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See detailEffect of sex and sub-zero storage temperature on the microbial and oxidative stability of beef packed in a high-oxygen atmosphere after different vacuum ageing times
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULiege; Elansary, Mahmoud ULiege; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULiege et al

in Meat Science (2019), 148

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sex and sub-zero storage temperature on the microbial and oxidative stability of Belgian Blue beef packed in a high-oxygen atmosphere after different ageing ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sex and sub-zero storage temperature on the microbial and oxidative stability of Belgian Blue beef packed in a high-oxygen atmosphere after different ageing times. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from Belgian Blue young bulls and cull cows were aged at −1 or 4 °C for 80 days in vacuum. Every 20 days, samples were repackaged in a high-oxygen atmosphere (70/30% O2/CO2) and stored for 7 days (2 days at 4 °C + 5 days at 8 °C). Ageing at −1 °C had a protective effect against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and myoglobin oxidation. Brochothrix thermosphacta was the limiting parameter for ageing longer than 20 days at −1 °C, permitting a subsequent 7-day shelf-life in a high-oxygen atmosphere. Meat from young bulls was more sensitive to oxidation than meat from cull cows. Extending Belgian Blue meat ageing for >20 days had a negative impact on retail shelf-life. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of antimicrobial drug on lung microbiota in healthy dogs.
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Vangrinsven, Emilie ULiege; Tutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2018, October 12)

In human and dogs, baseline differences in lung microbiota (LM) have been associated with important clinical features in chronic lung diseases (CLD) and there is growing evidence that an altered LM ... [more ▼]

In human and dogs, baseline differences in lung microbiota (LM) have been associated with important clinical features in chronic lung diseases (CLD) and there is growing evidence that an altered LM contributes to disease pathogenesis. The common use of antibiotic drugs throughout the management of CLD likely represents a major confounding factor in the study of the LM. However, the effect of antibiotic treatment on the LM in healthy individuals has not been specifically investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to assess the short and medium-term effect of an oral treatment with a large spectrum antimicrobial drug on the LM in healthy dogs. Six healthy experimental beagle dogs were included. Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (AC) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days. In each dog, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at 3 different timepoints: before administration of AC (J0) and immediately (J10) as well as 16 days (J26) after interruption of AC. In each BALF, total and differentiated cell counts were obtained and metagenetic analyses were performed on the V1-V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA after total bacterial DNA extraction and sequencing on a MiSeq Illumina sequencer. Taxonomical assignation and microbiota community analysis were done with MOTHUR V1.35 with an OTU clustering distance of 0.03. Statistical comparisons between events for microbiota community and BALF cell counts were made using Friedman test and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Statistical differences in bacterial population relative abundance between timepoints were assessed using a mixed linear model with FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Administration of AC did not induce significant changes in BALF cellular counts and had no effect on the richness, evenness and alpha diversity. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria abundance increased from J0 to J10 (mean: 12.0 to 24.1, and 12.3 to 26.2%, respectively; p<0.001) and decreased at J26 (13.1 and 9.3%; p<0.001). Firmicutes abundance decreased from J0 to J10 (45.6 to 18.3%; p<0.001) and increased at J26 (28.8%; p<0.001). Actinobacteria abundance increased at J26, compared with J0 and J10 (43.7 compared with 23.2 and 23.5% respectively; p<0.001). We failed to show significant differences between timepoints at the level of genera and species. In conclusion, in healthy dog, oral administration of a commonly used large spectrum antimicrobial drug induces significant changes in microbial population abundance at the phyla level. Most but not all of these changes normalize within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysico-chemical characteristics of Belgian artisanal cheeses and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in these products
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Poster (2018, October 04)

Introduction Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005 demands the absence of L. monocytogenes in 25g of cheeses theoretically allowing the growth of the bacterium. It is assumed that the bacterium cannot develop if ... [more ▼]

Introduction Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005 demands the absence of L. monocytogenes in 25g of cheeses theoretically allowing the growth of the bacterium. It is assumed that the bacterium cannot develop if the pH is under 4.4 or if the water activity (aw) is under 0.92. Furthermore, a combination of pH<5 and aw<0.94 could also prevent its growth (1). A study was performed among Belgian artisanal cheeses in order to investigate their physico-chemical properties, as well as the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. Materials and Methods Sixty-five Belgian artisanal cheeses were collected, respecting geographical dispersion and taking into account several parameters, including type of milk, milk heat treatment, ripening and texture. Salt, fat and dry matter content, as well as aw in the core and pH in the core and on the surface were measured for all samples. The presence of L. monocytogenes in 25g was also tested, with an enumeration in case of detection. For one highly contaminated cheese, the whole batch (10 pieces) was stored until the end of shelf-life. Enumeration was then done with 30 repetitions. Discussion Regarding physico-chemical characteristics, fresh, soft and hard cheeses, pH in the core ranged respectively from 4.5 to 4.7, from 4.7 to 6.9 and from 4.7 to 6.0. On the surface, pH of some cheeses was higher than 7, probably due to the proteolytic activity of the surface microflora. Regarding aw, values were always >0.95. Only based on these pH and aw values, all cheeses from the panel have to be considered as risky regarding L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 2 of the 65 cheeses (3.07%).The first one was a semi-hard soft cheese from raw cow milk, for which enumeration was under the LOQ. The second one was a mold-ripened soft cheese from raw goat milk. Enumeration was higher than 4 log cfu/g. This contamination is really high but not really surprising, given that this type of cheese is known for supporting the growth of the pathogen (2). At the end of shelf-life, 14 of 30 samples from this batch were still positive, with levels of contamination ranging from 2 to 6 log cfu/g. A great heterogeneity in the distribution of L. monocytogenes was observed between pieces from this batch, but also inside some pieces. For instance, 3 repetitions in one cheese gave levels of the pathogen ranging from 10 to 17 000 cfu/g. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of hygiene in institutional kitchens in Belgium
Duthoo, E; Krings, Simone ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege et al

Poster (2018, October)

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See detailAnalysis of the lung microbiota in healthy dogs and in canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a possible spontaneous model for human IPF.
Fastrès, Aline ULiege; Roels, Elodie ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September 16)

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) mimics human IPF and affects old dogs from one breed: the West Highland white terrier (WHWT). In human IPF, lung microbiota is suspected to be associated with ... [more ▼]

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) mimics human IPF and affects old dogs from one breed: the West Highland white terrier (WHWT). In human IPF, lung microbiota is suspected to be associated with disease pathogenesis and might serve as a therapeutic target. The aim of the study was to characterize microbial alteration associated with breed, environment and CIPF disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was sampled from 4 groups of dogs: client-owned WHWTs affected with CIPF from Belgium-BE (n=7, 11.6y), healthy client-owned BE-WHWTs (n=5, 11.2y), healthy client-owned WHWTs from Finland-FI (n=5, 11.0y) and healthy experimental BE-beagle dogs (n=6, 8.8y). Metagenetic analysis was performed on V1-V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA after total bacterial DNA extraction and sequencing on a MiSeq Illumina sequencer. Data were compared between healthy BE-WHWTs and BE-beagles, healthy BE-WHWTs and FI-WHWTs, and healthy BE-WHWTs and CIPF BE-WHWTs. Data analyses demonstrated that the same phyla (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) predominated in all groups. Significant differences (p<005) were mainly noted for species with relative abundance of less than 1%, except for Micrococcus luteus, higher in FI-WHWTs (7.4%) compared to BE-WHWTs (0%) and for Pseudomonas JF766687 and EU373411, Serratia and Hydrogenophilus spp, higher in BE-beagles (15.3, 8.1, 5.0 and 1.5%) compared with BE-WHWTs (0.3, 0.3, 0, 0.1%, respectively). Results indicate that further analysis of the impact of breed or environment and inclusion of larger amounts of dogs are needed before investigation of lung microbiota as a biomarker or therapeutic target in CIPF. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in various types of cheese - A review
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; El-Hajjaji, Soundous; Niyonzima, Eugène et al

in International Journal of Dairy Technology (2018), 71(4), 825-843

Since the publication of Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005, ready-to-eat (RTE) food allowing the devel-opment of Listeria monocytogenes, including cheese, has to be free of this pathogen in 25 g of pro-duct ... [more ▼]

Since the publication of Regulation (EC) N°2073/2005, ready-to-eat (RTE) food allowing the devel-opment of Listeria monocytogenes, including cheese, has to be free of this pathogen in 25 g of pro-duct. This review was carried out to gather studies on the prevalence of the pathogen in varioustypes of cheese in Europe, while also including data from other continents. Given that Regulation(EC) N° 2073/2005 distinguishes cheeses allowing or not the survival of L. monocytogenes basedon the food’s pH and water activity (aw), the review also focuses on the determi nants of thisgrowth/no growth in the same types of cheese. [less ▲]

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See detailEar canal microbiota – a comparison between healthy dogs and atopic dogs without clinical signs of otitis externa.
ngo, jerome; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege et al

in Veterinary Dermatology (2018), 29

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See detailUse of propidium monoazide followed by 16S rDNA sequencing in order to discriminate live and dead cells in surface and food samples from collective kitchens
Krings, Simone ULiege; Duthoo, Evelyne; De Reu, Koen et al

Poster (2018, June 19)

Classical microbiological analyses have been the “Gold standard” in food microbiology in order to detect and quantify bacteria in food and surface samples. However, these methods bear the limitation of ... [more ▼]

Classical microbiological analyses have been the “Gold standard” in food microbiology in order to detect and quantify bacteria in food and surface samples. However, these methods bear the limitation of the ability of bacteria to grow on the used media. Advances in sequencing methods have allowed analysing the bacterial DNA in different types of samples, but these techniques do not evaluate if the bacteria are viable. In order to detect viable bacteria by sequencing methods, the interest in sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) prior to DNA extraction is growing (Li et al., 2017; Nocker et al., 2010). This study addresses the possible benefit of this method for surface and food samples taken in collective kitchen. Samples have been collected aseptically, stored at 4°C and analysed by classical microbiological methods and 16S rDNA sequencing (with and without prior treatment by PMA). The bacterial counts in many samples were low or under the detection limit (< 1 CFU/mL or < 10 CFU/g) and did rarely exceed the 5 log CFU/surface (mostly for sinks). This fact implied problems for the 16S rDNA sequencing, as a minimal bacterial load of 100-1000 CFU/mL is required in order to achieve reliable results. In addition, PMA-treated samples did generally generate fewer sequences. However, variations of relative population abundances are rendered visible and allow performing correlations between the bacterial populations and their occurrence in untreated and treated samples. This could give hints about residual bacterial DNA and bacteria that colonise kitchen surfaces, which have not been described previously. References: • Li, R. et al. (2017). Comparison of DNA-, PMA-, and RNA-based 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing for detection of live bacteria in water. Scientific reports, 7(1), 5752. • Nocker, A., et al. (2010). Discrimination between live and dead cells in bacterial communities from environmental water samples analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Int Microbiol, 13(2), 59-65. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential resident bacterial microbiota in udder tissues of culled cows sampled in abattoir
Pirard, Barbara ULiege; Crevecoeur, Sébastien ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2018, June 19)

Aseptic milking samples and microbiological analyses are used in routine for bovine mastitis diagnosis. Few papers treated about a resident microbiota in the ruminant healthy mammary gland tissues (Spuria ... [more ▼]

Aseptic milking samples and microbiological analyses are used in routine for bovine mastitis diagnosis. Few papers treated about a resident microbiota in the ruminant healthy mammary gland tissues (Spuria et al., 2017), or about immunological consequences related with a such cohabitation (Rainard, 2017). In practice, it’s difficult to sample mammary gland tissues out of risks for cows health or milk production. We thus design a study based on samples taken at abattoir. It aimed at identify, quantify, compare the cow milk and mammary gland tissues microbiota of macroscopically healthy mammary glands, by classical microbiological analyses and by amplicon sequencing. We harvested thirteen couples of milk secretion and tissue samples, originated from the same quarter of reformed cows. Aseptic milking has been done just before culling and mammary gland tissues had been taken of the carcasses on slaughterline. Total and specific microbiological counting and metagenetic analysis were performed. Metagenetic analyses showed one main bacterial genus, Corynebacterium, generally found in the milk in higher proportions than in tissues. When it dominates clearly other populations in milk secretions, it can be found in the same quarter tissues. In case of identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples, the same pathogen were detected in tissues from the same quarters but in very different proportions: higher for Streptococcus uberis, lower for Staphylococcus spp or Enterococcus faecium. In tissues, Flavobacterium and Atopostipes genera were statistically more abundant than in milk. Data show also that species evenness and beta diversity are greater in mammary glands than in milk secretions. In opposition, species richness is higher in milk samples. These results show a potential resident microflora in mammary glands of culled cows in abattoirs. Metagenetic analysis of milk samples could be a good indicator of the udder microbiota and health in the future but our first results must be completed and confirmed on a larger number of samples. Hypothesis about nature of such a resident flora will have to be confirmed on producing cows before studying bacterial-host interactions. Rainard, P. 2017. Mammary microbiota of dairy ruminants: fact or fiction? Vet.Res., , 48 (25), 1-10. Spuria, L. et al. 2017. Microbial agents in macroscopically healthy mammary gland tissues of small ruminants. PeerJ, 5. [less ▲]

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See detailGUT MICROBIOTA AND FAECAL LEVELS OF SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS DIFFER UPON BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS IN MAN
HUART, Justine ULiege; Leenders, Justine ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2018, May 18), 33(Issue suppl_1), 368369

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See detailLa souris, le patient, et le faux expert. Décryptage d'une mystification.
Bakker, Julie ULiege; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege; Baron, Frédéric ULiege et al

Article for general public (2018)

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les ... [more ▼]

La recherche sur animaux est actuellement encadrée de façon stricte en Wallonie comme dans toute l'Union Européenne (voir l'article de Marc Vandenheede publié dans le Vif). Cette législation et les contrôles qui y sont associés induisent de nombreuses contraintes pratiques, des charges administratives et des coûts financiers importants que les chercheurs seraient certainement heureux d'éviter s'il existait une alternative à l'expérimentation animale. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2018), 50(3), 537546

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the landscape of artisanal cheese production in Belgium?
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Conference (2018, February 08)

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See detailWhat is the landscape of artisanal cheese production in Belgium?
Gerard, Amaury ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege; Sindic, Marianne ULiege

Poster (2018, February 08)

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