References of "Deleuze, Stefan"
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See detailEndoscopy Guided Photoablation of Endometrial Cysts using a 980 nm Laser with a Contact Fiber in Mares
Ponthier, Jérôme ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

in Journal of Visualized Experiments (2020)

In mares, endometrial cysts are associated with endometriosis and can cause maternal recognition failure or compromise and delay pregnancy diagnoses. Historical treatments were invasive and had adverse ... [more ▼]

In mares, endometrial cysts are associated with endometriosis and can cause maternal recognition failure or compromise and delay pregnancy diagnoses. Historical treatments were invasive and had adverse effects on the endometrium. Hysteroscopically guided laser therapy is easy and effective for endometrial cysts resection, with no deleterious effects for the endometrium. A 110 cm long and 1.0 cm wide endoscope is sterilely introduced in the uterus through the open cervix of an estrous mare after vulvar cleaning. The uterus is slowly infused with less than 1 L of physiologic solution and the laser fiber is inserted in the biopsy canal of the endoscope. Cysts are then cauterized with the 980 nm diode laser with a contact fiber set at 20‒2 5W in continuous mode. Each cyst is punctured until complete voiding of the cyst and shrinking of the cyst wall around the fiber. Uterine lavages with sterile saline solution are performed directly after the surgery and for one or two days as non-inflammatory fluid can be observed. This procedure is easy and quickly performed, with no obvious deleterious effects. Cysts resection makes ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis easier and, in some cases, could restore proper embryo migration in the uterine horns between day 6.5 and 17. However, this treatment does not improve the underlying histological lesions related to endometriosis. These considerations should be clearly expressed to the breeder before this procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of a tubectomy program and post-op monitoring in Macaca fascicularis, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

Conference (2020, February 10)

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit ... [more ▼]

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit population growth but very few monitoring data are available. Therefore, the efficiency and implications of such programs require a careful examination. Our research aims to assess the adequacy and implications of a three-year sterilization program in wild female long-tailed macaques in Ubud, Bali. We present the rationales behind the selected methods (surgical approach of endoscopic tubectomy and giant trapping cages for captures) and we describe the demographic population model used to establish the objectives of population growth control. We then present the outcomes of this program and the postoperative monitoring results. 137 females underwent tubectomy over four successive campaigns between 2017 and 2019, which represented 45% of the sexually mature females of the population. The survival rate was very high (96%) six months after sterilization and no major postoperative complication were recorded. No novel pregnancy in treated females was observed, reflecting a 100% success rate of the procedure. Moreover, the surgical approach was also applicable for pregnant females since 26% of the treated females were pregnant at the time of the surgery and 77% of them experienced term delivery. Overall, this study case demonstrates the safety and efficiency of tubectomy sterilization as mean of population control in wild macaques. A demographical and behavioural monitoring is currently in progress to provide a global evaluation of the implications of such programs [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in goats: Repeatability, variability, and validation of the technique using an exercise test and an experimentally induced acute ischemic cardiomyopathy
Leroux, A. A.; Moonen, Marie ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2020), 16(1),

Background: Two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) technique has been validated in numerous animal species, but neither studies of repeatability nor measurements after exercise or in animals with cardiac ... [more ▼]

Background: Two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) technique has been validated in numerous animal species, but neither studies of repeatability nor measurements after exercise or in animals with cardiac disease have been reported in goats. Goats are an attractive candidate for animal models in human cardiology because they are easy to handle and have a body and heart size comparable to that of humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate this technique in goats for further clinical and experimental applications in this species. Results: This study was divided into several steps. First, a standardized echocardiographic protocol was performed and 5 cineloops of a right parasternal short-axis view at papillary muscles level were recorded three times at one-day intervals in ten healthy adult unsedated Saanen goats to test repeatability and variability of 2DST measurements. Then, the same measurements were performed immediately before and after a standardized exercise on treadmill in seven of the goats, and at 24 h after induction of an experimental ischemic cardiomyopathy in five of the goats, to test the reliability of the technique to assess physiological and pathological changes. Average and regional measurements of radial and circumferential strain and strain rate, radial displacement, rotation and rotation rate were obtained. Comparisons were performed using two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Caprine 2DST average measurements have demonstrated a good repeatability with a low to moderate variability for all measurements except for the diastolic peaks of the circumferential strain rate, radial strain rate and rotation rate. Segmental 2DST measurements were less repeatable than average measurements. Time effect of two-way ANOVA was significant for anteroseptal segment diastolic peaks measurements, rotation and rotation rate measurements. Overall variability of segmental measurements was moderate or high. Segmental and average peak values obtained after exercise and after myocardial ischemia were significantly different than curves obtained at baseline. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with those previously described in other animal species and humans. 2DST echocardiography is a valid technique to evaluate physiological and pathological changes in myocardial function in goats, despite the technical limitations observed in this species. © 2020 The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of an endoscopic tubectomy procedure and post-op monitoring
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Polet, Roland ULiege; Gede, Soma et al

Conference (2019, October 10)

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See detailInadequate mare-foal bonding restored by adoption of her own foal - a case report
Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Wimmer-Scherr, Christina ULiege et al

Poster (2019, September 21)

Difficulties in mare-foal bonding are mostly the consequence of an abnormal maternal behaviour. Despite current therapies usually based on restrain and sedation of the mare as well as adapted management ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in mare-foal bonding are mostly the consequence of an abnormal maternal behaviour. Despite current therapies usually based on restrain and sedation of the mare as well as adapted management of each situation, the mare-foal bonding is not always created. However, adoption of foster foals and establishment of the maternal behaviour is often successful. Procedures of adoption mimic the transient increase of oxytocin during delivery and its effects by cervical and vaginal stimulation (Fergusson reflex), or by pharmacological simulation of the high concentrations of prostaglandins observed during parturition. Even if the mechanism is not yet well understood in mares, both hormones seem to have a direct effect on the brain control of maternal behaviour. A primiparous 7 years old mare was presented at the Equine Clinic showing aggressive behaviour towards her 4 days filly especially when the foal attempted to suckle. No evident cause of pain at suckling was found. A hormonal adoption procedure of her own foal was implemented after several attempts to restore the mare-foal bonding by restrain and sedation of the mare. After 3h of fasting and isolation of the foal, the mare received an im injection of 750µg of cloprostenol. The foal was carefully presented to the mare when the secondary effects of the prostaglandins were visible. The mare accepted the foal and allowed suckling rapidly. During the next 24 hours under supervision, the mare showed a very normal maternal behaviour. After 3 days of normal bonding, mare and foal were discharged from the clinic. Adoption of filial foals could be a valuable option in the treatment to establish or restore the normal bonding between a mare and her own foal. [less ▲]

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See detailA vaginal fibroleiomyoma in a ten-year-old spayed pug dog - a case report
Brutinel, Flore ULiege; Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Hamon, Martin ULiege et al

Poster (2019, September)

A ten-year-old pug, spayed two years before, was presented for a bleeding vaginal mass. The owner reported tenesmus, dysuria progressing to anuria and a mass protruding intermittently from the vulva ... [more ▼]

A ten-year-old pug, spayed two years before, was presented for a bleeding vaginal mass. The owner reported tenesmus, dysuria progressing to anuria and a mass protruding intermittently from the vulva. There was no report of signs of heat after ovariectomy or exogenous estrogen administration. Antimüllerian hormone and progesterone were 0.01 and 0.1ng/ml respectively. Vaginal examination revealed a single, painful mass with areas of calcification and necrosis, measuring 5x5 cm, involving the dorsal wall of the caudal vagina. Vaginal cytology showed no sign of estrogen impregnation. No ovarian tissue was identified at abdominal ultrasound. The mass was resected through an episiotomy and a partial thickness incision was made around the pedicle. Because of diffuse bleeding, hemostasis was controlled with vaginal mesh left in situ during 48h. Histology revealed a fibroleiomyoma with some atypical areas with anysocaryosis. Estrogen receptors alpha ER 1D5 were found by immunohistochemistry in the tumor, including atypical areas, healthy vaginal epithelium and smooth muscles. Half of the benign vaginal tumors have estrogen receptors. In this case, there is no current evidence of residual ovarian syndrome. The first hypothesis is that the vaginal mass was already present at the time of ovariectomy. Therefore vaginal examination before late neutering should be recommended. The second hypothesis is that the mass appeared and grew after sterilisation without estrogen stimulation, even if estrogen receptors were present. In fact, these were found in healthy vaginal tissue. It is suspected that they persist without estrogen stimulation. Contrary to mammary tumors, malignancy of vaginal tumors can not be predicted in spayed bitches. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing drone raising and marking techniques in Belgium: a report.
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Brutinel, Flore ULiege; Ponthier, Jérôme ULiege et al

Conference (2019, September)

Research on drone semen freezing requires very large numbers of drones, which can be very challenging. No established technique to supply these large numbers has been clearly described. We report our ... [more ▼]

Research on drone semen freezing requires very large numbers of drones, which can be very challenging. No established technique to supply these large numbers has been clearly described. We report our attempts to reach sufficient numbers of drones while maintaining a viable balance in the breeding system under Belgian beekeeping conditions. Controlling the age of drones can also be an issue. We report marking drones every 24h for up to 16days using one different color POSCA® Marker per day. Colored drones were well tolerated by the workers. Drones frames were introduced in a strong colony in a Dadant 10 frames hive for the queen to lay eggs. 24h before first hatching the frames were placed in a Dadant 6 frames hive and 2 different caging techniques were tested. Technique 1: Males were kept on a frame in a cage that was opened for daily marking. We observed that the cage quickly got overcrowded and drones tended to escape or get crushed and killed during the manipulations. The technique was then slightly modified and drones were individually collected from the frame, marked and then placed on a caged workers frame. This, however, was associated with too a high number of drones flying away during the manipulation and was abandoned. Technique 2: A maximum of 3 frames of males, 1 of workers and 1 of food were transferred into the body of a Dadant 6 frames hive placed on top of an empty super with a queen excluder between them. Date of birth was assessed by daily marking of the emerged drones. Drones were at first well tolerated but after one month they were chased out of the hive and killed by the workers. Drones raised in the small hive were smaller than drones that escaped and were raised by the nearby colonies. They also had diarrhea and almost no semen could consequently be collected. We conclude that raising large numbers of drones in surrogate hives is suboptimal. An alternative where drones are raised in their home hive and kept in small groups in small cages should be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of oral clomiphene citrate administration on prostatic volume and plasmatic testosterone concentrations in male beagles
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Beaufays, France ULiege; Brutinel, Flore ULiege et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2019, September), 54(3), 63-64

Clomiphene citrate (CC) is a synthetic non-steroidal agonist/antagonist oestrogenic compound with reported agonistic properties on dogs’ male reproductive system. This protocol compared the impact of a 0 ... [more ▼]

Clomiphene citrate (CC) is a synthetic non-steroidal agonist/antagonist oestrogenic compound with reported agonistic properties on dogs’ male reproductive system. This protocol compared the impact of a 0.5mg/kg/day treatment of CC on plasmatic testosterone concentrations and prostatic volume (PV) on 2 groups of 5 young (<1.5years) healthy versus old (>8years) dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Each dog was its own control and parameters were evaluated weekly over 2 periods of 8 weeks: 1 week pre-treatment, 3 weeks of treatment (placebo or CC) and 4 weeks post-treatment. Prostatic measures made by transabdominal ultrasonography were fed in the formula: (1/2.6 (lxLxh)) + 1.8) to calculate the PV (cm3). Plasmatic testosterone concentration (ng/ml) was measured by radioimmunoassay on samples obtained at the end of the morning. A linear mixed model was built and differences of least squares means were used to analyse the results and test the effects of treatment, week, age and their interactions. CC dogs have significantly lower PV values (10.36) than control dogs (12.91; p=0.01). CC old dogs have significantly lower PV values (15.05) than control old dogs (18.31; p=0.03). PV significantly (p=0.01) decreases in CC dogs from week 1 to 5 and then re-increases from week 6 to 8. CC dogs have significantly lower testosterone levels (0.7543) than controls (1.17; p=0.01). There is a significant interaction between the week and the treatment as shown by a transient decrease in testosterone similar to that of the PV. We conclude that CC decreases testosterone production and prostatic volume, which opens doors for BPH treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailComputed tomography and ultrasound examination of subcapsular prostatic cyst in a fiveyear-old dog with severe benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Brutinel, Flore ULiege; Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Gombert, Alexis ULiege et al

Poster (2019, June)

Clinical case: A five-year-old Bullmastiff dog was initially presented for staging of an extra skeletal osteosarcoma on the right hip. The dog had a history of intermittent haematuria for months that had ... [more ▼]

Clinical case: A five-year-old Bullmastiff dog was initially presented for staging of an extra skeletal osteosarcoma on the right hip. The dog had a history of intermittent haematuria for months that had never been investigated. Abdominal computed tomographic examination (CT) incidentally revealed an enlarged (8x7.6x5cm) and heterogeneous prostate with contrast enhancement and periprostatic fat stranding. Several hypoattenuating areas were observed in the parenchyma and its periphery, some of them outlined by a rim enhancement on post-contrast scan. Prostatitis and prostatic abscesses associated with secondary steatitis were suspected. Bilateral mild medial iliac lymphadenopathy was present. Ultrasound examination (US) showed an enlarged (7.6cm width, 4cm height in cross section), bilobed prostate. Anechoic dilated ducts radiated from the middle of the gland and connected with an anechoic, septated and irregular-shaped area with distal enhancement between the parenchyma and the distended prostatic capsule of the right lobe. The surrounding fat was hyperechoic, suggesting secondary steatitis. No abnormality was found in the testicles. Cytology from fluid collected by prostatic lavage (PL) showed red blood cells and prostatic cells but no inflammatory cells or bacteria. Urinalysis was within standard limits. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) of the subcapsular cavity and prostatic parenchyma were performed and 0.2 ml of serous fluid were collected from the cavity. No signs of inflammation were observed on cytological examination. A severe benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and a subcapsular cyst were diagnosed. No US-FNA of the iliac lymph nodes was performed. The dog underwent castration at the same time as surgical removal of the hip mass. Regardless of his BPH, he received cefalexin and carprofen during one week. The dog showed no urinary symptoms during the three weeks after surgery and no ultrasound control was performed. Discussion: Small intraparenchymal cysts are common findings in BPH. Obstruction of ducts by cellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy leads to accumulation of non-inflammatory prostatic secretions within the parenchyma. We report that, while most cysts associated with BPH are located within the parenchyma, they can also collect peripherally between the prostatic parenchyma and the capsule. In this case, CT showed severe enlargement and heterogeneity of the prostate. CT is reported to be more accurate than US for evaluating prostatic size. Prostatic height may have been underestimated by US. Heterogeneous tissue structure and changes in attenuation on CT after contrast agent injection seem to be very sensitive and to detect earlier prostatic changes than US1. However, these features do not specifically differentiate between different prostatic conditions and should not be over-interpreted. Prostatic surrounding reactive fat at US or CT is usually not observed in BPH. Severe enlargement of the prostate could have led to surrounding steatitis. US is the gold standard when investigating the prostate. However, cytology is essential to distinguish between cysts and abscesses2 and to confirm a prostatitis. Cytology of fluid obtained by PL shows a good correlation with histology in case of inflammation. Dilution should be avoided by centrifugation of sample before examination. Contamination by cells of the urinary tract may occur. US-FNA permits to focus on lesion detected by US and shows the strongest correlation with histological diagnosis. Aspiration of fibrotic tissue can lead to poor cellularity.3 In this case, both methods lead to a BHP diagnosis. Increased serum canine prostatic specific esterase (CPSE) concentrations have been reported in dogs affected by HBP, prostatitis or prostatic carcinoma. CPSE could be useful to detect early prostatic disorders but further evaluations are needed to differentiate between prostatic diseases. According to anamnesis and clinical findings, cytology should be performed to refine the imaging diagnosis and propose the most accurate treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailEmergency C-section and pre-natal maternal corticosteroid therapy: Three cases in pre-term brachycephalic dogs
Lejong, Marie; Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2019, June), 54(2), 93

Introduction: C-section performed before 62 days post LH surge is associated with a high risk of neonatal mortality due to fetal immaturity. Among other factors, increase of cortisol concentrations pre ... [more ▼]

Introduction: C-section performed before 62 days post LH surge is associated with a high risk of neonatal mortality due to fetal immaturity. Among other factors, increase of cortisol concentrations pre-partum plays an important role in final development of fetal pulmonary, renal, liver and gastro-intestinal systems (1). Pre-natal corticosteroid therapy has been used since 1972 in human medicine to prevent or, at least to reduce, respiratory complications in pre-term infants. This treatment is associated with a significant reduction of morbidity and mortality resulting from Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (2). Regazzi et al, Zaremba et al and Rider et al have confirmed the same results in dogs, calves and rabbits. Foetal lung development can be divided in five phases: embryonary, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular and alveolar. Pulmonary surfactant is secreted by pneumocytes II during the saccular phase. In 2009, Sipriani et al studied the development of the pulmonary structure throughout pregnancy in dogs. They reported that the saccular phase begins at the earliest 57 days post fertilization; thereby underlying the non-viability of younger puppies. Here we describe three cases of pre-term C-sections with pre-natal corticosteroid therapy. Clinical cases: Two English Bulldogs and one Chihuahua underwent emergency C-sections. The three dogs had been trans-cervically inseminated once with fresh semen. They were followed during the estrus cycle, by vaginal smear and progesterone (P4) assay. Abdominal ultrasound with measurement of the inner chorionic cavity confirmed that the day of fertilization matched with the day of insemination (3). The two Bulldogs and the Chihuahua were presented for anorexia, dyspnea and exhaustion 56 days and 54 days post insemination respectively. Progesterone levels were around 10 ng/ml. The 3 dogs underwent the same surgical and anesthetic protocol. Two hours prior to surgery: perfusion with Hartmann + Glucose 5% solution, injection of prednisolone IM (0.5mg/kg), metoclopramide SC (0.5mg/kg) and amoxicillin clavulanic acid SC (8.75 mg/kg). Induction was achieved with dexmedetomidine (375μg/m2) and alfaxan IV (0,2mg/kg) maintenance with Isoflurane. The linea alba was locally anesthetized with lidocaine. Methadone (0.1 mg/kg) was administered IV at the time of delivery and again upon waking. The first Bulldog gave birth to 8 puppies: 3 had a cleft palate and were euthanized. One died after 4 days from respiratory distress. The four remaining ones survived. The second Bulldog delivered 10 puppies: 1 water puppy and 1 with cleft palate that were euthanized, 2 mummies. Out of the 6 other puppies only one died at 15 days from respiratory distress. The Chihuahua gave birth to 3 puppies who survived without complication despite their high degree of immaturity (hairless) and were sent back home. Discussion: Pre-natal corticosteroid therapy has been shown to improve neonatal viability in several studies. Betamethasone injected 2 days before surgery has been proposed as the treatment of choice. However, Vannuchi et al reported in 2012 a suppression of the fetal and maternal adrenal cortex as well as a premature labor with an administration of betamethasone at 0.5mg/kg. Maternal treatment with prednisolone two hours before surgery should be investigated in order to measure its impact on the fetal and maternal cortisol levels in addition to its effect on surfactant production. Most studies on pre-natal corticosteroid therapy in dogs define the prematurity of the fetuses based on progesterone levels, the predicted LH surge and estimation of the ovulation 2 to 3 days post LH surge. In order to increase the accuracy of the gestational age, we combined progesterone levels, vaginal smear and US measurements. We report here three cases of emergency C-section with viable fetuses at 56 and 54 days post fertilization. We conclude that prednisolone injection 2 hours prior to surgery could represent an interesting protocol to increase neonatal viability and should be further investigated. References: 1) Fowden et al. Proc Nutr Soc. 1998; 57: 113-122. 2) Regazzi et al., Theriogenology 2017; 97:179-185. 3) Lopate. Theriogenology. 2008; 70: 397-402. [less ▲]

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See detailMelatonin implants to control estrus in Belgian breeding queens
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Brutinel, Flore ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2019, June), 54(2), 49

Introduction and aim. Seasonal anestrus in the queen is associated with high levels of melatonin. The use of subcutaneous melatonin implants developed for ovine estrus stimulation (Melovine® 18mg; CEVA ... [more ▼]

Introduction and aim. Seasonal anestrus in the queen is associated with high levels of melatonin. The use of subcutaneous melatonin implants developed for ovine estrus stimulation (Melovine® 18mg; CEVA santé animale) has been tested in queens with variable results depending on environmental conditions. The aim of this clinical report is to evaluate the use of melatonin implants in field conditions in Belgian catteries. Materials and methods. 13 melatonin implants (Melovine® 18mg) were injected subcutaneously in the neck of 12 pubescent and 1 prepubescent queens. All queens were in interestrus or in prepubescent anestrus. Absence of estrus was confirmed by vaginal smear stained with a modified Harris-Shorr (Kit Diag-Oestro®, RAL Diagnostics, France). Queens were considered not in estrus if less than 70% of the cells were keratinized. The owner was asked to report signs of estrus during the 10 first days following the injection and the duration of the subsequent interestrus. Observed matings after return to cyclicity and potential pregnancies were also recorded. Implants were considered efficacious if interestrus lasted more than 6 weeks. Results. Pubescent queens: implants were efficacious in 11/12 queens with a mean duration of action (from implantation to estrus) of 106 +/- 40 days. 4/11 presented mild signs of estrus with meowing for 2 to 3 days within 10 days post implantation but none was mated during these periods. The queen that failed to respond had a vaginal smear of 70% of keratinized cells at the time of implantation with a history of a 3 week-long estrus ending the day before. It was however decided to try implantation on this unclear case. The next estrus started the very next day to last for another 3 weeks. The breeder then decided to mate her and she got pregnant. Following this pregnancy, this same queen was implanted 3 times during the breeding season on a confirmed absence of estrus and the mean duration of the provoked interestrus was 55 +/- 8 days. One fourth implantation was done 6 weeks post-partum, in October, while she was lactating and a prolonged anestrus until mid-February (130.9 days) was observed. There was no interference with milk production and the kittens were weaned 3 weeks after implantation. A different queen was also implanted in October, when natural secretion of melatonin increases, and anestrus was also prolonged until mid-February. These two cases with increased endogenous secretion of melatonin may have affected the overall efficacy of implants to postpone estrus we report here. However, 3 other queens resumed cyclicity after implantation in November and December. After cyclicity resumption, 6 queens were successfully mated while another one, where no successful cover was observed, failed to get pregnant. That queen was subsequently neutered. The prepubescent queen was 6 months old when implanted, estrus appeared 52 days after. Conclusions. Melovine® was safely used on one lactating queen but its innocuousness should be confirmed by larger studies. Our results also suggest that melatonin should be considered to prolongate post-partum anestrus. Mean duration of action is comparable to that previously reported in French and Italian catteries. Some queens showed signs of estrus in November and December while they should have been in seasonal anestrus. Late in the year implantation of melatonin may provide a promising tool to obtain seasonal anestrus in queens that cycle all year round. In our field conditions, the one prepubescent implanted queen showed first estrus signs at the age of 7.5 months, which is normal for puberty. This is in agreement with results obtained under controlled conditions, where no significant delay in first estrus occurrence was observed. Our results support the observation that fertility does not appear to be compromised by melatonin implants, making it a viable option for cyclicity control in catteries. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst attempts for vitrification of immature oocytes in donkey (Equus asinus): Comparison of two vitrification methods
Douet, C.; Reigner, F.; Barrière, P. et al

in Theriogenology (2019), 126

Most wild donkey breeds are severely threatened by poaching for meat, habitat loss, and competition with livestock for food resources. Moreover, due to the mechanization in agriculture and in transport ... [more ▼]

Most wild donkey breeds are severely threatened by poaching for meat, habitat loss, and competition with livestock for food resources. Moreover, due to the mechanization in agriculture and in transport, most domestic donkey breeds are at risk of extinction. Considering the importance of biodiversity and preservation of genetic resources, the creation of genetic banks for endangered donkey breeds is urgently needed. Cryopreservation of immature jennies oocytes would be an efficient tool to allow storage of female genetics. The aim of the present study was to establish conditions for immature donkey oocyte vitrification, using equine oocytes as a control. Asine and equine immature cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration and flushed to obtain oocytes surrounded by only corona radiata. Oocytes were vitrified after exposure to increasing concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and sucrose as cryoprotectants in a solution of INRA-Freeze™ medium or TCM199-Hepes supplemented with bovine serum albumin. Oocytes were warmed in decreasing concentrations of sucrose and processed for in vitro maturation. The recovery rate was 48% for jennies oocytes (4.8 oocyte per female) and 42% for mares oocytes (3.5 oocyte per female). When oocytes were exposed to cryoprotectants in INRA-Freeze™ medium none of the jennies re-warmed oocytes matured, whereas 24% of the mares re-warmed oocytes reached metaphase II after in vitro maturation. When oocytes were exposed to cryoprotectants in TCM199-Hepes-BSA medium, 33% of the jennies re-warmed oocytes matured. In conclusion, we developed a method for the vitrification of immature oocytes from jennies that allows in vitro maturation of the vitrified-warmed asine oocytes. Their competence for fertilization and development has to be ascertain. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailLes techniques de reproduction artificielle au secours des juments infertiles
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Canine-Féline (2019), 12

Les techniques de reproduction assistée sont de plus en plus largement envisagées pour venir au secours des juments infertiles. Cette revue vise à donner un aperçu des techniques actuellement disponibles ... [more ▼]

Les techniques de reproduction assistée sont de plus en plus largement envisagées pour venir au secours des juments infertiles. Cette revue vise à donner un aperçu des techniques actuellement disponibles de même que leurs applications spécifiques et leur rendement [less ▲]

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See detailPyocolpos in a spayed queen with imperforate hymen: a case report
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Shimizu, Naomi ULiege; Anne-Archard, Nicolas ULiege et al

Poster (2018, October 26)

A 1-y-old sterilized queen was presented for dysuria. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled ... [more ▼]

A 1-y-old sterilized queen was presented for dysuria. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled abdominal structure extending into the pelvic cavity, displacing the colon dorsally and the urethra ventrally. Retrograde vagino-urethrography showed contrast in the vestibule, urethra and urinary bladder. Imperforate membrane at the vestibulo-vaginal junction with secondary vaginal distension was highly suspected. During surgery, a distended by purulent content vagina was observed, sub-total vaginectomy was performed. Bacterial culture showed Enterobacter cloacae. Definitive diagnosis of imperforate hymen is usually achieved by vaginoscopy. Retrograde vagino-urethrography can be used in some cases. This is the first report of imperforate hymen in the queen and also is the first case of pyocolpos. Origin of infection remains unclear. Contamination during neutering or via partial perforation of the hymen may be suspected. Enterobacter cloacae is a Gram - opportunistic pathogen of the urogenital tract of humans and animals. It is involved in multidrug-resistance spreading but its prevalence and clinical impact in veterinary medicine is unknown. In conclusion, this first report of persistent hymen in the queen highlights vagino-urethrography usefulness for diagnosing imperforate hymen in small patients, as well as the inclusion of congenital abnormality in the differential diagnosis of dysuria and the feasibility of sub-total vaginectomy by abdominal approach. Finally, it raises the question of Enterobacter cloacae’s implication in nosocomial infection in veterinary medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailPyocolpos in a spayed queen with imperforate hymen: a case report
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Shimizu, Naomi ULiege; Anne-Archard, Nicolas ULiege et al

Poster (2018, June)

A 1-year-old queen was presented for dysuria, strangurya and abdominal discomfort. She had been ovariectomized or potentially ovariohysterectomized at 6 months of age. Abdominal palpation elicited pain ... [more ▼]

A 1-year-old queen was presented for dysuria, strangurya and abdominal discomfort. She had been ovariectomized or potentially ovariohysterectomized at 6 months of age. Abdominal palpation elicited pain and revealed a firm, well-circumscribed mass dorsal to the bladder. No vulvar discharge was observed and the rest of the clinical examination was unremarkable. Ultrasonography confirmed a caudal fluid filled abdominal structure (5cm X 2.5cm) extending into the pelvic cavity, displacing the colon dorsally and the urethra ventrally. No ovarian remnant could be found. Vaginoscopy was not performed due to unavailable small diameter size endoscope. Retrograde vagino-urethrography showed contrast in the vestibule, urethra and urinary bladder, while no contrast could be observed in the vagina. At that stage, an imperforate membrane at the vestibulo-vaginal junction with secondary vaginal distension was highly suspected. During surgery, complete ovariohysterectomy, including removal of the uterine body, was confirmed and a distended, but otherwise normal looking, vagina was observed. Total vaginectomy was performed and the purulent content was swabbed for bacteriology. Post-operative treatment included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20mg/kg PO BID), meloxicam for a week (0,1mg/kg PO SID). Enterobacter cloacae was isolated and antibiotherapy was changed into a marbofloxacin administration for 2 weeks (5mg/kg PO SID), according to culture sensitivity. The queen recovered without any major complication. Definitive diagnosis of imperforate hymen is usually achieved by vaginoscopy, which is the most common complementary exam that can be performed either with an endoscope or a speculum. Due to technical limitation such as scope size, retrograde vagino-urethrography can be used to confirm a suspected blind vestibule. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an imperforate hymen in the queen and the first case of pyocolpos in that species. Cases of imperforate hymen have been described in young girls, cows, buffaloes and bitches. A complete persistent hymen is one of the many congenital abnormalities of the vestibulo-vaginal junction or the vestibular area. The hymen is formed by the fusion of the Müllerian ducts with the urogenital sinus during embryo development and usually disappears before birth. In our case, the origin of the bacterial infection remains unclear. Contamination during neutering may be suspected. However, the 6-month delay before clinical onset makes it rather unlikely. Alternatively, an ascending contamination via partial perforation of the hymen, that somehow re-sealed afterwards, seems more likely as it has already been speculated in the bitch. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram-negative commensal flora of the digestive system of humans and animals was identified. It is an opportunistic pathogen of the urogenital tract and has been involved in multidrug-resistance spreading. It over-expresses chromosomic cephalosporinases leading to resistance to third generation cephalosporins. It may also carry genes for extended-spectrum -lactamase or even carbapenemase. They are naturally resistant to aminopenicillins, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, first and second generation cephalosporins. They are naturally sensitive to aminosids, quinolones, tetracyclins and trimethoprime-sulfonamides. In the present case, it was resistant to cefovecin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfonamide, sensitive to gentamicin and marbofloxacin but intermediate to enrofloxacin. Enterobacter cloacae has been isolated from intra-venous catheters in human hospitals and reported as responsible for nosocomial epidemics. As far as we know, a similar role in veterinary medicine has not yet been reported. Actually, little is known about Enterobacter cloacae’s prevalence and clinical impact in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine. Epidemiological surveys should be conducted to answer these interrogations. In conclusion, this first report of a persistent hymen in the queen highlights vagino-urethrography usefulness for diagnosing imperforate hymen in small patients, as well as the inclusion of congenital abnormality in the differential diagnosis of dysuria. Finally, it raises the question of Enterobacter cloacae’s implication in nosocomial infection in veterinary medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailOvum Pick Up and In Vitro Maturation of Jennies Oocytes Toward the Setting Up of Efficient In Vitro Fertilization and In Vitro Embryos Culture Procedures in Donkey (Equus asinus)
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Douet, C.; Couty, I. et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2018), 65

Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryo cryopreservation allows preservation of genetics ... [more ▼]

Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryo cryopreservation allows preservation of genetics from both male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. Embryo production in vivo is limited in equids. We recently established a technique of ovum pick up (OPU) in the donkey. Conditions of in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and in vitro culture of zygotes have been evaluated. Equine abattoir–derived oocytes were used as controls. Donkey cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) collected by OPU were matured in vitro in TCM199 with fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor for 24, 30, 34, or 38 hours. Forty-four percent were in metaphase 2 after 34 hours. In our conditions, IVM of donkey oocytes was slower than that of equine oocytes and the optimal duration for donkey oocytes IVM may be 34 hours. Oocytes we co-incubated with frozen-thawed donkey semen treated with procaine for 18 hours and cultured for 30 hours in a Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium-F12-based medium. Only 15% of jennies oocytes contained 2 pronuclei after co-incubation, and none of them developed further after 48 hours after IVF. Treatment of donkey sperm with procaine may not be efficient for IVF. Some parthenogenetic activation occurred. In conclusion, we confirm that our conditions for OPU in jennies yielded high recovery rates that improved with operator experience. Maturation rates of 44% can be achieved using the IVM medium routinely used for equine oocytes in our lab. Further studies are in progress to establish efficient conditions for IVF and development of donkey zygotes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailCanine gangrenous mastitis: series of three patients
Egyptien, Sophie ULiege; Shimizu, Naomi ULiege; Robiteau, Guillaume et al

Poster (2017, October)

This report describes and compares the clinical presentations of three post-parturient bitches diagnosed with gangrenous mastitis, their treatments and their cost-effectiveness. Mastitis is an ... [more ▼]

This report describes and compares the clinical presentations of three post-parturient bitches diagnosed with gangrenous mastitis, their treatments and their cost-effectiveness. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland found mainly in lactating females. While more common in ruminants, gangrenous mastitits is rare in the bitch. They are typically presented with anorexia, hyperthermia, swollen and necrotized mammary tissue. One Sheltie (S), one NewFoundland (NF) and one Boxer (B) were presented at the Veterinary Clinic of University of Liège. The S was in decompensated septic shock 36 hours after ovariohysterectomy on 4 puppies dead during labour. Three crackling mammary glands with patchy blue discoloration were involved. The NF, 14 days post-partum, had stopped milking her pups 3 days earlier because of painfull mammary glands. At admission she was alert with hyperthermia. One left gland was purplish, swollen and indurated but necrosis only appeared 2 days later. The B, 1 month post-partum, 4 days before presentation seemed weak and reluctant to move. At admission, it was prostrated with one open necrotized mammary gland. The S was stabilized then treated with negative wound pressure therapy after progressive debridement and wet to dry bandages. 1 surgery for debridement before closure of the wound sufficed for the NF. The B underwent 2 surgical debridements before closure with a drain left in place 4 more days. The treatment choice depends on the number of mammary glands involved, the patient’s shock status and the evolution of necrosis. Optimal treatments’ choice is based on these criteria and the cost-effectiveness of repeated surgeries and anaesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of uterine hematoma in a mare after an endometrial biopsy
Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULiege; Reignier, Fabrice; Barrière, Philippe et al

Poster (2017, August 26)

Endometrial biopsy is an important, safe and painless procedure to assess equine uterine health. While minor bleeding at the site of sampling is a common condition, uterine hematoma is a rare complication ... [more ▼]

Endometrial biopsy is an important, safe and painless procedure to assess equine uterine health. While minor bleeding at the site of sampling is a common condition, uterine hematoma is a rare complication. An endometrial biopsy was routinely performed on an unsedated 17 year-old welsh pony mare in estrus during a research protocol. From the next day on and during the following 7 days, a large amount of sanguineous fluid was observed in the uterine cavity during the daily ultrasound examination performed according with the protocol. No fever or any other systemic symptoms were noticed. Two weeks later, the ultrasound examination revealed an organised hyperechogenic mass compatible with a hematoma within the endometrial lumen. The mare was regularly controlled during the rest of the breeding season and no abnormalities in her cyclicity were observed. The size of the hematoma only began to decrease from the 3rd month after the biopsy onward and it disappeared completely 2 months later. This was the only complication following a biopsy in this study protocol that included a total of 70 biopsies on 49 mares and the very first case the authors got to see while biopsies have been common practice in their clinical and research activities for years. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the appearance of this condition is documented. The hematoma took 5 months to disappear at the ultrasound examination. During this time the mare could not be bred. Therefore, while endometrial biopsy should still be regarded as a safe procedure for the diagnosis of infertility in mares, the potential risk of a hematoma with its consequences for the breeding season has to be considered. [less ▲]

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