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See detailMunicipalities' understanding of the Smart City concept: An exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

in Technological Forecasting and Social Change (2019), 142

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric ... [more ▼]

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric approach and the central position of private companies. Moreover, the lack of proper conceptualisation pushes cities to claim themselves ‘smart’. Finally, there are few rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application to territories. Therefore, this paper studies how Belgian municipalities understand the concept of Smart Cities in 2016. Based on the groundwork of literature on Smart Cities and the results of a survey of 113 Belgian municipalities, a typology of four understandings of the Smart City (technological, societal, comprehensive and non-existent) is elaborated. The results also show that municipalities with no understanding of the Smart City concept or with a technical understanding are mostly located in small and rural municipalities. This could be a sign of rejection of the phenomenon in this context. Conversely, medium and large-sized municipalities mostly develop a societal or comprehensive understanding. Therefore, this study highlights a dichotomy of understanding and acceptance of the concept of the Smart City between peripheral (rural and small size municipalities) and central municipalities (urban, medium and large size municipalities). [less ▲]

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See detailSmart City appropriation by local actors: An instrument in the making
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Cities (2019), 92

The Smart City became a dominant discourse as a new approach to mitigate and remedy to current urban and societal problems. Numerous cities are engaged in a Smart City process to address their local ... [more ▼]

The Smart City became a dominant discourse as a new approach to mitigate and remedy to current urban and societal problems. Numerous cities are engaged in a Smart City process to address their local challenges. But different actor’s appropriations and styles of implementation produce particular territorial and societal developments. This paper questions in an innovative way the actors’ appropriation of the Smart City: the phenomenon is considered as an instrument, following the theory of Lascoumes and Le Galès (2007). On basis of an online survey with 193 Belgian respondents, the results of several statistical treatments validate an appropriation of the Smart City between a public policy instrument in one side and a functional instrument in the other side. But across the five categories of actors (Elected politician (1), administrations and public organizations (2), private companies (3), research centers & universities (4) and associations (5)), the Belgian respondents do not fit into one or the other instrument in a monolithic way. The actor’s appropriation does not follow a homogeneous trend based on a technical and holistic direction, like it is represented in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailState of municipal global strategies and smart initiatives in Belgium
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, October 26)

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and ... [more ▼]

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and adapted smart initiatives in order to become more liveable and dynamic Values are shared to reinforce creativity, innovation and citizen involvement Different communities are more and more involved in developing smart initiatives Belgian municipalities have the willingness to improve, to digitalize and to involve communities [less ▲]

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See detailGovernance and stakeholders of Smart Cities:A call for stronger theoretical foundation to tackle the complexity
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, August)

Over the past few years, the phenomenon of Smart City has been perceived as a new way to transform cities and territories. Despite the popularity of the phenomenon, the concept is still fuzz and no agreed ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, the phenomenon of Smart City has been perceived as a new way to transform cities and territories. Despite the popularity of the phenomenon, the concept is still fuzz and no agreed definition on Smart Cities exists (Allwinkle & Cruickshank, 2011; Anthopoulos & Vakali, 2012; Hollands, 2008; Komninos, Pallot, & Schaffers, 2013). The concept of Smart City addressed an extensive thematic scope. Smart City research is at an interdisciplinary crossroads (Ricciardi & Za, 2015). A challenge is to identify what can make a city to become smarter (Gil-Garcia, Helbig, & Ojo, 2014)? Governance is a recurring and transversal theme (Dameri & Benevolo, 2016; Gil-Garcia, Pardo, & Nam, 2015). Different aspects and forms of governance in a Smart City are described; multidisciplinary perspective and co-creations are highly promoted (Ben Letaifa, 2015). Smart City publications with governance focus emphasize on interactions between various stakeholders (Meijer & Bolívar, 2016). In the literature on Smart Cities in 2017, what is known about governance and stakeholder’s interactions? Which are the theoretical approaches and empirical researches? Which governance principles are highlighted? Which actors are studied? Which territorial scales are considered? To respond to these questions, the paper introduces discussions on “Smart Cities, Stakeholders, Actors, Governance and Urban Governance” to better understand these central concepts. Then, a literature review is constructed based on a broad set of papers. An advanced search query within four databases and a methodical selection of papers furnished a set of 61 documents. Afterwards, some epistemological issues are described as the structure/agency and positive-normative debates. Finally, a discussion underlines the trends, gaps and future path of researches thanks to a confrontation of the results with some theoretical and epistemological considerations. The literature on governance and stakeholders has a late development in the Smart City publications. A fragmentation exists and is reinforced by a literature insufficiently framed by theories. Case studies and empirical researches are dominating. Governmental and private actors remain the two most discussed players, even if, the place of the civil society is gaining importance. The stakeholders’ analyses show considerations to an horizontal integration (Urban Governance Theory: Galès, 1998; Pierre, 2014). However, the vertical integration is not addressed as an essential concern. Researches are mainly concentrated at a micro or mezzo level. Researchers should pay attention to the “multilevel governance”. They should study processes and institution operations in and between varieties of geographical and organizational scales. [less ▲]

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See detailBaromètre belge 2018: Stratégies et projets Smart City en Belgique
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son ... [more ▼]

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son second baromètre belge dédié à ce concept. Cette étude, réalisée auprès d’un échantillon de 123 communes belges, propose un état des lieux des stratégies et des projets Smart City développés ou en cours de développement sur le territoire belge. En partant du point de vue des communes, ce baromètre expose la manière dont le concept de Smart City est perçu, les prérequis nécessaires à sa mise en oeuvre ainsi que les thématiques prioritaires développées en Belgique. En outre, il recense les moyens de financement utilisés et les actions développées afin de renforcer la dynamique d’acteurs (acteurs publics et privés ainsi que les citoyens) sur le territoire. Enfin, ce baromètre indique les démarches de suivi et de contrôle ainsi que les obstacles rencontrés par les communes dans l’implémentation et le développement des projets Smart City. [less ▲]

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See detailBarometer België 2018: SMART CITIES: STRATEGIEËN EN PROJECTEN IN BELGIË
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer ... [more ▼]

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer over dit concept te kunnen voorstellen. De studie werd uitgevoerd bij een steekproef van 123 Belgische gemeenten en laat zien hoe het staat met de strategieën en projecten rond Smart Cities die op het Belgische grondgebied werden ontwikkeld of nog ontwikkeld worden. Deze studie onthult, vanuit het standpunt van de gemeenten, hoe het Smart City-concept wordt gezien, welke voorwaarden nodig zijn voor de toepassing ervan en welke thema's prioritair worden ontwikkeld in België. Bovendien geeft de studie een overzicht van de gebruikte financieringsvormen en de acties die worden ondernomen om de dynamiek van de spelers (publieke en private spelers en burgers) te versterken. Tot slot geeft de studie aan welke stappen moeten worden gezet voor de monitoring en de controle en welke obstakels de gemeenten tegenkomen bij de toepassing en de ontwikkeling van de Smart City-projecten. [less ▲]

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See detailBAROMÈTRE 2018 : SMART CITIES EN WALLONIE
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les six dimensions de la Smart City de Giffinger et al. (2007) ; et la norme ISO 37120 : 2014. Echantillon La population de référence de l’étude est l’ensemble des communes wallonnes (262 communes). Un échantillon de 58 communes y ont effectivement répondu (22% des communes wallonnes). Cet échantillon est représentatif en termes de géographie (provinces wallonnes) et de nature (commune rurale/urbaine) . Les résultats sont donc généralisables et peuvent être extrapolés à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Collecte des données Un questionnaire en ligne comprenant 20 questions a été envoyé à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Divers canaux de communication ont été utilisés pour la diffusion du questionnaire. La collecte de données a duré 3 mois (d’octobre 2017 à janvier 2018). La grande majorité des répondants sont des directeurs généraux (34%). Le temps moyen de réponse au questionnaire est de 23 minutes. Analyse des données Les calculs et les traitements statistiques ont été effectués à l’aide du logiciel Statistica. Les données sont analysées en globalité afin de recenser les grandes tendances pour les communes wallonnes. Deux critères d’analyse principaux ont été retenus. Le premier critère concerne la nature des communes (rurales et urbaines) selon la définition de l'OCDE. La différence entre une commune rurale et une commune urbaine réside dans le nombre d'habitants au kilomètre carré. Lorsqu’une entité compte moins de 150 habitants au km2, cette entité est considérée comme rurale. Le deuxième critère concerne la taille des communes. L’analyse primaire des données souligne d’importantes différences observées au sein des communes de plus de 50.000 habitants (désignées comme grandes communes dans l’étude) comparativement à la moyenne de notre échantillon. Les résultats analysent la compréhension du concept de ville intelligente par les communes wallonnes, la stratégie smart city développée, et finalement, la mise en œuvre et le contrôle des projets smart city développés dans les communes wallonnes. Les résultats présentent les principaux résultats de l’échantillon. Ils développent ensuite les différences significatives entre les communes urbaines et rurales, et entre les communes de moins et de plus de 50.000 habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailMunicipalities’ understanding and importance of the concept of Smart Cities: an exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

Conference (2017, September 01)

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo ... [more ▼]

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; Lazaroiu and Roscia 2012). Due to the lack of a proper conceptualization, defined method or credentials for smart cities (Angelidou 2015; Nam and Pardo 2011), cities across the geographical spectrum claim themselves 'smart' with self-congratulatory note (Hollands 2008). Despite this increasing popularity of smart cities, there are few critical discourse and rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application on urban territories (Caragliu, Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; R G Hollands 2015; Kitchin 2015; Vanolo 2014). This paper aims at understanding where Belgian municipalities stand in the field of smart city in 2016. How Belgian municipalities approach the phenomenon smart city? Which focus in smart city -sustainable, technologic, creative and human-do attract Belgian municipalities? The paper answers to these questions thanks to a comprehensive territorial analysis of the country, a presentation of current trends on smart cities in the three Belgian regions, and the construction of a typology of municipalities’ understandings of the phenomenon. It also analyses how these understandings impact priorities and smart city developments of Belgian municipalities. It investigates how they affect municipal priorities in the six dimensions of the smart city and their state of development in some key smart city fields. Finally, it examines how do this typology is related to the municipal perception of difficulty to set up smart city projects and the relevance of the concept for their territories. The data used comes from the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities carried out in 2016 by the Smart City Institute. The research points out key statistical observations around the smart city phenomenon in Belgium. A typology with four different understandings (technological, holistic, specialized and inexistent) emerged from the analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Cities Belges: Quelles dynamiques?
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailEtat des lieux sur la dynamique Smart City en Belgique: un baromètre quantitatif
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailThe State of Development of “Smart City” Dynamics in Belgium: A Quantitative Barometer
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Report (2017)

This research relates the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities. Pointing out key statistical observations, it provides a first scientific and quantitative state of the ... [more ▼]

This research relates the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities. Pointing out key statistical observations, it provides a first scientific and quantitative state of the dynamics around the “Smart City” phenomenon in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailConference on Exploring the stakeholders’ dynamics of “Smart City” projects: the case of Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, August)

This presentation proposes to explore the stakeholders’ dynamics in Belgium thanks to a multiple-case study. The research conducted is thus qualitative in nature: eleven “Smart City” projects were studied ... [more ▼]

This presentation proposes to explore the stakeholders’ dynamics in Belgium thanks to a multiple-case study. The research conducted is thus qualitative in nature: eleven “Smart City” projects were studied in Belgium. The goal is to highlight problematics inside the interplay and communication between stakeholders of Smart City projects and to furnish concrete practical recommendations for key stakeholders in smart city initiatives (local governments, multinational/local businesses, citizens, etc.). Even if the 11 projects are very different in their nature, the research proposes some keys scientific findings regarding stakeholders’ dynamics in this kind of projects. [less ▲]

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