References of "Dogot, Thomas"
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See detailFrom “Coal to Gas” to “Coal to Biomass”: The Strategic Choice of Social Capital in China
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Jiao, jian et al

in Energies (2020), 16(13), 4171

Currently, the Chinese government is promoting the transformation of clean energy in rural areas to reduce the consumption of coal to cope with the smog. It is mainly based on “coal to gas”. The ... [more ▼]

Currently, the Chinese government is promoting the transformation of clean energy in rural areas to reduce the consumption of coal to cope with the smog. It is mainly based on “coal to gas”. The development of biomass resources in agricultural areas is an alternative means of energy supply. In order to improve rural energy structure, we propose to upgrade “coal to gas” to “coal to biomass” derived from centralized biogas production (CBP) and straw-briquetting fuel (SBF). This study deals with the question of financing such projects. The public–private partnership (PPP) model is seen as a response that can mobilize social capital to finance investments in these new modes of production and energy supply in rural areas. Based on an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the two projects considered above, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was carried out with the assistance of experts in order to clarify the strategic choices which are more suitable for investors. First, we built a PPP strategic-decision model. The decision model was divided into four strategies (pioneering strategy, struggling strategy, conservative strategy and striving strategy) and two development intensities (conservative and proactive). We used this method to construct a SWOT–AHP model of the PPP strategy for CBP and SBF based on the investigation from the experts. The strategic-decision model identified that a pioneering strategy based on opportunity type is promised for SBF, while a more aggressive type strategy in struggling strategy is essential for the CBP. In order to encourage investors to adopt a positive and optimistic attitude towards the two projects, the public authorities have a role of guidance to ensure the mobilization of the social capital necessary for the construction of the projects. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent Status of Livelihood, Job Satisfaction and Well-being of inland Fishermen in Southern Benin
Kpanou, Sètondji Ben-Vital Kolawolé ULiege; Dedehouanou, Houinsou; Kpenavoun Chogoun, Sylvain et al

Scientific conference (2020, July 15)

In southern Benin, the majority of the populations of the communes of So-Ava, Aguégués, Comè, and Grand-Popo are professional fishermen, given the time they spend fishing in the large areas of water ... [more ▼]

In southern Benin, the majority of the populations of the communes of So-Ava, Aguégués, Comè, and Grand-Popo are professional fishermen, given the time they spend fishing in the large areas of water crossing those communes. The evolution of fishing across generations of the ever-growing population has undoubtedly led to changes in the ability of fishermen to meet sustainably their needs. Based on this hypothesis, this study attempts to establish a link between the livelihoods held by fishers and the job satisfaction and well-being of the latter, to explain their motivations to remain in the industry. For this purpose, a stratified sample of 205 fishermen was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results show 4 categories of fishermen with different characteristics. The first category comprises extensive subsistence fishermen (65%) and semi-intensive sedentary fishermen (35%) with relatively low livelihoods but satisfied with their work and well-being as fishermen. On the other side, the fourth category is made up of sedentary intensive fishers (100%) with the highest livelihoods but dissatisfied with their work and welfare as fishers. These results raise the need to consider the non-economic motivations of fishers in the design of inland fisheries governance arrangements. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency Analysis of the Progress of Orange Farms in Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam towards Sustainable Development
Tran Nguyen, Thu Trang ULiege; Le, Hai Ha; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(8), 3170

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development. Improving the efficiency of agricultural production towards sustainable development is one of the country’s national economic development goals. This study aims to measure the efficiency of the orange farms which have created jobs and improved living standards for people in Tuyen Quang province, Vietnam. A comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a structured questionnaire were applied in this research for data collection. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was applied to evaluate the technical, allocative, cost, and scale efficiencies. The main results of this analysis show that the orange farms have high scores for technical and scale efficiencies. On the other hand, the research reveals low levels of cost and allocating efficiencies. This is in line with the fact that though the farms’ owners have extensive experience in orange cultivation and receive periodic technical training, they still have low levels of education and a lack of economic management expertise. The study results also propose optimal input allocation for the orange farmers. The research could provide crucial information to farms’ owners, the local government, and agricultural planners for formulating effective strategies to improve agricultural sustainability [less ▲]

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See detailEmergy Analysis of Typical Centralized biogas production project:Case Study in Hebei
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege

in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (2020)

This paper selects the typical straw energy utilization model, large and medium-sized centralized biogas production mode. It is found that under the current capacity load, the eco-economic indicators ... [more ▼]

This paper selects the typical straw energy utilization model, large and medium-sized centralized biogas production mode. It is found that under the current capacity load, the eco-economic indicators, sustainable development indicators, environmental load indicators have their own advantages and disadvantages. Compared with coal power, the model has high renewability and low environmental load. The model is in full compliance with the environmental protection requirements of the current rural ecological civilization construction in terms of environmental indicators. But it does not have long-term sustainability because economic indicators and sustainability indicators are not good. Especially in the case of severe low load capacity, the economic and sustainability are relatively poor, but with the release of production capacity, assuming 100% capacity load, the economics and sustainability are greatly improved. A certain gap needs to increase government intervention and support. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the uncertain dairy future
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Soyeurt, Hélène ULiege et al

Conference (2020, January 31)

This study observes the strategies, and their determinants, of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the post quota perspective through the realisation of 245 surveys, conducted from November 2014 to ... [more ▼]

This study observes the strategies, and their determinants, of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the post quota perspective through the realisation of 245 surveys, conducted from November 2014 to February 2015. It highlights how dairy production companies plan to evolve to cope with this great change in the sector and so how will move the production of our dairy products. Three kinds of strategical variables were defined and related to the evolution of milk production (MP) [the producerswho increase MP (HighMP) vs. keep constant MP (ConstantMP) vs. stop MP]; the valorisation of MP [alternative (ValMP)vs. classical] and the diversification of activities [with (DivMP) vs. without such activities]. The relationships between the chosen strategies and the quantitative technical variables were studied using generalised linear models. The independence between qualitative technical variables and the strategical variables was tested using Chi Square test. HighMP and ConstantMP producersrepresent 38.4% and 53.9% of respondents, respectively. HighMP producerswere significantly more declared as legal entity (p-value = 0.03), had more family members on the farm (p-value<0.01), larger agricultural area in property (p-value = 0.03) and higher MP quota(p-value = 0.01)compared to ConstantMP producers. Only 9.8% of respondents decide to valorise differently MP. ValMP producerstend to have more employees (p-value = 0.08) and an agricultural area less fragmented (p-value = 0.07)than classical producers. A total of 7.8% of respondents decide to develop other activities. DivMP producerstend to have more employees (p-value = 0.10), more agricultural area in property (p-value = 0.03) and a more recent year of installation (p-value < 0.01). Finally, 44.9% of ConstantMP producersdo not want to start an alternative valorisation of MP and diversify their activities. In conclusion, a relationship exists between, amongst others, the legal status, workforce available, characteristics of the agricultural area, the dairy production and the strategy chosen by the Walloon dairy producers. [less ▲]

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See detailResidents' Willingness for Centralized Biogas Production in Hebei and Shandong Provinces
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Wu, Guosheng et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

Nowadays, in the North China Plain (NCP), most counties and suburban rural regions are promoting the "coal to gas" program under the situation of strong government support of large and medium-sized ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, in the North China Plain (NCP), most counties and suburban rural regions are promoting the "coal to gas" program under the situation of strong government support of large and medium-sized centralized biogas production (CBP) projects. This paper is aimed at the CBP projects, focuses on rural residents’ “willingness to use (WTU)”, “willingness to buy (WTB)” and the influencing factors for WTU/WTB. Through the analysis of rural residents from Hebei and Shandong provinces that belong to NCP in this survey, we find that 85% of respondents support the CBP program and the WTB is 63.15 CNY/year per capita, which is much lower than the cost of rural CBP in existing survey regions. The participation of rural residents is not only a manifestation of personal and family characteristics; understanding of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and household energy practices are more important. These non-economic factors seriously affect WTU/WTB. Hence, it is necessary to appropriately increase the government revenue to such projects, strengthen government guidance and publicity, improve the environmental knowledge and attitude of rural residents and guide residents’ practice. Based on a fully understanding of residents' consumption decision mechanism, we establish a financial support mechanism due to the demand response, adopt a correct calculation for financial support, such as a reasonable subsidy rate, and seek the greatest commonality of cost, financial support, and demand. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling of Rural Energy Structure and Straw Utilization Based on Cases in Hebei China
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Huang, Xianlei et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

China's coal-based energy structure is the main reason for the current high-level air pollution and carbon emissions. Now in the North China Plain, the government is vigorously promoting “coal to gas” and ... [more ▼]

China's coal-based energy structure is the main reason for the current high-level air pollution and carbon emissions. Now in the North China Plain, the government is vigorously promoting “coal to gas” and “coal to electricity” in the country and the vast rural areas. The development and utilization of biomass resources in agricultural areas is also an effective means of replacing coal. We propose the idea of forming a complementary rural energy structure of "biogas, briquetting, electricity (BBE)" model based on centralized biogas production (CBP) and straw briquetting fuel (SBF) to improve the rural energy structure. This article uses emergy analysis methods to analyze actual cases. It needs to have strengths and avoid weaknesses in mode selection. The process of the analysis reveals the disadvantages and improvement measures. Under the current capacity load, the emergy input and output, eco-economic indicators, sustainable development indicators, environmental load indicators, and economic value have their own advantages and disadvantages. Assuming 100% capacity load, the indicators have great optimization space. Reducing labor input during the planting phase can effectively reduce emergy input. The government needs to provide corresponding support based on the strengths and weaknesses of the project to keep the project sustainability. The development of complementary integration based on local conditions is an important measure to optimize the energy consumption structure in rural areas and improve the ecological environment. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling of Rural Energy Structure and Straw Utilization Based on Cases in Hebei China
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Huang, Xianlei et al

in Sustainability (2020)

China's coal-based energy structure is the main reason for the current high-level air pollution and carbon emissions. Now in the North China Plain, the government is vigorously promoting “coal to gas” and ... [more ▼]

China's coal-based energy structure is the main reason for the current high-level air pollution and carbon emissions. Now in the North China Plain, the government is vigorously promoting “coal to gas” and “coal to electricity” in the country and the vast rural areas. The development and utilization of biomass resources in agricultural areas is also an effective means of replacing coal. We propose the idea of forming a complementary rural energy structure of "biogas, briquetting, electricity (BBE)" model based on centralized biogas production (CBP) and straw briquetting fuel (SBF) to improve the rural energy structure. This article uses emergy analysis methods to analyze actual cases. It needs to have strengths and avoid weaknesses in mode selection. The process of the analysis reveals the disadvantages and improvement measures. Under the current capacity load, the emergy input and output, eco-economic indicators, sustainable development indicators, environmental load indicators, and economic value have their own advantages and disadvantages. Assuming 100% capacity load, the indicators have great optimization space. Reducing labor input during the planting phase can effectively reduce emergy input. The government needs to provide corresponding support based on the strengths and weaknesses of the project to keep the project sustainability. The development of complementary integration based on local conditions is an important measure to optimize the energy consumption structure in rural areas and improve the ecological environment. [less ▲]

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See detailResidents' Willingness for Centralized Biogas Production in Hebei and Shandong Provinces
Wang, Qiang ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Wu, Guosheng et al

in Sustainability (2019)

Nowadays, in the North China Plain (NCP), most counties and suburban rural regions are promoting the "coal to gas" program under the situation of strong government support of large and medium-sized ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, in the North China Plain (NCP), most counties and suburban rural regions are promoting the "coal to gas" program under the situation of strong government support of large and medium-sized centralized biogas production (CBP) projects. This paper is aimed at the CBP projects, focuses on rural residents’ “willingness to use (WTU)”, “willingness to buy (WTB)” and the influencing factors for WTU/WTB. Through the analysis of rural residents from Hebei and Shandong provinces that belong to NCP in this survey, we find that 85% of respondents support the CBP program and the WTB is 63.15 CNY/year per capita, which is much lower than the cost of rural CBP in existing survey regions. The participation of rural residents is not only a manifestation of personal and family characteristics; understanding of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and household energy practices are more important. These non-economic factors seriously affect WTU/WTB. Hence, it is necessary to appropriately increase the government revenue to such projects, strengthen government guidance and publicity, improve the environmental knowledge and attitude of rural residents and guide residents’ practice. Based on a fully understanding of residents' consumption decision mechanism, we establish a financial support mechanism due to the demand response, adopt a correct calculation for financial support, such as a reasonable subsidy rate, and seek the greatest commonality of cost, financial support, and demand. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Economic Analysis of Traditional Agriculture Products: The Case of Chicken in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam
Hoang Thanh Long, ULiege; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Asian Social Science (2019), 15(10), 149-158

Agriculture and traditional agriculture products plays a significant role in the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries, including Vietnam. Cost-benefit Analysis and a mixed ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and traditional agriculture products plays a significant role in the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries, including Vietnam. Cost-benefit Analysis and a mixed methodology were applied to evaluate the economic performance of traditional chicken production in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam by region and scale. The data were drawn respectively from 64 sample households in Huong Thuy and Nam Dong district in 2017. The Cost-benefit analysis shows that Huong Thuy tends to have a lower production cost and thus a higher production benefit as compared to those of Nam Dong district. This study also indicates evidence of the importance of veterinary, mortality rate, scale of production and region on the performance of chicken farmer in the province. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation ex ante de l’irrigation de complément dans un contexte sahélien : couplage d’un modèle biophysique à un modèle économique d’exploitation agricole
Zongo, Bétéo; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Barbier, Bruno et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2019), 23(3),

Ex ante evaluation of supplemental irrigation in a Sahelian context: coupling biophysical and economic models Description of the subject. In Sahelian countries, irregular spatial and temporal rainfall ... [more ▼]

Ex ante evaluation of supplemental irrigation in a Sahelian context: coupling biophysical and economic models Description of the subject. In Sahelian countries, irregular spatial and temporal rainfall distribution remains a threat for rainfed agriculture despite the use of a wide range of techniques for soil conservation. Objectives. To analyze several irrigation strategies for rainfed crops and to assess the likely economic incentives to support the adoption of supplemental irrigation from farm ponds in response to dry spells. Method. The supplemental irrigation strategies and economic incentives were analyzed using an applied bio-economic model in a typical farm. Results. The simulations showed that supplemental irrigation from small individual ponds would increase farmers’ income compared to the situation without irrigation. Maize, sorghum and millet production under supplemental irrigation in a dry year would increase expected income by 26.49% (133,030 CFA francs equivalent to 202.80 euros) compared to the situation without irrigation. Simulations with incentives to promote supplemental irrigation focused on four subsidy modalities and the introduction of a credit system for agricultural households. Conclusions. Of the incentives studied, the food-for-work subsidy to mobilize labor for basin building seems particularly suitable for scaling-up supplemental irrigation. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of Credit Access on Agricultural Production and Rural Household’s Welfares in Northern Mountains of Vietnam
Bui Thi Lam, ULiege; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Asian Social Science (2019), 15(7), 119-133

There is a great consensus on the positive impact of credit access on farmers' incomes and consumption, however, its effect on income inequality among different population segments is still a ... [more ▼]

There is a great consensus on the positive impact of credit access on farmers' incomes and consumption, however, its effect on income inequality among different population segments is still a controversial issue. The paper aims to examine these concerns through using the mixed data collected from the sample of 193 households surveyed (demand-side) and in-depth interviewees with the key credit providers (supply-side) in Lao Cai, the sixth poorest province in Vietnam. At the grass root level, it is evident that better credit access not only significantly positive influences on the effectiveness of agricultural production, but also is the driving force for better structural transition within cultivation versus livestock. Besides this, it enhances both on-farm and off-farm income as well as the well-being of rural households. At the community-impact level, surprisingly, the financial development without agriculture-related supports causes to the negative effect on the distribution of agricultural outcomes and prolongs the inequality in the locality. In addition, an alarm regarding latent social issues has been generating from the preferential credit screen under the community-based lending method. Finally, policy implications are discussed to enhance the effectiveness and outreach of credit in the locality. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling environmental impacts of treated municipalwastewater reuse for tree crops irrigation in the Mediterranean coastal region
Moretti, Michele ULiege; Van Passel, S.; Camposeo, S. et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2019), (660), 15131521

Wastewater reuse provides valuable solutions to solve the societal challenges of decreasing availability and limiting access to secure water resources. The present study quantifies the environmental ... [more ▼]

Wastewater reuse provides valuable solutions to solve the societal challenges of decreasing availability and limiting access to secure water resources. The present study quantifies the environmental performance of nectarine orchards irrigation using treated municipal wastewater (TMW) and surface water using a unique dataset based on field experimental data. Climate change, toxicity (for human and freshwater), eutrophication (marine and freshwater) and acidification impacts were analysed using the impact assessment method suggested by the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD). The water footprint associated to the life cycles of each system has been estimated using the Available WAter REmaining (AWARE) method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess data uncertainty. The irrigation of nectarine orchards using TMW performs better than the irrigation using surface water for eutrophication impact categories. Compared with surface water resources, the potential impacts of TMW reuse in agriculture on climate change and toxicity are affected by the wastewater treatment phase (WWT). Only eutrophication and acidification burdens are generated by in-field substitution of surface water with TMW. Considering human and ecosystem water demand, the irrigation with TMW increases water consumption of 19.12 m3 per kg of nectarine produced. Whereas, it shows a positive contribution to water stress (−0.19 m3) if only human water demand is considered. This study provides important results that allow for a better understanding of the potential environmental consequences of TMW reuse in agriculture. It suggests that embracing the type of WWTs, the replacement of fertilizers, the effects on water scarcity and ecosystem quality might be useful to redefine water reuse regulations and increase public acceptance for the reuse of TMW in agriculture. Moreover, this study reveals the need for developing consensus and standardized guidance for life cycle analysis of water reuse applications. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution du programme de développement rural hexagonal (PDRH) à la compétitivité du secteur laitier
Hugonnet, Mickaël; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Combes, Jacques et al

in Analyse (2018), (131-novembre 2018), 8

L’évaluation du programme de développement rural hexagonal (PDRH)1, réalisée par un consortium piloté par les bureaux d’études Épices et ADE, souligne que le second pilier de la PAC a été largement ... [more ▼]

L’évaluation du programme de développement rural hexagonal (PDRH)1, réalisée par un consortium piloté par les bureaux d’études Épices et ADE, souligne que le second pilier de la PAC a été largement utilisé pour soutenir la compétitivité de la production laitière française, sur la période 2007-2013. En combinant analyse économétrique et approche qualitative, les auteurs de cette étude montrent que les dispositifs du PDRH mobilisés à cette fin ont eu des impacts positifs mais limités sur la compétitivité du secteur laitier. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of food quality from the point of view of consumer health and environmental protection
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Malschi, Dana et al

Conference (2018)

Starting from the premise that consumers play an important role in influencing the pressure that the food sector puts on the environment through their food choices and that these choices are influenced by ... [more ▼]

Starting from the premise that consumers play an important role in influencing the pressure that the food sector puts on the environment through their food choices and that these choices are influenced by their assessment of food quality, this study presents the results of a survey that investigated consumer attitude toward food quality. The objective was to obtain an image of consumer perceptions and knowledge on food quality and habits regarding food quality evaluation. Results show that freshness, taste and price are among the most important quality indicators for tested consumers. Environmental concerns are present in consumer minds, but they have lower importance as food quality evaluation attributes. The findings convey the ideas that investigated consumers pay attention to food quality and that more should be done in order to increase the awareness of environmental impact of food production and consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of food quality from the point of view of consumer health and environmental protection
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Malschi, Dana et al

Poster (2018)

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See detailIdeal future dairy farm: a Walloon breeders’ point of view
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Soyeurt, Hélène ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege et al

Conference (2017, August 30)

This research aims to characterize the dairy breeders regarding their idea of the ideal future farm ensuring them an income, in order to highlight their present situation and the ways to advise them ... [more ▼]

This research aims to characterize the dairy breeders regarding their idea of the ideal future farm ensuring them an income, in order to highlight their present situation and the ways to advise them towards their wished dairy model. The 245 answers to a survey of breeders, conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 provided information about, amongst others, their wishes concerning the intensification, the specialization, the technological innovation, the kind of workforce, structure, market and milk production (standard vs. differentiated quality milk). Based on this information, a Multiple Correspondence Analysis allowed to create 4 groups of breeders with a similar view of their ideal farm: global-based intensive (GBIb), local-based extensive (LBEb), intermediate and no-opinion breeders. The relationships between these groups and the other recorded qualitative variables as formation needed, obstacles and advantages of breeders organization, of diversification and so forth w ere studied using Chi Square tests and Correspondence Canonical Analysis. A moderate link was observed between the ideal future farm and the current situation of the respondent. This suggested that not all the breeders were in the production system that they considered as most profitable. As a brake to the transformation and diversification, GBIb tended to be more numerous to speak about the uncertainty of the customer loyalty (p-value = 0.07) and LBEb pointed out the size of the investments (p-value = 0.05). LBEb asked more for administrative (p-value = 0.04) and transformation and diversification formations (p-value = 0.03) while GBIb looked more for finance and management formation (p-value = 0.02). In conclusion, there were different ideal dairy farm models considered by the breeders. Their needs were not similar and indicated which tools must be developed and which domain must be studied to support them. [less ▲]

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See detailTendances globales, besoins locaux et réponses des politiques de développement rural en Wallonie, Belgique
Dogot, Thomas ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailDiversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2017), 118(1), 149-160

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020) fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production). No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and helophyte plants. For this purpose, proper training of farmers might be critical. Finally, bringing farmers together in cooperatives could also contribute to reduce the cost of purchase and transportation of fish fry and feed. [less ▲]

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