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See detailPrinciples of Analytical Quality by Design for the development of quality control methods in a pharmaceutical context
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Jambo, Hugues ULiege et al

Conference (2019, May 20)

Pharmaceutical regulatory agencies increasingly require the implementation of systematic approaches covering the entire life-cycle of pharmaceutical products, from manufacturing processes to quality ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceutical regulatory agencies increasingly require the implementation of systematic approaches covering the entire life-cycle of pharmaceutical products, from manufacturing processes to quality control tests. In 2009, the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use proposed a systematic approach named “Quality by Design” (QbD) to be implemented in the pharmaceutical field [1]. In this context, the QbD strategy have been progressively applied also to other aspects of the pharmaceutical chain, such as the analytical method development in quality control laboratories. The QbD applied to analytical chemistry is commonly named “Analytical Quality by Design” (AQbD) and in the last decade it has been widely applied in academia for the development of separation methods, involving different techniques such as LC, CE as well as SFC. However, its implementation in quality control laboratories still remains limited and then its advantages not completely exploited. Indeed, this approach presents a lot of conveniences, such as the deep knowledge acquired during the method development/optimisation by studying how critical method parameters (CMPs) affect critical method attributes (CMAs). Moreover, this strategy allows the possibility to define a method operable design region (MODR) consisting of a multitude of possible working points and for each of them a specific probability of success (π) is given. Indeed, the concept of risk plays a central role in this strategy as the MODR is considered of a zone of theoretical robustness limited by the so-called edges of failure, outside which the method performances are not accepted [2]. This presentation focuses first on the theoretical aspects regarding each step of this strategy. The analytical target profile definition, the selection of CMPs and CMAs, as well as screening and optimisation of CMPs and MODR definition are accurately described and illustrated. Some considerations about the choice of the working point, its validation and the planning of an efficient control strategy are also given. In the second part of this presentation all these concepts are once again showcased but from a practical point of view, by giving two concrete case-studies following the AQbD approach. The first one concerns the development of a liquid chromatography coupled to UV (LC-UV) method aimed at quantifying the cannabinoids content in cannabis extracts used for medicinal purposes [3]. The second one shows the approach applied to the development of a stability indicating method by using another analytical technique, the supercritical-fluid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). This latter is intended to be used for the quantification of hydro-soluble vitamins and amino acids in a complex medium. References [1] ICH Harmonised Tripartite guideline. Pharmaceutical Development Q8(R2) (2009) International Council for harmonisation of technical Requirements for Pharmaceutical for Human Use. [2] R. Deidda, S. Orlandini, Ph. Hubert, C. Hubert, Risk-based approach for method development in pharmaceutical quality control context: A critical review, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 161 (2018) 110-121. [3] R. Deidda, H.T. Avohou, R. Baronti, P.L. Davolio, B. Pasquini, M. Del Bubba, C. Hubert, Ph. Hubert, S. Orlandini, S. Furlanetto, Analytical quality by design: Development and control strategy for a LC method to evaluate the cannabinoids content in cannabis olive oil extracts, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 166 (2019) 326-335. [less ▲]

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See detailVibrational spectroscopy in analysis of pharmaceuticals: Critical review of innovative portable and handheld NIR and Raman spectrophotometers
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULiege; Clavaud, Matthieu et al

in TrAC: Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2019), 114

The fast pace of changes occurring in the pharmaceutical world emphasizes the need for powerful technologies that allow checking the quality of pharmaceutical products. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies ... [more ▼]

The fast pace of changes occurring in the pharmaceutical world emphasizes the need for powerful technologies that allow checking the quality of pharmaceutical products. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies have shown great potentialities for drug analysis in the last decades and consequently caught the attention of the scientific world as well as of industrial developers, leading to major technological advancements. These fast, eco-friendly, and non-destructive techniques help gather essential information about the samples under examination with consistent advantages. This review focuses on the application of portable/handheld NIR and Raman spectrophotometers in the analysis of pharmaceutical products for both in-process and quality control tests. Moreover, several analytical methods developed by several authors are described in order to illustrate the applications explored until now. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d’une méthode SFC-MS pour le dosage de vitamines en matrice complexe : Application de la stratégie « Analytical Quality by Design »
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Mignolet, Marie ULiege; Jambo, Hugues ULiege et al

Conference (2019, March 26)

Les agences réglementaires pharmaceutiques exigent de plus en plus fréquemment la mise en œuvre des approches systématiques couvrant l'ensemble du cycle de vie des produits pharmaceutiques, des processus ... [more ▼]

Les agences réglementaires pharmaceutiques exigent de plus en plus fréquemment la mise en œuvre des approches systématiques couvrant l'ensemble du cycle de vie des produits pharmaceutiques, des processus de fabrication jusqu’aux tests de contrôle qualité. En 2009, the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceutical for Human Use (ICH) a proposé une approche systématique appelée « quality by design » appliqué à la production pharmaceutique. Ce concept étendu aux méthodes analytiques, « analytical quality by design (AQbD) », fait l’objet de recherches approfondies dans les milieux universitaires. Cette stratégie est appliquée aux méthodes séparatives telles que la LC, la CE et la SFC, mais reste actuellement relativement peu étendu au niveau des laboratoires de contrôle de qualité des industries pharmaceutiques. Pourtant, la stratégie AQbD présente un avantage considérable. En effet, elle permet d’obtenir une connaissance approfondie de la méthode et ce, tout au long du développement et de l’optimisation de celle-ci. L’évaluation des paramètres critiques de la méthode (CMPs) sur base de ses attributs critiques (CMAs) rend possible la définition d’une région opérationnelle probable (MODR). Cette région consiste en une multitude de conditions de travail possibles, où pour chacune d’elles, une probabilité de succès spécifique (π) est attribuée. En effet, la notion de risque joue un rôle primordial permettant ainsi d’assurer la robustesse de la méthode tout au long de son cycle de vie. Ce projet s'est concentré sur les aspects pratiques de cette stratégie en donnant un exemple concret de développement d'une méthode SFC-MS (entièrement conforme à la stratégie AQbD) pour une étude de stabilité d’une matrice complexe dans un contexte de contrôle de la qualité. Le développement de la méthode AQbD commence par la définition des requis analytiques (ATP), qui représentent l'objectif de la méthode dans le cadre de son utilisation spécifique. Dans ce cas-ci, l'échantillon étudié est constitué d'un milieu de culture cellulaire complexe constitué de plus de 40 composés et pour lequel les données relatives à la composition qualitative et quantitative ne sont pas complètement disponibles. Ensuite, plusieurs vitamines hydrophiles doivent être quantifiées afin de contrôler la stabilité de ce milieu. Dans la mesure où un effet matrice conséquent avait été mis en évidence dans une étude antérieure (UHPLC-MS), la chromatographie en phase supercritique couplée à la spectrométrie de masse a été choisie comme technique analytique alternative. En effet, dans certaines conditions, la SFC-MS peut être moins affectée par les effets de matrice que la LC-MS [3]. Afin de mettre en place correctement la stratégie AQbD, des expériences préliminaires ont été menées de manière rationnelle dans le but de sélectionner les meilleures conditions de départ. Dans cette phase, appelée « scouting », plusieurs phases stationnaires ont été testées et les colonnes les plus prometteuses ont été sélectionnées afin de mener des essais complémentaires. Différents gradients et modificateurs ont également été préalablement testés afin de sélectionner les conditions permettant l’élution des analytes d’intérêt. En effet, les vitamines ciblées présentent un comportement chromatographique varié entrainant des rétentions très différentes. Les critères de séparation et l'effet de matrice ont été étudiés et optimisés, en prenant en compte non seulement les aspects chromatographiques mais également ceux liés à la détection par MS. Dans ce contexte, une phase « screening » a été menée pour identifier les CMPs ayant une incidence importante sur les CMAs. Ensuite, les CMPs ont fait l’objet d’une étude approfondie au cours de la phase d’optimisation afin de mieux comprendre leur influence sur les performances de séparation et détection de la méthode. Cette dernière partie permettra d’introduire le concept de risque en appliquant des simulations de Monte-Carlo et une approche bayésienne capable d’évaluer l’incertitude du model proposé [4]. Par conséquent, une MODR liée à une probabilité de réussite définie, en termes de respect des spécifications données aux CMAs, sera obtenue. La MODR représente une zone de robustesse théorique dont chacun des points peut être sélectionné comme une condition opératoire en vue d’être validée. Cela démontre l'utilité de cette approche pour la mise au point d'une méthode analytique appliquée aux études de stabilité et ce, dans un contexte de contrôle de la qualité [2]. References [1] ICH Harmonised Tripartite guideline. Pharmaceutical Development Q8(R2) (2009) International Council for harmonisation of technical Requirements for Pharmaceutical for Human Use. [2] R. Deidda, S. Orlandini, Ph. Hubert, C. Hubert, Risk-based approach for method development in pharmaceutical quality control context: A critical review, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 161 (2018) 110-121. [3] V. Desfontaine, F. Capetti, R. Nicoli, T. Kuuranne, J.-L. Veuthey, D. Guillarme, Systematic evaluation of matrix effects in supercritical fluid chromatography versus liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for biological samples, J. Chromatogr. B 1079 (2018) 51-61. [4] E. Rozet, P. Lebrun, Ph. Hubert, B. Debrus, B. Boulanger, Design Spaces for analytical methods, Trends Anal. Chem. 42 (2013) 157-167. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of a surface enhanced Raman scattering method using design of experiments and Bayesian design space modelling
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Kasemiire, Alice ULiege et al

Poster (2019, January 30)

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an alternative technique based on Raman spectroscopy, which has been increasingly applied to pharmaceutical analytical chemistry in the last decade. It consists ... [more ▼]

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an alternative technique based on Raman spectroscopy, which has been increasingly applied to pharmaceutical analytical chemistry in the last decade. It consists in enhancing the Raman effect by performing analyses using metallic surfaces, such as silver and gold colloids, on which the target molecules are adsorbed to be detected. It has been observed that in this way, an enhancement factor of 103-106 times can be obtained and the lack of sensibility related to conventional Raman scattering overcome [1]. Nowadays, design of experiment (DoE) is widely employed for modelling phenomena in analytical method development and optimisation, especially in the context of separation techniques. It is a structured approach that allows correlating key responses to controllable variables. Ideally, a certain number of factors may affect the critical method attributes (CMAs) of an analytical process in a negative or positive way. These factors are named critical method parameters (CMPs). DoE is employed, as a chemometric tool, to individuate CMPs and then, deeply study how they affect the process under study. To do so, CMAs are linked to CMPs by a regression model built by means of multivariate linear or partial least squares regression. Generally, the designs can be classified in two categories: screening and optimization designs. The formers are generally implemented when a high number of parameters are supposed to influence the analytical process and no much prior information is available. They result in useful tools to study the effects of both continuous and discontinuous factors. Instead, the optimisation designs are principally used to study wisely selected continuous factors [2]. The design space (DS) is defined as a multidimensional area in which the specifications given to the CMAs are met with a defined level of probability. Obviously, the larger the DS is, the more robust the method is. Its computation is achieved by several approaches, such as Monte-Carlo simulations, Bayesian methods as well as bootstrapping techniques [3]. The aim of this project was to combine and apply two potent chemometric tools such as DoE and Bayesian DS to SERS method development and optimisation. [1] Cailletaud, J., De Bleye, C., Dumont, E., Sacré, P.-Y., Netchacovitch, L., Gut, Y., Boiret, M., Ginot, Y.-M., Hubert, P., Ziemons, E., Critical review of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications in the pharmaceutical field. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 147, 458-472, 2018. [2] Sahu, P.K., Ramisetti, N.R., Cecchi, T., Swain, S., Patro, C.S., Panda, J., An overview of experimental design in HPLC method development and validation, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 147, 590-611, 2018. [3] Deidda, R., Orlandini, S., Hubert, P., Hubert, C., Risk-based approach for method development in pharmaceutical quality control context: A critical review. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 161, 110-121, 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical quality by design: development and control strategy for a LC method to evaluate the cannabinoids content in cannabis olive oil extracts
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Baronti, Roberto et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2019)

Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are considered as the most interesting cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. for the clinical practice. Since 2013, the Italian law allows pharmacists ... [more ▼]

Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are considered as the most interesting cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. for the clinical practice. Since 2013, the Italian law allows pharmacists to prepare and dispense cannabis extracts to patients under medical prescription, and requires the evaluation of CBD and Δ9-THC content in cannabis extracts before sale. Cannabis olive oil extracts are prepared from dried female cannabis inflorescences, but a standard protocol is still missing. In this study, a fast RP-HPLC/UV method has been developed to quantify CBD and Δ9-THC in cannabis olive oil extracts. The analytical quality by design strategy has been applied to the method development, setting critical resolution and total analysis time as critical method attributes (CMAs), and selecting column temperature, buffer pH and flow rate as critical method parameters. Information from Doehlert Design in response surface methodology combined to Monte-Carlo simulations led to draw the risk of failure maps and to identify the method operable design region. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines and then implemented in routine analysis. A control strategy based on system control charts was planned to monitor the developed method performances. Evaluation data were recorded over a period of one year of routine use, and both the CMAs showed values within the specifications in every analysis performed. Hence, a new risk evaluation for the future performances of the method was achieved by using a Bayesian approach based on the routine use data, computing the future distribution of the two CMAs. Finally, a study focusing on the monitoring of CBD and Δ9-THC concentrations in cannabis olive oil extracts was carried out. The developed method was applied to 459 extracts. The statistical analysis of the obtained results highlighted a wide variability in terms of concentrations among different samples from the same starting typology of cannabis, underlining the compelling need of a standardised procedure to harmonise the preparation of the extracts. [less ▲]

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See detailControl strategy applied to a LC-DAD quality control method as part of the analytical quality by design approach: one year of routine use
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Orlandini, Serena et al

Scientific conference (2018, December 19)

The analytical quality by design approach has been previously applied to the method development. The analytical target profile (ATP) was defined as the baseline separation of the two analytes of interest ... [more ▼]

The analytical quality by design approach has been previously applied to the method development. The analytical target profile (ATP) was defined as the baseline separation of the two analytes of interest, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. The critical method attributes (CMAs) were set as the critical resolution between a peak pair (Rs) and the analysis time (t). Critical method parameters were studied, and the response surface methodology was used to optimise the method. The method operable design region (MODR) was obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations and risk of failure maps setting the probability of meeting the specifications (Rs ≥ 0.85 and t ≤ 6 min) at 95%. A working point within the MODR was chosen, validated, and implemented in routine analyses. The information collected during the optimisation studies was conveyed to the planning of the control strategy consisting in system suitability test and control charts. The CMAs used for method optimisation were chosen as system suitability criteria to monitor the behaviour of the method performance. The evaluation was conducted over a period of one year of routine use. Both the CMAs showed values within the specifications in each analysis performed. On the basis of these results, a new and more complete risk evaluation was achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailA simple and easy-to-implement SERS approach overcoming the nanoparticle stabilisation by serum proteins: application to dopamine and PC-12 cells
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Conference (2018, September 11)

This lecture presents the different steps regarding the development of a label-free SERS analytical method that was able to overcome the nanoparticle stabilisation caused by serum proteins. It relied on ... [more ▼]

This lecture presents the different steps regarding the development of a label-free SERS analytical method that was able to overcome the nanoparticle stabilisation caused by serum proteins. It relied on the pre-aggregation of the SERS substrate, which was a suspension of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, several applications of the developed methodology were presented: the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of rat phaeochromocytoma PC-12 cells as well as the influence of calcium, potassium and dexamethasone on dopamine exocytosis from these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Quality by Design: development and control strategy for a RP-HPLC method implemented in routine to evaluate the cannabinoids content in cannabis olive oil extracts
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Orlandini, Serena et al

Poster (2018, September)

Cannabis sativa L. is characterized by having a remarkable number of chemical compounds: cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) are the cannabinoids considered as the most interesting ... [more ▼]

Cannabis sativa L. is characterized by having a remarkable number of chemical compounds: cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) are the cannabinoids considered as the most interesting for the clinical practice. Since 2015, the Italian law allows pharmacists to prepare and dispense cannabis extracts to patients under medical prescription. Cannabis olive oil extracts are prepared as magistral preparation from dried cannabis inflorescences, but a standard protocol is still missing. In fact, each pharmacist is allowed to prepare magistral preparations according to his/her own technical experience, leading to products with a wide variability in cannabinoids concentrations. The evaluation of Δ-9-THC and CBD content in cannabis extracts before sale is a regulatory requirement in Italy. Consequently, a quick and simple RP-HPLC/UV method has been developed to quantify them in the cannabis olive oil extracts. The analytical quality by design principles (AQbD) have been applied to the method development [1]. The analytical target profile (ATP) was defined by the baseline separation of CBD and Δ-9THC. The critical method attributes (CMAs) were set as the critical resolution between a peak pair (Rs) and the analysis time (t). Column temperature, pH of buffer part of the mobile phase and flow rate were selected as critical method parameters (CMPs); the other parameters were fixed according to the laboratory expertise and preliminary experiments. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the method: a Doehlert design and a polynomial quadratic model were employed to approximate the relationship between the CMPs and the CMAs. Then, the method operable design region (MODR) was obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations and risk of failure maps. The probability of meeting the specifications (Rs ≥ 0.85 and t ≤ 6 min) was set at 95%. The method was validated according to the ICH Q2 guidelines and then implemented in routine analysis. A control strategy, based on system suitability tests (SST) and control charts, was planned. The evaluation was conducted over a period of six months of routine use. Both the CMAs, Rs and t showed values within the specifications in every analysis performed with this method. On the basis of such results, a new and more complete risk evaluation was achieved. It confirmed that the method performances have been maintaining the quality required by analysts during the method design. In the last part of this work, a study focusing on the concentrations monitoring of CBD and Δ-9THC in the olive oil extracts was carried out. The analysis was conducted on 228 extracts: 39.91 % from Bedrocan®, 35.09 % from FM2®, 14.91 % from Bediol® and 10.09 % from Bedrolite®. The statistical analysis highlighted and confirmed a wide variability in the concentrations among different samples from the same starting typology of cannabis. This study underlines the compelling need of a standardized procedure to harmonize the preparation of the extracts. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk-based approach for method development in pharmaceutical quality control context: A critical review
Deidda, Riccardo ULiege; Orlandini, Serena; Hubert, Philippe ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2018), 161

Pharmaceutical regulatory bodies increasingly require the implementation of systematic approaches in pharmaceutical product development. Quality control methods play a key role in the control strategy of ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceutical regulatory bodies increasingly require the implementation of systematic approaches in pharmaceutical product development. Quality control methods play a key role in the control strategy of drugs manufacturing to assure their quality. A risk-based approach in the analytical method development is strongly recommended to ensure that the method performances fit the purpose of the method during its entire life-cycle. In the last decade, analytical quality by design (AQbD), as risk management oriented methodology, has been progressively integrated with method development for fulfilling this objective. This approach has successfully allowed the quality to be designed into the analytical processes by obtaining a deep understanding of the procedures. In this paper the AQbD workflow and its application in the development of methods to be used for pharmaceutical quality control have been treated and discussed. Recent publications regarding how AQbD has been applied in separation techniques were reviewed. The different development strategies have been also showcased, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages, in order to give a useful overview. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of solid surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the quantification of dopamine in cell culture media
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Poster (2018, May 17)

Since its discovery, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has constantly gained ground among the analytical techniques. One field of SERS that is rapidly expanding concerns the development of solid ... [more ▼]

Since its discovery, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has constantly gained ground among the analytical techniques. One field of SERS that is rapidly expanding concerns the development of solid SERS substrates. These are made up of metallic nanomaterials set in a fixed configuration: either by complex and expensive techniques (lithography, printing) or by the immobilisation of suspensions of nanoparticles (NPs) previously synthesised. In bioanalysis, solid SERS substrates allow the performance of real-time monitoring of biological or cellular processes such as the release of neurotransmitters by stimulated cells or intercellular communications between cancer cells and the immune system. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as evidenced by the diseases arising when DA levels are dysregulated. Consequently, analytical techniques being able to determine DA in sensitive and specific ways are requested. In this context, this work was dedicated to the development of solid SERS substrates enabling the quantification of DA in the culture medium of rat phaeochromocytoma PC-12 cells. These cells are a cellular model for the neurosecretion of DA. The solid SERS substrates developed could furthermore be employed to investigate the cellular release of DA under various stimulation conditions directly in the culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the biological and the pharmaceutical fields: state of the art and new perspectives
De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege; Deidda, Riccardo ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, May 16)

The next CIRM presentation, entitled « Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the biological and pharmaceutical fields : State of the art and new perspectives”, will be presented by ... [more ▼]

The next CIRM presentation, entitled « Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the biological and pharmaceutical fields : State of the art and new perspectives”, will be presented by Elodie Dumont, Johan Cailletaud, Riccardo Deidda and Charlotte De Bleye from the Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry. The aim of this presentation is to give a general overview of this technique including the advantages, the synthesis of SERS substrates, the parameters influencing the signal exaltation and its laboratory developed applications. In this context, after browsing the SERS theoretical aspect, Johan Cailletaud will present his work focusing on the development of a covering method of pharmaceutical samples with metallic nanoparticles, which is a major issue for SERS chemical imaging analyses. He will also discuss about the feasibility of detecting low dose polymorph in dosage form using SERS chemical imaging. Regarding the application of SERS in the biological field, Elodie Dumont will present a SERS methodology that she developed in order to analyze the amount of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter, released by rat phaeochromocytoma PC-12 cells in their culture medium. This SERS approach was based on the salt-induced pre-aggregation of the colloidal SERS substrate before the addition of the sample. A calibration curve was established before the investigation of the calcium, potassium and dexamethasone effects on the exocytosis of dopamine from PC-12 cells. Finally, Riccardo Deidda will present the main objectives of his thesis, which are principally focused on the combination of the SERS technique with Raman handheld instruments and the development of quantitative methods in the pharmaceutical field based on this association. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'intérêt de la spectroscopie Raman pour l'analyse pharmaceutique
Avohou, Tonakpon Hermane ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege; Clavaud, Matthieu et al

Scientific conference (2018, January 15)

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