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See detailVariation in copper and cobalt tolerance and accumulation among six populations of the facultative metallophyte Anisopappus chinensis (Asteraceae)
Lange, Bastien; Delhaye, Guillaume; Boisson, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Environmental and Experimental Botany (2018), 153

Advances on the ecology and evolution of adaptation to metal toxicity are based on studying metallophytes that are not restricted to soils strongly enriched in trace elements. The evolution of Cu and Co ... [more ▼]

Advances on the ecology and evolution of adaptation to metal toxicity are based on studying metallophytes that are not restricted to soils strongly enriched in trace elements. The evolution of Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation, which principally occurs among the Copperbelt of Central Africa, is poorly known. In this paper, we studied Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation in a facultative metallophyte occupying a very broad ecological niche in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Anisopappus chinensis (Asteraceae). The population variation in Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation was experimentally investigated using four metallicolous and two non-metallicolous populations from contrasted habitats. Surprisingly, Cu tolerance was poorly expressed in metallicolous populations grown in hydroponics, suggesting that specific rhizosphere processes may account for the ability to grow without toxicity symptoms under high Cu concentration on metalliferous soils. Population variation in Co tolerance and accumulation was demonstrated, which positively correlated to the concentration of Co in the native soil. Increased tolerance seems to have evolved in populations originating from Co-enriched soils. Foliar Co accumulation above 300 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight with increased translocation was observed in the most tolerant populations, possibly making such populations promising materials to test for Co-phytomining applications. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant and fish production performance, nutrient mass balances, energy and water use of the PAFF Box, a small-scale aquaponic system
Delaide, Boris ULiege; Delhaye, Guillaume; Dermience, Michael et al

in Aquacultural Engineering (2017), 78

Aquaponics is an integrated farming concept that combines fish and hydroponic plant production in a recirculating water system. This food production system promises a reduced environmental footprint when ... [more ▼]

Aquaponics is an integrated farming concept that combines fish and hydroponic plant production in a recirculating water system. This food production system promises a reduced environmental footprint when compared to conventional farming systems. However, questions regarding its sustainability remain and there is a lack of data on its performance. A small-scale aquaponic system named PAFF Box (Plant And Fish Farming Box) consisting of a ship container topped by a greenhouse was studied. Plant yield in ebb-and-flow and deep water culture (DWC) hydroponic beds, lettuce, basil and tilapia production capacity and water and energy consumption were investigated. Additionally, all macro- and micronutrient mass balances were analyzed in order to give a better picture of their dynamics and recycling ability. Thanks to the daily inputs of tap water, and 42g of feed per m2 of plant beds, DWC beds showed 3 to 10 fold higher plant yields than ebb and flow. The production of 1kg of vegetable in DWC consumed 244L of water and 84.5kWh of electricity and 1kg increase of tilapia consumed 278L and 96.2kWh. The system was very efficient in water use for fish production but alternative solutions for warming the water and fine-tuned pumping setup are required to decrease energy needs. Key nutrients such as potassium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, manganese and molybdenum, remained low in solution. Nitrate, calcium, boron and sodium concentrations increased quickly and only water exchange could control their accumulation meanwhile a low daily water exchange rate of 3.6\% implicated a high nutrient loss in the environment. In the willingness to decrease aquaponics environmental footprint, this study indicates that improved designs could be explored such as decoupled aquaponic systems. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation des traits fonctionnels le long d’un gradient de cuivre et cobalt : contribution du remplacement d’espèces et de la variabilité intraspécifique
Delhaye, Guillaume; Violle, Cyril; Seleck, Maxime ULiege et al

Conference (2014, April)

Les collines cuprocobaltifères du Katanga sont des lieux privilégiés pour étudier la variation des traits fonctionnels le long de gradients de stress métallique. Nous avons étudié la variation de six ... [more ▼]

Les collines cuprocobaltifères du Katanga sont des lieux privilégiés pour étudier la variation des traits fonctionnels le long de gradients de stress métallique. Nous avons étudié la variation de six traits à l’échelle des espèces et de la communauté le long d’un gradient de cuivre et cobalt. D’autres paramètres tels que la concentration en phosphore et l’humidité du sol covarient positivement avec la teneur en métal du sol. Les contributions relatives du remplacement d’espèces et de la variabilité intraspécifique à la variabilité totale des traits dans les communautés ont été déterminées. A l’échelle de la communauté, la hauteur et la surface foliaire diminuent alors que les valeurs des quatre autres traits augmentent le long du gradient. Les espèces montrent des réponses variées, généralement non significatives. Pour tous les traits, le remplacement d’espèce est le moteur principal de la variation au sein des communautés. La concentration en métal du sol implique des réponses variées sur les différents traits et les différentes espèces. Nous montrons que la concentration croissante en métal privilégie le remplacement d’espèce par rapport à la variation intraspécifique et que les espèces répondent par différentes stratégies de tolérance à la concentration en métal du le sol. La variation des traits à l’échelle des communautés est essentiellement le reflet d’un changement dans les abondances des différentes formes de vie. Les espèces à xylopodes sont dominantes sur sol pauvre en métal alors que les annuelles sont dominantes sur sol très enrichi. [less ▲]

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