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See detailDéveloppement d’un secteur semencier intégré aux chaînes de valeur du riz local au Bénin
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Beninese rice production has a major challenge: produce quality rice in sufficient quantity to meet national needs and thus reduce the quantity of imported rice. There are two weaknesses in achieving ... [more ▼]

Beninese rice production has a major challenge: produce quality rice in sufficient quantity to meet national needs and thus reduce the quantity of imported rice. There are two weaknesses in achieving these objectives: low productivity and low quality of finished products. Both of these weaknesses are closely linked to the use of quality seeds. Seed is a productivity factor that alone could contribute to 40% of yield improvements (FAO 2008). Seed carries the genetic potential of the variety and largely determines the effectiveness of other inputs and production conditions. Therefore, the seed is one of the essential factors for any plant production system. Other factors such as: adaptation of the variety to the production ecosystem, respect of the production schedule, quality of inputs, production conditions, etc. also largely influence production results. After more than fifty years of extension of certified seed, ‘the adoption rate of these seeds remained generally low in Benin, with only 22%’ (Kinkingninhoun-Medagbe, 2013). Benin has a significant potential in terms of natural resources that can enable it to ensure its self-sufficiency in rice. Benin's rice production has experienced a significant quantitative increase over the last two decades, from 13 686 tonnes of paddy in 1994 to 281 428 tonnes in 2016 (FAOSTAT, 2018) This significant increase in rice production by more than 20 times in 22 years, is largely due to an increase in cultivated area (8 736 ha to 82 351 ha). The devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994 and the 2008 food crisis were the triggers. Average yields have also increased, but to a lesser extent. They rose from 1.7 t/ha in 1994 to 3.4 t/ha in 2016. This level of yield, however, remains below the world average, which now exceeds 4.6 t/ha but above the average of West Africa which is at 2.09 t/h in 2016, Senegal at 3.9 t/ha and Mali at 3.3 t/ha (FAOSTAT, 2018). There is still room for improvement. The varietal mixture that is observed from the production fields is the main problem that arises through the accessibility of small producers (less than 1 ha) to quality seeds. «96% of rice farmers in Benin have areas of less than one hectare» (Allodehou et al., 2013). This thesis carried out an integrated analysis of seed issues in the value chains of finished products. The general objective of this thesis is to analyze the dynamics within the existing seed systems and to identify improvement options that will facilitate access to quality seeds by small producers. More specifically, this thesis has: i- carried out an analytical inventory of the rice sector of Benin; ii make a thorough diagnosis of the formal seed system of rice; iii- identified seed production and distribution mechanisms in the informal system and the reasons for their persistence; iv- proposed an integrated model for improving the efficiency of the rice seed system in Benin. This research was conducted using a participatory and transdisciplinary approach. It also used a systemic approach based on a holistic analysis approach. Data collection took place in several phases and according to the main objectives of the research. It began with the document overview phase which continued throughout the hall research. An exploratory study of the whole rice sector led us to a diagnosis of the main difficulties or constraints to the development of the different value chains of local rice in Benin. This exploratory study was carried out in 2013 in all the rice-growing basins in Benin. It shows that seed quality (germination rate, varietal purity, adaptation to ecological conditions, drought, disease and yield) is mentioned by producers as one of the main factors of productivity. Processors also identified mixed paddy, including several varieties, as a factor in low milling yield (high break rate). The traders judge the quality of the hulled grain through a visual observation, based on the homogeneity and coloring of the grains, which according to them is largely determined by varietal purity. The varietal mixture gives a bad result in cooking and an unpleasant taste to consumers. Thus, the quality of rice seed affects the entire local rice sector. The participatory diagnosis was conducted in 15 communes distributed in the various rice-growing areas in Benin with the aim of better understanding the functioning of local rice value chains. The results of these investigations show that the measures that have been taken by the government, including the subsidy on seeds, fertilizers and the development of production perimeters, in response to the 2008 food crisis, have boosted paddy production. (73,000 tons in 2008 to 220,000 tons in 2012) and the development of local rice value chains. Several local rice labels have thus emerged. Since 2014, government measures aiming production increase have run out of steam and production is stagnating again. The in-depth studies focused on the operational modes of the seed systems in force and also on specific themes with well-targeted groups of actors in the three departments where research focused on Collines, Zou and Couffo departments. It is the government structures that dominate the formal seed system (SSF) in Benin. Private companies are struggling to establish themselves and prosper in a policy-interventionist environment that subsidizes seeds and creates non-competitive conditions. However, financial analyzes have shown that seed production is twice as profitable as paddy production in lowland and irrigated rice systems, and three times as much in the rainfall system. Seed producers are generally responsible for rice producers organizations. The low use of quality seed continues to find its reasons under conditions of low accessibility. The costs of disposal, the physical availability of seeds, the delay and flow of information on new varieties are often the factors involved. The formal seed system does not adequately meet the expectations of small-scale rice producers in Benin, whereas small-scale producers account for the bulk of domestic production. The modes and conditions of access to informal seeds are more varied (donation, exchanges, loans, purchases) and more adapted to the situations of smallholders. The quality of the peasant varieties meets local social and cultural norms, on the understanding that production is often used for self-consumption. The type of seed used in rice production should, in fact, be determined by the objectives pursued by the consumer rice producer and hence according to the requirements of the target market. The point is that the seed sector does not function as a real value chain serving the key players, the paddy producers and processors, as well as consumers or end users of grain. The development of the contract farming of rice production by rice mills is a condition that evolves towards a seed system integrated into value chains. The integration of seed systems into value chains is the approach that improves the use of quality seed by small producers. The proposed seed model is based on the strengths of the informal seed system, which is supported by a dynamic action-research service that regularly feeds good quality genetic material. This material will be reused for a few years (2 to 3) according to the rules of informal systems before being renewed. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 14: Local network building for inclusive agribusiness development
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege

in Adodo, Abalo et al. (Ed.) Business as unusual. Insights from the 2SCALE project (2019)

Investing in the building of networks of local actors is instrumental in the realization of durable, inclusive agricultural agribusiness. Such local network building requires co-investment of public and ... [more ▼]

Investing in the building of networks of local actors is instrumental in the realization of durable, inclusive agricultural agribusiness. Such local network building requires co-investment of public and private resources initially. Once established, inclusive agribusiness partnerships can autonomously sustain local networks. [less ▲]

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See detailAppréhender la pauvreté pour mieux la réduire : nécessité de prise en compte des perceptions et représentations locales pour un meilleur impact des projets et politiques en Afrique subsaharienne
Alokpaï, Nestor; Mongbo, Roch L.; Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege

in Africa Development (2018), XLIII(3), 83-106

La pauvreté est devenue une réalité endémique de l’Afrique subsaharienne. Cependant, la définir et la mesurer constituent de grands défis conceptuels et méthodologiques non relevés. Par ailleurs ... [more ▼]

La pauvreté est devenue une réalité endémique de l’Afrique subsaharienne. Cependant, la définir et la mesurer constituent de grands défis conceptuels et méthodologiques non relevés. Par ailleurs, plusieurs projets et politiques sont élaborés suivant les conceptions et mesures globalisées de la pauvreté aux fins d’assurer un mieux-être aux populations pauvres. Ces initiatives ont montré leurs limites quant à leur impact réel sur l’amélioration des conditions de vie des bénéficiaires. Pourtant, les perceptions et représentations sociales de la pauvreté sont aussi riches, abondantes que diversifiées dans la plupart des pays d’Afrique subsaharienne et leur prise en compte dans l’élaboration des projets et politiques aiderait à améliorer leur impact sur les pauvres. [less ▲]

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See detailNécessité d’un recadrage des missions des acteurs du secteur semencier du riz au Bénin
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege; Agossou, D.S.M.; Magnon, Y.Z. et al

in Annales des Sciences Agronomiques du Bénin (2018), 22(2), 155-168

The seed sector in the promotion of rice value chains in Benin is characterized by a plurality of stakeholders with various responsibilities. One of the major weaknesses of the sector lies in the ... [more ▼]

The seed sector in the promotion of rice value chains in Benin is characterized by a plurality of stakeholders with various responsibilities. One of the major weaknesses of the sector lies in the ineffectiveness of interventions of the stakeholders at the local level. This study, which used a qualitative approach of stakeholders’ analysis, reveals that certain categories of stakeholders do not know the functions of their peers. This lack of knowledge about the stakeholders at the grass-roots level is mainly observed with the public services. This is due to the low level of professionalization of these stakeholders in services delivering. This, results in low visibility of actions undertaken and the situation on the ground with numerous conflicts attribution. This article therefore, proposes a reframing of the attributions of the different actors at the political and organizational levels with a view to improving the effectiveness of the stakeholders involved in promoting a seed system integrated into the rice value chains. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de la rentabilité financière de la production de semence du riz au Bénin
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege; Agossou S.M., Désiré; Adégbidi, Anselme et al

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2017), (May 2017), 11267-11275

Objectif : Cette étude vise, à travers une analyse de la rentabilité financière, à mettre en exergue l’intérêt que peut susciter la production de semences de qualité dans les divers systèmes de production ... [more ▼]

Objectif : Cette étude vise, à travers une analyse de la rentabilité financière, à mettre en exergue l’intérêt que peut susciter la production de semences de qualité dans les divers systèmes de production et la place du secteur privé dans la gestion du système semencier. Méthodologie et résultats : L’étude a été conduite auprès d’un échantillon de 57 producteurs de semences certifiées et de riz de consommation choisis de façon aléatoire dans trois départements : Mono, Zou et Collines où trois systèmes de production se côtoient. Il a été fait recours à la méthode d’analyse de marges et les résultats ont été comparés chaque fois à la production de riz de consommation par système de production : riz pluvial, riz de bas-fonds et riz irrigué. Il en résulte que la production de semences est plus rentable et l’est davantage dans le système d’irrigation. Conclusion et application des résultats : La présente étude a été conduite dans un contexte où l’État est intervenu pour promouvoir l’accès aux semences améliorées suite à la crise alimentaire de 2008. L’État, à travers son dispositif de vulgarisation organise, la collecte de semences auprès des producteurs multiplicateurs accrédités et subventionne la redistribution aux producteurs de riz de consommation. L’intérêt que porte cette étude sur la rentabilité financière de l’activité de production de semences certifiées réside dans la nécessité de disposer de données fiables pour susciter l’implication des entreprises privées dans le système semencier et faciliter l’accès aux crédits pour les multiplicateurs de semences. Pour un système compétitif et adéquat aux besoins des producteurs, il est impérieux de réfléchir sur un partenariat compagnies privées de distribution et producteurs multiplicateurs de semences certifiées. Ce dispositif facilitera la disponibilité et l’accès à un prix abordable aux semences de qualité pour les producteurs du riz. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop rotation based grain legumes as a soil fertility management strategy in lowland rice-based cropping systems in centre of Benin
Kouelo Alladassi, Felix; Houngnandan, P.; Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege

in Cahiers du CBRST (2015), 1(7 juin 2015),

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See detailThe role of multistakeholder platform processes in promoting innovation in rice-based systems in West Africa
Raboanarielina, Cara; Kabore, Abdoulaye; Bengaly, M’Piè et al

Poster (2014, June 10)

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See detailInnovation systems: Making science work
Defoer, T.; Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege

Conference (2013)

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See detailPlate Forme Multi Acteurs (PMA) : quel degré d’appropriation de l’approche par les acteurs dans les bas-fonds de « Sissiotan (Houéyogbé ) et de Kossou-Togba (Dogbo) »
Dossouhoui, François Vihôdé ULiege; Kinha, Christophe

Conference (2010, December 07)

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs ... [more ▼]

Le projet RAP est mis en œuvre selon un processus multi-acteurs (PMA). La PMA constitue un cadre de concertation de plusieurs acteurs : producteurs, transformateurs, commerçants, pisciculteurs, éleveurs, structures d’appui, Partenaires Techniques et financiers, etc. Les intérêts de ces acteurs sont très souvent divergents. Mais, ces acteurs sont appelés à apprendre, agir, et innover ensemble dans une approche systémique pour une utilisation optimale et une gestion durable des ressources naturelles de ces bas-fonds. Après deux années de mise en œuvre de cette approche, nous évaluions le niveau d’appropriation par les acteurs. Les conditions de mobilisation des ressources humaines et financières pour la concrétisation de cette innovation ont été évaluées de même que les actions qui ont été mises en œuvre dans le processus d’ancrage de ce partenariat. Les acquis, les faiblesses et les contraintes à l’appropriation ont fait l’objet d’une analyse critique. En somme, les PMA sont en construction et il existe de réelles motivations autour de cette approche. [less ▲]

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