIC 307210830)—a bright M dwarf at a distance of 10.6 pc. Using the Gaia- measured distance and broadband photometry, we find that the host star is an M3 dwarf. Combined with the TESS transits from three sectors, the corresponding stellar parameters yield planet radii ranging from 0.8 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB] to 1.6 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB]. All three planets have short orbital periods, ranging from 2.25 to 7.45 days with the outer pair just wide of a 2:1 period resonance. Diagnostic tests produced by the TESS Data Validation Report and the vetting package DAVE rule out common false- positive sources. These analyses, along with dedicated follow-up and the multiplicity of the system, lend confidence that the observed signals are caused by planets transiting L 98-59 and are not associated with other sources in the field. The L 98-59 system is interesting for a number of reasons: the host star is bright (V = 11.7 mag, K = 7.1 mag) and the planets are prime targets for further follow-up observations including precision radial-velocity mass measurements and future transit spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope; the near-resonant configuration makes the system a laboratory to study planetary system dynamical evolution; and three planets of relatively similar size in the same system present an opportunity to study terrestrial planets where other variables (age, metallicity, etc.) can be held constant. L 98-59 will be observed in four more TESS sectors, which will provide a wealth of information on the three currently known planets and have the potential to reveal additional planets in the system. [less ▲]

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See detailNGTS-4b: A sub-Neptune Transiting in the Desert
West, Richard G.; Gillen, Edward; Bayliss, Daniel et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 486

We report the discovery of NGTS-4b, a sub-Neptune-sized planet transiting a 13th magnitude K-dwarf in a 1.34d orbit. NGTS-4b has a mass M=$20.6\pm3.0$M_E and radius R=$3.18\pm0.26$R_E, which places it ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of NGTS-4b, a sub-Neptune-sized planet transiting a 13th magnitude K-dwarf in a 1.34d orbit. NGTS-4b has a mass M=$20.6\pm3.0$M_E and radius R=$3.18\pm0.26$R_E, which places it well within the so-called "Neptunian Desert". The mean density of the planet ($3.45\pm0.95$g/cm^3) is consistent with a composition of 100% H$_2$O or a rocky core with a volatile envelope. NGTS-4b is likely to suffer significant mass loss due to relatively strong EUV/X-ray irradiation. Its survival in the Neptunian desert may be due to an unusually high core mass, or it may have avoided the most intense X-ray irradiation by migrating after the initial activity of its host star had subsided. With a transit depth of $0.13\pm0.02$%, NGTS-4b represents the shallowest transiting system ever discovered from the ground, and is the smallest planet discovered in a wide-field ground-based photometric survey. [less ▲]

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See detailThree hot-Jupiters on the upper edge of the mass-radius distribution: WASP-177, WASP-181, and WASP-183
Turner, Oliver D.; Anderson, D. R.; Barkaoui, K. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 485

We present the discovery of three transiting planets from the WASP survey, two hot-Jupiters: WASP-177 b (˜0.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], ˜1.6 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 3.07-d orbit of a V = 12.6 K2 star, WASP-183 b (˜0 ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of three transiting planets from the WASP survey, two hot-Jupiters: WASP-177 b (˜0.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], ˜1.6 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 3.07-d orbit of a V = 12.6 K2 star, WASP-183 b (˜0.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], ˜1.5 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 4.11-d orbit of a V = 12.8 G9/K0 star; and one hot-Saturn planet WASP-181 b (˜0.3 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], ˜1.2 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 4.52-d orbit of a V = 12.9 G2 star. Each planet is close to the upper bound of mass-radius space and has a scaled semimajor axis, a/R[SUB]*[/SUB], between 9.6 and 12.1. These lie in the transition between systems that tend to be in orbits that are well aligned with their host-star's spin and those that show a higher dispersion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EBLM Project. V. Physical properties of ten fully convective, very-low-mass stars
von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 625

Measurements of the physical properties of stars at the lower end of the main sequence are scarce. In this context we report masses, radii and surface gravities of ten very-low-mass stars in eclipsing ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the physical properties of stars at the lower end of the main sequence are scarce. In this context we report masses, radii and surface gravities of ten very-low-mass stars in eclipsing binary systems, with orbital periods of the order of several days. The objects probe the stellar mass-radius relation in the fully convective regime, M[SUB]⋆[/SUB] ≲ 0.35 M[SUB]☉[/SUB], down to the hydrogen burning mass- limit, M[SUB]HB[/SUB] ̃ 0.07 M[SUB]☉[/SUB]. The stars were detected by the WASP survey for transiting extra-solar planets, as low-mass, eclipsing companions orbiting more massive, F- and G-type host stars. We use eclipse observations of the host stars, performed with the TRAPPIST, Leonhard Euler and SPECULOOS telescopes, and radial velocities of the host stars obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph, to determine the physical properties of the low-mass companions. Surface gravities of the low-mass companions are derived from the eclipse and orbital parameters of each system. Spectroscopic measurements of the host star effective temperature and metallicity are used to infer the host star mass and age from stellar evolution models for solar-type stars. Masses and radii of the low-mass companions are then derived from the eclipse and orbital parameters of the binary systems. The objects are compared to stellar evolution models for low-mass stars, to test for an effect of the stellar metallicity and orbital period on the radius of low-mass stars in close binary systems. Measurements are found to be in good agreement with stellar evolution models; a systematic inflation of the radius of low-mass stars with respect to model predictions is limited to 1.6 ± 1.2%, in the fully convective low-mass regime. The sample of ten objects indicates a scaling of the radius of low-mass stars with the host star metallicity. No correlation between stellar radii and the orbital periods of the binary systems is determined. A combined analysis with thirteen comparable objects from the literature is consistent with this result. The eclipse and radial velocity data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A150">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/625/A150</A> [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters: WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b
Barkaoui, K.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Hellier, C. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157(2),

We present the discovery by the WASP-South transit survey of three new transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b. Follow-up radial velocities obtained with the Euler/CORALIE ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery by the WASP-South transit survey of three new transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b. Follow-up radial velocities obtained with the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph and high-precision transit light curves obtained with the TRAPPIST-North, TRAPPIST-South, SPECULOOS-South, NITES, and Euler telescopes have enabled us to determine the masses and radii for these transiting exoplanets. WASP-161\,b completes an orbit around its $V=11.1$ F6V-type host star in 5.406 days, and has a mass and radius of $2.5\pm 0.2$$M_{Jup}$ and $1.14\pm 0.06$ $R_{Jup}$ respectively. WASP-163\,b has an orbital period of 1.609 days, a mass of $1.9\pm0.2$ $M_{Jup}$, and a radius of $1.2\pm0.1$ $R_{Jup}$. Its host star is a $V=12.5$ G8-type dwarf. WASP-170\,b is on a 2.344 days orbit around a G1V-type star of magnitude $V=12.8$. It has a mass of $1.7\pm0.2$ $M_{Jup}$ and a radius of $1.14\pm0.09$ $R_{Jup}$. Given their irradiations ($\sim10^9$ erg.s$^{-1}$.cm$^{-2}$) and masses, the three new planets sizes are in good agreement with classical structure models of irradiated giant planets. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SPECULOOS Southern Observatory Begins its Hunt for Rocky Planets
Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Queloz, D. et al

in Messenger (2018), 174

The SPECULOOS Southern Observatory (SSO), a new facility of four 1- metre robotic telescopes, began scientific operations at Cerro Paranal on 1 January 2019. The main goal of the SPECULOOS project is to ... [more ▼]

The SPECULOOS Southern Observatory (SSO), a new facility of four 1- metre robotic telescopes, began scientific operations at Cerro Paranal on 1 January 2019. The main goal of the SPECULOOS project is to explore approximately 1000 of the smallest (≤ 0.15 R[SUB]⊙[/SUB]), brightest (K[SUB]mag[/SUB] ≤ 12.5), and nearest (d ≤ 40 pc) very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. It aims to discover transiting temperate terrestrial planets well-suited for detailed atmospheric characterisation with future giant telescopes like ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and the NASA James Webb Telescope (JWST). The SSO is the core facility of SPECULOOS. The exquisite astronomical conditions at Cerro Paranal will enable SPECULOOS to detect exoplanets as small as Mars. Here, we briefly describe SPECULOOS, and present the features and performance of the SSO facility. [less ▲]

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See detailActivity induced variation in spin-orbit angles as derived from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements
Oshagh, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 619(150),

One of the most powerful methods used to estimate sky-projected spin-orbit angles of exoplanetary systems is through a spectroscopic transit observation known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. So ... [more ▼]

One of the most powerful methods used to estimate sky-projected spin-orbit angles of exoplanetary systems is through a spectroscopic transit observation known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. So far mostly single RM observations have been used to estimate the spin-orbit angle, and thus there have been no studies regarding the variation of estimated spin-orbit angle from transit to transit. Stellar activity can alter the shape of photometric transit light curves and in a similar way they can deform the RM signal. In this paper we discuss several RM observations, obtained using the HARPS spectrograph, of known transiting planets that all transit extremely active stars, and by analyzing them individually we assess the variation in the estimated spin-orbit angle. Our results reveal that the estimated spin-orbit angle can vary significantly (up to 42 degrees) from transit to transit, due to variation in the configuration of stellar active regions over different nights. This finding is almost two times larger than the expected variation predicted from simulations. We could not identify any meaningful correlation between the variation of estimated spin-orbit angles and the stellar magnetic activity indicators. We also investigated two possible approaches to mitigate the stellar activity influence on RM observations. The first strategy was based on obtaining several RM observations and folding them to reduce the stellar activity noise. Our results demonstrated that this is a feasible and robust way to overcome this issue. The second approach is based on acquiring simultaneous high-precision short-cadence photometric transit light curves using TRAPPIST/SPECULOOS telescopes, which provide more information about the stellar active region's properties and allow a better RM modeling. [less ▲]

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