References of "Dassargues, Alain"
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See detailPotentiel de valorisation de sites miniers et carriers en step en France et en Belgique
Gombert, Philippe; Poulain, Angélique; Goderniaux, Pascal et al

in La Houille Blanche (2020), 4

Pumped Hydro-Energy Storage (PHES) account for more than 97% of the world's electrical energy storage and cumulate approximately 170 GW of installed capacity. France and Belgium currently have 9 PHES with ... [more ▼]

Pumped Hydro-Energy Storage (PHES) account for more than 97% of the world's electrical energy storage and cumulate approximately 170 GW of installed capacity. France and Belgium currently have 9 PHES with a total capacity of 6.3 GW, but there are no longer any new sites acceptable for conventional PHES as they require the excavation of two basins on the surface, and can only be installed in areas with a marked relief. Following the foreseeable demand for energy storage generated by the development of intermittent renewable energies, it is proposed to study the possibility of creating new non-conventional PHES using existing basins in abandoned mines or quarries. These may be surface or underground basins, the latter providing access to subterranean or semi-subterranean PHES technology (3S-PHES). This paper describes the potential of these new PHES technologies and the risks and impacts they are likely to generate. These risks concern first of all adjacent aquifers: hydromechanical disturbances (propagation of water level variations in the aquifer) and hydrochemical interactions (precipitation of carbonates and iron oxides). They also concern the ground surface with the possibility of ground movements or surface gas emissions. However, these are risks that have already been identified and controlled in the context of other underground activities. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogéologie appliquée: science et ingénierie des eaux souterraines
Dassargues, Alain ULiege

Book published by Dunod (2020)

L'hydrogéologie est l'étude des eaux souterraines. Il s'agit d'une discipline critique à l'heure où des inondations d'importance se multiplient à la surface du globe, et où l'estimation des ressources ... [more ▼]

L'hydrogéologie est l'étude des eaux souterraines. Il s'agit d'une discipline critique à l'heure où des inondations d'importance se multiplient à la surface du globe, et où l'estimation des ressources mondiales en eau devient un sujet non seulement environnemental, mais aussi géopolitique. Cet ouvrage détaille la description et les caractéristiques des processus hydrogéologiques. Il fournit notamment les équations permettant de calculer les écoulements d'eaux souterraines ainsi que le transport des solutés et de la chaleur en milieux totalement ou partiellement saturés. Il propose enfin une méthodologie pour la modélisation de ces processus à des fins de prévisions spatiales et temporelles. [less ▲]

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See detailSite-selection criteria for the Einstein Telescope
Amann, Florian; Bonsignorio, Fabio; Bulik, Tomasz et al

in Review of Scientific Instruments (2020), 91

The Einstein Telescope (ET) is a proposed next-generation, underground gravitational-wave detector to be based in Europe. It will provide about an order of magnitude sensitivity increase with respect to ... [more ▼]

The Einstein Telescope (ET) is a proposed next-generation, underground gravitational-wave detector to be based in Europe. It will provide about an order of magnitude sensitivity increase with respect to the currently operating detectors and, also extend the observation band targeting frequencies as low as 3 Hz. One of the first decisions that needs to be made is about the future ET site following an in-depth site characterization. Site evaluation and selection is a complicated process, which takes into account science, financial, political, and socio economic criteria. In this paper, we provide an overview of the site-selection criteria for ET, provide a formalism to evaluate the direct impact of environmental noise on ET sensitivity, and outline the necessary elements of a site-characterization campaign. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous dissolved gas tracing of fracture‐matrix exchanges
Hoffmann, Richard ULiege; Goderniaux, Pascal; Jamin, Pierre ULiege et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2020)

Transport in fractured media plays an important role in a range of processes, from rock weathering and microbial processes to contaminant transport, and energy extraction and storage. Diffusive transfer ... [more ▼]

Transport in fractured media plays an important role in a range of processes, from rock weathering and microbial processes to contaminant transport, and energy extraction and storage. Diffusive transfer between the fracture fluid and the rock matrix is often a key element in these applications. But the multiscale heterogeneity of fractures renders the field assessment of these processes extremely challenging. This study explores the use of dissolved gases as tracers of fracture‐matrix interactions, which can be measured continuously and highly accurately using mobile mass spectrometers. Since their diffusion coefficients vary significantly, multiple gases are used to probe different scales of fracture‐matrix exchanges. Tracer tests with helium, xenon and argon were performed in a fractured chalk aquifer and resulting tracer breakthrough curves are modelled. Results show that continuous dissolved gas tracing with multiple tracers provide key constrains on fracture matrix interactions and reveal unexpected scale effects in fracture‐matrix exchange rates. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogeological characterization and hydrodynamic behaviour of the overexploited Diass aquifer system (Senegal) inferred from long term groundwater level monitoring
Madioune, Hélène Diakher; Diaw, Moctar; Mall, Ibrahima et al

in American Journal of Water Resources (2020), 8(3), 104-117

Dakar, the Capital city of Senegal concentrates about 23.2% (about 3 millions inhabitants) of the total population and a large proportion of the industrial activities. Water supply is ensured by surface ... [more ▼]

Dakar, the Capital city of Senegal concentrates about 23.2% (about 3 millions inhabitants) of the total population and a large proportion of the industrial activities. Water supply is ensured by surface water pumped and piped from the Guiers Lake (250 km distant from the capital) and from groundwater resources. Among these latter, the Diass aquifer system contributes to a substantial proportion (31% in 2019) of the total water supply distribution due to growing demand induced by the rapid demographic growth (about 2.5%). The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited with two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the confined Maastrichtian sandstone aquifer underneath. This system has experienced intensive groundwater abstraction during the last 60 years to meet the increasing water demand. Abstraction for urban drinking water occurs in nine pumping fields with a rate reaching 174,000 m3/d in 2019. This high yield together with the drought conditions since the 1970s is likely to affect groundwater imbalance and change the flow regime. The objective of the study is to improve our understanding of the system dynamic with regards to the high pumping rate in order to build a conceptual scheme for further hydrogeological modeling of the system. In this study, we use monitored pumping rates, piezometric level from 1960s to 2019 and rainfall data from 1931 to December 2016 together with the hydrogeological configuration to infer the dynamics of the aquifer system. The high abstraction rate during the period 1958-2019 which vary from 16,000 to 174,000 m3/d has caused a continuous groundwater level decline (up to 30 m), a modification of the flow patterns and to some extent a quality deterioration through salinization processes as shown in a few boreholes in Sébikotane and Mbour. The piezometric levels which were above the sea level prior 1959 exhibit now negative values and can even reach -40 m in the vicinity of the pumping fields creating therefore piezometric depressions and convergent flow pattern. The hydrodynamic of the system derived from the results show that the reservoir acts as a multilayer aquifer system with interconnected compartments by faults that allow flux exchanges except the confining Ponty and Sébikotane faults. Overexploitation inducing important drawdown has induced an increase of the drainance fluxes between those different compartments. In order to foster more appropriate and sustainable groundwater abstraction in the complex hydrogeological system with regards to demand and water quality conservation, it is important to assess the main system behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderground pumped-storage hydropower (UPSH) at the Martelange mine (Belgium): interactions with groundwater flow
Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Energies (2020), 13

Underground pumped-storage hydropower (UPSH) is a promising technology to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of an underground and surface reservoirs. The energy is ... [more ▼]

Underground pumped-storage hydropower (UPSH) is a promising technology to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of an underground and surface reservoirs. The energy is stored by pumping water from the underground to the surface reservoir and is produced by discharging water from the surface to the underground reservoir. The underground reservoir can be drilled, but a more efficient alternative, considered here, consists in using an abandoned mine. Given that mines are rarely waterproofed, there are concerns about the consequences (on the efficiency and the environment) of water exchanges between the underground reservoir and the surrounding medium. This work investigates numerically such water exchanges and their consequences. Numerical models are based on a real abandoned mine located in Belgium (Martelange slate mine) that is considered as a potential site to construct an UPSH plant. The model integrates the geometrical complexity of the mine, adopts an operation scenario based on actual electricity prices, simulates the behavior of the system during one year and considers two realistic scenarios of initial conditions with the underground reservoir being either completely full or totally drained. The results show that (1) water exchanges may have important consequences in terms of efficiency and environmental impacts, (2) the influence of the initial conditions is only relevant during early times, and (3), an important factor controlling the water exchanges and their consequences may be the relative location of the natural piezometric head with respect the underground reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailNaturally CO2-rich groundwater springs in Belgium evidencing complex subsurface interactions
Welkenhuysen, Kris; Defourny, Agathe ULiege; Collignon, Arnaud et al

Poster (2020, May 04)

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See detailUnderground Pumped-Storage Hydropower (UPSH) at the Martelange Mine (Belgium): Underground Reservoir Hydraulics
Kitsikoudis, Vasileios ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege et al

in Energies (2020), 13(14), 3512

The intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources requires their coupling with an energy storage system, with pumped storage hydropower (PSH) being one popular option. However, PSH cannot always be ... [more ▼]

The intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources requires their coupling with an energy storage system, with pumped storage hydropower (PSH) being one popular option. However, PSH cannot always be constructed due to topographic, environmental, and societal constraints, among others. Underground pumped storage hydropower (UPSH) has recently gained popularity as a viable alternative and may utilize abandoned mines for the construction of the lower reservoir in the underground. Such underground mines may have complex geometries and the injection/pumping of large volumes of water with high discharge could lead to uneven water level distribution over the underground reservoir subparts. This can temporarily influence the head difference between the upper and lower reservoirs of the UPSH, thus affecting the efficiency of the plant or inducing structural stability problems. The present study considers an abandoned slate mine in Martelange in Southeast Belgium as the lower, underground, reservoir of an UPSH plant and analyzes its hydraulic behavior. The abandoned slate mine consists of nine large chambers with a total volume of about 550,000 m3, whereas the maximum pumping and turbining discharges are 22.2 m3/s. The chambers have different size and they are interconnected with small galleries with limited discharge capacity that may hinder the flow exchange between adjacent chambers. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of the connecting galleries cross-section and the chambers adequate aeration on the water level variations in the underground reservoir, considering a possible operation scenario build upon current electricity prices and using an original hydraulic modelling approach. The results highlight the importance of adequate ventilation of the chambers in order to reach the same equilibrium water level across all communicating chambers. For fully aerated chambers, the connecting galleries should have a total cross-sectional area of at least 15 m2 to allow water flow through them without significant restrictions and maintain similar water level at all times. Partially aerated chambers do not attain the same water level because of the entrapped air; however, the maximum water level differences between adjacent chambers remain relatively invariant when the total cross-sectional area of the connecting galleries is greater than 8 m2. The variation of hydraulic roughness of the connecting galleries affects the water exchange through small connecting galleries but is not very influential on water moving through galleries with large cross-sections. [less ▲]

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See detailRessources aquifères du Massif ardennais
Dassargues, Alain ULiege; Colbach, Robert; Rorive, Alain et al

in Géochronique (2020), 154

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See detailInduced Polarization as a Proxy for CO2-Rich Groundwater Detection—Evidences from the Ardennes, South-East of Belgium
Defourny, Agathe ULiege; Nguyen, Frédéric ULiege; Collignon, Arnaud et al

in Water (2020), 12(5),

CO2-rich mineral groundwaters are of great economic and touristic interest but their origin and circulation paths in the underground are often poorly understood. A deeper understanding of the system ... [more ▼]

CO2-rich mineral groundwaters are of great economic and touristic interest but their origin and circulation paths in the underground are often poorly understood. A deeper understanding of the system plumbery and the development of non—to minimally—invasive near-surface geophysical methods for the prospection of potential productive areas is therefore of great interest to manage future supply. The objective of this contribution is to assess the ability of the time-domain induced polarization (TDIP) method, combined with the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, to make the distinction between CO2-rich groundwater from non-gaseous groundwater. Three combined ERT/TDIP tomographies were performed above known uplift zones in the south-east of Belgium where thousands of CO2-rich groundwater springs exist. On all profiles, important contrasts in both electrical resistivity and chargeability distributions were observed in the vicinity of the upflow zone, also reflected in the normalized chargeability sections computed from the measured data. Low resistivity vertical anomalies extending in depth were interpreted as a saturated fracture network enabling the upflow of deep groundwater to the surface. High chargeability anomalies appearing directly close to the CO2-rich groundwater springs were inferred to metallic oxides and hydroxides precipitation in the upper part of the aquifer, linked to pressure decrease and changing redox conditions in the up-flowing groundwater approaching the land surface. The combined interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced polarization datasets provides a very promising method for a robust prospection of CO2-rich groundwater. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogeological effects on terrestrial gravity measurements
Van Camp, Michel; de Viron, Olivier; Dassargues, Alain ULiege et al

Conference (2019, December 10)

For the 20 last years, terrestrial and satellite gravity measurements have reached such a precision that they allow for identification of the signatures from water storage fluctuations. In particular ... [more ▼]

For the 20 last years, terrestrial and satellite gravity measurements have reached such a precision that they allow for identification of the signatures from water storage fluctuations. In particular, hydrogeological effects induce significant time-correlated signature in the gravity time series. Gravity response to rainfall is a complex function of the local geologic and climatic conditions, e.g., rock porosity, vegetation, evaporation, and runoff rates. The gravity signal combines contributions from many geophysical processes, source separation being a major challenge. At the local scale and short-term, the associated gravimetric signatures often exceed the tectonic and GIA effects, and monitoring gravity changes is a source of information on local groundwater mass balance, and contributes to model calibrations. Some aquifer main characteristics can then be inferred by combining continuous gravity, geophysical and hydrogeological measurements. In Membach, Belgium, a superconducting gravimeter has monitored gravity continuously for more than 24 years. This long time series, together with 300 repeated absolute gravity measurements and environmental monitoring, has provided valuable information on the instrumental, metrological, hydrogeological and geophysical points of view. This has allowed separating the signal sources and monitoring partial saturation dynamics in the unsaturated zone, convective precipitation and evapotranspiration at a scale of up to 1 km², for signals smaller than 1 nm/s², equivalent to 2.5 mm of water. Based on this experience, another superconducting gravimeter was installed in 2014 in the karst zone of Rochefort, Belgium. In a karst area, where the vadose zone is usually thicker than in other contexts, combining gravity measurements at the surface and inside accessible caves is a way to separate the contribution from the unsaturated zone lying between the two instruments, from the saturated zone underneath the cave, and the common mode effects from the atmosphere or other regional processes. Those experiments contribute to the assessment of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, which is a major challenge of the geosciences associated with key societal issues: availability of freshwater, mitigation of flood hazards, or measurement of evapotranspiration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of temperature and dissolved gas as smart tracers for process-based heterogeneity characterization
Hoffmann, Richard ULiege; Goderniaux, Pascal; Dassargues, Alain ULiege

Conference (2019, December 09)

Informative reference data for a realistic assessment of aquifer heterogeneity is a prerequisite for robust transport simulations. Structure-based imaging using salt or a dye as tracer with a known ... [more ▼]

Informative reference data for a realistic assessment of aquifer heterogeneity is a prerequisite for robust transport simulations. Structure-based imaging using salt or a dye as tracer with a known concentration and volume to observe transfer times, is a powerful hydrogeological tool in moderate heterogenous media. Solving then the advection-dispersion equation will explain most of the point to point transport behavior. But, once the aquifer heterogeneity is more complex, e.g. in a double porosity medium like chalk, matrix porosity linked to diffusion processes must be taken into consideration to avoid a biased interpretation of the tracer information. Thus, performing additional local process-based imaging using smart tracers as dissolved gas and hot or cold water, assists to explain the late-time tailing behaviors realistically. Smart tracers were injected in a sub-horizontal fracture connecting two adjacent wells to provide data about the complementary behaviors of each tracer and to focus on matrix diffusion processes. One reference data set is a 70 hours injection of hot water (∆T = + 40 °C) complemented by two 10 minutes uranine pulse injections within an inflatable double packer system isolating the sub-horizontal chalk fracture of interest. The temperature signal arrives at a 7.55 m distance with a delay of 12 hours compared to the first uranine injection and shows a rebound after the injection stopped. Useful reference data for further numerical modelling consists now in (a) local fracture geometry information deduced from interpretation by analytical solutions and, (b) matrix diffusion information. Numerical modelling of those smart tracer experiments may question deterministic models for predictions and motivates for data-driven prediction tools like Monte-Carlo simulation procedures within a direct predictive framework. Distance based global sensitivity analysis (e.g. simultaneous variation of multiple input variables like diffusion coefficient, aperture and matrix storage) will be considered accounting for temperature related changes of viscosity and density. Key information about the most influencing parameters are main model outcomes, as local process understanding is very useful for possible future upscaling in regional models made of structure-based imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailLe potentiel de la géothermie peu profonde dans la transition énergétique
Dassargues, Alain ULiege

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2019, November 29), 88(Actes de colloques), 52-63

Traditionnellement, seule la géothermie profonde était envisagée. Actuellement, les différentes formes de géothermies peu profondes et de faible enthalpie sont plus accessibles car elles présentent moins ... [more ▼]

Traditionnellement, seule la géothermie profonde était envisagée. Actuellement, les différentes formes de géothermies peu profondes et de faible enthalpie sont plus accessibles car elles présentent moins de risques financiers et environnementaux. Leur multiplication, notamment pour couvrir les besoins énergétiques de (gros ou nombreux) bâtiments, permet à ces systèmes de participer pleinement à la transition énergétique en cours. Ces systèmes géothermiques peu profonds ne requièrent aucune anomalie du gradient géothermique local. Néanmoins, lorsque des pompages et réinjections sont envisagés dans des aquifères peu profonds, les conditions hydrogéologiques influencent fortement l’efficacité (rendement) et la durabilité des systèmes installés mais aussi leur éventuel impact sur la quantité et la qualité des ressources en eaux souterraines. Les différents types de systèmes géothermiques peu profonds sont brièvement présentés, puis l’accent est mis sur les systèmes par doublets en aquifère et sur les anciennes mines. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Groundwater Mineralization Changes of a Belgian Chalky Aquifer in the Presence of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation Reactions
Boudjana, Youcef ULiege; Brouyère, Serge ULiege; Jamin, Pierre ULiege et al

in MDPI WATER (2019)

An abandoned industrial site in Belgium, located in the catchment of a chalk aquifer mainly used for drinking water, has been investigated for groundwater pollution due to a mixture of chlorinated ... [more ▼]

An abandoned industrial site in Belgium, located in the catchment of a chalk aquifer mainly used for drinking water, has been investigated for groundwater pollution due to a mixture of chlorinated solvents with mainly 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) at high concentrations. The observed elevated groundwater mineralization was partly explained by chemical reactions associated with hydrolysis and dehydrohalogenation (HY/DH) of 1,1,1-TCA in the chalky aquifer. Leaching of soluble compounds from a backfilled layer located in the site could also have influenced the groundwater composition. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes controlling groundwater mineralization through a characterization of the backfill and groundwater chemical composition. This is essential in the context of required site remediation to define appropriate remediation measures to soil and groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected for chemical analyses of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, major ions, and several minor ones. X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a leaching test according to CEN/TS 14405 norm were carried out on the backfill soil. δ34S and δ18O of sulphate in groundwater and in the backfill eluates were also compared. Both effects influencing the groundwater hydrochemistry around the site were clarified. First, calcite dissolution under the 1,1,1-TCA degradation reactions results in a water mineralization increase. It was assessed by geochemical batch simulations based on observed data. Second, sulphate and calcium released from the backfill have reached the groundwater. The leaching test provided an estimation of the minimal released quantities. [less ▲]

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See detailCold water injections as innovative smart tracer technique in hot fractured aquifers
Hoffmann, Richard ULiege; Wajid, Uddin; Goderniaux, Pascal et al

Conference (2019, September 27)

Robust transport simulations for sustainable management of groundwater in fractured rocks, need accurate observation data about fracture and matrix processes. In aquifers with naturally hot groundwaters ... [more ▼]

Robust transport simulations for sustainable management of groundwater in fractured rocks, need accurate observation data about fracture and matrix processes. In aquifers with naturally hot groundwaters (i.e., 30 ºC in South India), heat injections can become difficult and cumbersome, considering strong density influences. Injecting cold water is a much more promising and innovative tracer technique. Injecting cold water reduces the energy stored in the matrix, as heat is released to the colder circulating fluid in the fractures. Thus, cold water injections can produce very informative reference data for managing hot fractured aquifers using groundwater flow and cold plume transport numerical modeling. Heat and cold water tracer tests have been performed for the first time in Choutuppal nearby Hyderabad in South India. Sub-horizontal fractures have been intersected by 30 wells drilled in a weathered granite aquifer. A saprolite layer of in average 14 m thickness covers the fractured granite system. The natural granite aquifer background temperature varies yearly between 30 ºCand 35 ºC During the experiments, the natural aquifer background temperature was around 30.3 ºC The most explored well (CH03) is used as injection well for all experiments. There, an inflatable double packer system isolates one sub-horizontal fracture connecting CH03 with a pumping well (CH12) located at a 5.5 m distance. This set-up allows successive 1-hour injections of 1000 L of hot water (ΔT = +20 ºC) and cold water (ΔT = -20 ºC). The peak arrival times measured in CH12 are 41 minutes for heat and 51 minutes for cold water. The peak temperature difference measured in CH12 for heat is ΔT = +3.3 ºC and for cold water ΔT = -2.9 ºC This is consistent with the fact that density and viscosity decrease with higher temperatures. Remarkably, cold water shows a slightly faster first arrival. It might indicate that storing energy is slightly faster initiated than releasing energy from the matrix. First interpretations of the observed tailings show that for hot water injection, the subsequent temperature decrease (back to the background T) seems slower than the observed temperature increase after the cold water injection. It seems that cooling the matrix (i.e. reducing the energy level) is slightly more time consuming and difficult than heating the matrix (i.e. storing energy). More experiments, e.g. repetitions of these experiments focusing stronger on the tailing for imaging matrix processes, complementing cold water tracing experiments (e.g. push-pull) and the possible parallel use of geophysical imaging tools, are ongoing. Nevertheless, the first tracer tests with cold water injections generated reference data that are very informative for further transport modeling (e.g. using Monte Carlo simulations). [less ▲]

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