References of "Crutzen, Nathalie"
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See detailMunicipalities' understanding of the Smart City concept: An exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

in Technological Forecasting and Social Change (2019), 142

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric ... [more ▼]

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric approach and the central position of private companies. Moreover, the lack of proper conceptualisation pushes cities to claim themselves ‘smart’. Finally, there are few rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application to territories. Therefore, this paper studies how Belgian municipalities understand the concept of Smart Cities in 2016. Based on the groundwork of literature on Smart Cities and the results of a survey of 113 Belgian municipalities, a typology of four understandings of the Smart City (technological, societal, comprehensive and non-existent) is elaborated. The results also show that municipalities with no understanding of the Smart City concept or with a technical understanding are mostly located in small and rural municipalities. This could be a sign of rejection of the phenomenon in this context. Conversely, medium and large-sized municipalities mostly develop a societal or comprehensive understanding. Therefore, this study highlights a dichotomy of understanding and acceptance of the concept of the Smart City between peripheral (rural and small size municipalities) and central municipalities (urban, medium and large size municipalities). [less ▲]

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See detailSmart cities and the citizen-driven internet of things: A qualitative inquiry into an emerging smart city
Kummitha, Rama; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

in Technological Forecasting and Social Change (2019), 140

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See detailSmart City appropriation by local actors: An instrument in the making
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Cities (2019), 92

The Smart City became a dominant discourse as a new approach to mitigate and remedy to current urban and societal problems. Numerous cities are engaged in a Smart City process to address their local ... [more ▼]

The Smart City became a dominant discourse as a new approach to mitigate and remedy to current urban and societal problems. Numerous cities are engaged in a Smart City process to address their local challenges. But different actor’s appropriations and styles of implementation produce particular territorial and societal developments. This paper questions in an innovative way the actors’ appropriation of the Smart City: the phenomenon is considered as an instrument, following the theory of Lascoumes and Le Galès (2007). On basis of an online survey with 193 Belgian respondents, the results of several statistical treatments validate an appropriation of the Smart City between a public policy instrument in one side and a functional instrument in the other side. But across the five categories of actors (Elected politician (1), administrations and public organizations (2), private companies (3), research centers & universities (4) and associations (5)), the Belgian respondents do not fit into one or the other instrument in a monolithic way. The actor’s appropriation does not follow a homogeneous trend based on a technical and holistic direction, like it is represented in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailState of municipal global strategies and smart initiatives in Belgium
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, October 26)

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and ... [more ▼]

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and adapted smart initiatives in order to become more liveable and dynamic Values are shared to reinforce creativity, innovation and citizen involvement Different communities are more and more involved in developing smart initiatives Belgian municipalities have the willingness to improve, to digitalize and to involve communities [less ▲]

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See detailSMART CITY : DE PRAKTISCHE GIDS
Nguyen, Catherine Thanh-Linh ULiege; Bleus, Hélène ULiege; Van Bockhaven, Jonas ULiege et al

Book published by Smart City Institute (2018)

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See detailGovernance and stakeholders of Smart Cities:A call for stronger theoretical foundation to tackle the complexity
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, August)

Over the past few years, the phenomenon of Smart City has been perceived as a new way to transform cities and territories. Despite the popularity of the phenomenon, the concept is still fuzz and no agreed ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, the phenomenon of Smart City has been perceived as a new way to transform cities and territories. Despite the popularity of the phenomenon, the concept is still fuzz and no agreed definition on Smart Cities exists (Allwinkle & Cruickshank, 2011; Anthopoulos & Vakali, 2012; Hollands, 2008; Komninos, Pallot, & Schaffers, 2013). The concept of Smart City addressed an extensive thematic scope. Smart City research is at an interdisciplinary crossroads (Ricciardi & Za, 2015). A challenge is to identify what can make a city to become smarter (Gil-Garcia, Helbig, & Ojo, 2014)? Governance is a recurring and transversal theme (Dameri & Benevolo, 2016; Gil-Garcia, Pardo, & Nam, 2015). Different aspects and forms of governance in a Smart City are described; multidisciplinary perspective and co-creations are highly promoted (Ben Letaifa, 2015). Smart City publications with governance focus emphasize on interactions between various stakeholders (Meijer & Bolívar, 2016). In the literature on Smart Cities in 2017, what is known about governance and stakeholder’s interactions? Which are the theoretical approaches and empirical researches? Which governance principles are highlighted? Which actors are studied? Which territorial scales are considered? To respond to these questions, the paper introduces discussions on “Smart Cities, Stakeholders, Actors, Governance and Urban Governance” to better understand these central concepts. Then, a literature review is constructed based on a broad set of papers. An advanced search query within four databases and a methodical selection of papers furnished a set of 61 documents. Afterwards, some epistemological issues are described as the structure/agency and positive-normative debates. Finally, a discussion underlines the trends, gaps and future path of researches thanks to a confrontation of the results with some theoretical and epistemological considerations. The literature on governance and stakeholders has a late development in the Smart City publications. A fragmentation exists and is reinforced by a literature insufficiently framed by theories. Case studies and empirical researches are dominating. Governmental and private actors remain the two most discussed players, even if, the place of the civil society is gaining importance. The stakeholders’ analyses show considerations to an horizontal integration (Urban Governance Theory: Galès, 1998; Pierre, 2014). However, the vertical integration is not addressed as an essential concern. Researches are mainly concentrated at a micro or mezzo level. Researchers should pay attention to the “multilevel governance”. They should study processes and institution operations in and between varieties of geographical and organizational scales. [less ▲]

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See detailBusiness Model and Smart City, a literature review
Bleus, Hélène ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, June 19)

Business Model literature is flourishing and has already dealt with various fields of research. Subjects such as new technology, innovation, sustainability or social innovation have received particular ... [more ▼]

Business Model literature is flourishing and has already dealt with various fields of research. Subjects such as new technology, innovation, sustainability or social innovation have received particular attention. In the context of specific territory/city, those subjects are genuinely linked to the Smart City concept. Besides, Business Model research considers increasingly the Business Model within its ecosystem. Therefore, the context of SC ecosystem with its multi-stakeholders could highlight important points for the Business Model literature. As a first step to go deeper into the field, the literature review outlined in this paper, reveals several gaps of knowledge when linking Business Model and Smart City and, suggests paths for further reflexion or future research. [less ▲]

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See detailBaromètre belge 2018: Stratégies et projets Smart City en Belgique
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son ... [more ▼]

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son second baromètre belge dédié à ce concept. Cette étude, réalisée auprès d’un échantillon de 123 communes belges, propose un état des lieux des stratégies et des projets Smart City développés ou en cours de développement sur le territoire belge. En partant du point de vue des communes, ce baromètre expose la manière dont le concept de Smart City est perçu, les prérequis nécessaires à sa mise en oeuvre ainsi que les thématiques prioritaires développées en Belgique. En outre, il recense les moyens de financement utilisés et les actions développées afin de renforcer la dynamique d’acteurs (acteurs publics et privés ainsi que les citoyens) sur le territoire. Enfin, ce baromètre indique les démarches de suivi et de contrôle ainsi que les obstacles rencontrés par les communes dans l’implémentation et le développement des projets Smart City. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the place of Sustainability and Smart approaches in smart territories The case of 215 business students in Belgium
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, June)

New researches on the future of urban life explore potential opportunities and threats generated by the emergence of smart cities. These researches mainly highlight the importance of associating ... [more ▼]

New researches on the future of urban life explore potential opportunities and threats generated by the emergence of smart cities. These researches mainly highlight the importance of associating sustainability to the emergence of smart cities. They identify several combinations related to how a territory supports both sustainable and smart growth. The corporate citizenship is encouraged by local governments to ensure a sustainable territorial transition, an adequate quality of life and a growing emergence of smart cities. Citizens impact and are impacted by the emergence of sustainability and smart cities. Their understanding of the link between sustainability and smart cities defines the level of their support and engagement towards projects implemented on their territory. The understanding of this link is not well defined in the literature review. Moreover, the association between sustainability, smart cities and citizens is emerging in recent researches only on the improvement of life quality or on strategies to increase corporate citizenship. For this propose, this paper explores how to measure the understanding of the link between sustainability and smart cities. The research explicitly targets 215 business students with a strong interest in sustainability and smart cities to study a specific subcategory of corporate citizens. The paper proposes an explorative quantitative case study based on a factor analysis to measure different understanding between sustainability and smart cities. Based on factors, findings reveal five categories of business students with different understandings: (1) smart city-oriented, (2) sustainability-oriented versus smartness-oriented, (3) discovers, (4) urban development-oriented, and (5) inclusiveness-oriented. Based on axes, sustainability is easily comprehensible comparatively to smart cities. As a result, sustainability is defined as a strategic component in developing smart cities. Moreover, findings highlight that it is necessary to have a direct link between sustainability and smart cities to emerge a sustainable urban development. Key-words: sustainability, smart cities, corporate citizens, understanding, categories [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting smart and sustainable mobility: Analysis of management controls in ten Belgian local governments
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, June)

The concept of smart city is increasingly coming to the fore in recent literature review. This concept is mainly associated to the increasing interest dedicated to sustainability and social responsibility ... [more ▼]

The concept of smart city is increasingly coming to the fore in recent literature review. This concept is mainly associated to the increasing interest dedicated to sustainability and social responsibility in local governments. The association between sustainability approach and smart city approach is explored to improve the quality of life, particularly, through the development of urban mobility. To do so, local governments tend to develop adapted management controls to analyse how urban mobility is planned, implemented and developed in the context of an increasing interest of sustainability and smart cities. This paper explores the development of management controls for urban mobility with a focus on sustainability and smart city measures, recently developed in the literature review as a smartainability approach. The paper develops an explorative qualitative study on eight Belgian local governments developing a smartainability overall strategy. The analysis refers to Malmi and Brown’s framework to study management controls for mobility in the context of sustainable and smart city approaches. The study required eight semi-structured interviews with sustainability mobility managers and an in-depth document analysis on sustainability and smart city approaches developed in the studied local governments. Finding shows that the development of smartainability management controls for urban mobility is influenced by the association between sustainability and smart city approaches. Even if all local governments develop a smartainability approach, they mainly set a priority on sustainability or on smart city measurements. Whereas sustainability measurements focus on developing alternative, dynamic and inclusive solutions, smart city measurements focus on developing innovative and digital-oriented solutions. Moreover, smartainability management controls are determined by the ability of local governments: (1) to develop a common vision of mobility challenges, (2) to increase collaboration and communication between involved actors, and (3) to develop flexible adaptations regarding to obsolete procedures. Keywords: urban mobility, management controls, smart cities, sustainability, local governments [less ▲]

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See detailBarometer België 2018: SMART CITIES: STRATEGIEËN EN PROJECTEN IN BELGIË
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer ... [more ▼]

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer over dit concept te kunnen voorstellen. De studie werd uitgevoerd bij een steekproef van 123 Belgische gemeenten en laat zien hoe het staat met de strategieën en projecten rond Smart Cities die op het Belgische grondgebied werden ontwikkeld of nog ontwikkeld worden. Deze studie onthult, vanuit het standpunt van de gemeenten, hoe het Smart City-concept wordt gezien, welke voorwaarden nodig zijn voor de toepassing ervan en welke thema's prioritair worden ontwikkeld in België. Bovendien geeft de studie een overzicht van de gebruikte financieringsvormen en de acties die worden ondernomen om de dynamiek van de spelers (publieke en private spelers en burgers) te versterken. Tot slot geeft de studie aan welke stappen moeten worden gezet voor de monitoring en de controle en welke obstakels de gemeenten tegenkomen bij de toepassing en de ontwikkeling van de Smart City-projecten. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop: individual perception of the smart city
Van Bockhaven, Jonas ULiege; Randaxhe, Julie; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailBAROMÈTRE 2018 : SMART CITIES EN WALLONIE
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les six dimensions de la Smart City de Giffinger et al. (2007) ; et la norme ISO 37120 : 2014. Echantillon La population de référence de l’étude est l’ensemble des communes wallonnes (262 communes). Un échantillon de 58 communes y ont effectivement répondu (22% des communes wallonnes). Cet échantillon est représentatif en termes de géographie (provinces wallonnes) et de nature (commune rurale/urbaine) . Les résultats sont donc généralisables et peuvent être extrapolés à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Collecte des données Un questionnaire en ligne comprenant 20 questions a été envoyé à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Divers canaux de communication ont été utilisés pour la diffusion du questionnaire. La collecte de données a duré 3 mois (d’octobre 2017 à janvier 2018). La grande majorité des répondants sont des directeurs généraux (34%). Le temps moyen de réponse au questionnaire est de 23 minutes. Analyse des données Les calculs et les traitements statistiques ont été effectués à l’aide du logiciel Statistica. Les données sont analysées en globalité afin de recenser les grandes tendances pour les communes wallonnes. Deux critères d’analyse principaux ont été retenus. Le premier critère concerne la nature des communes (rurales et urbaines) selon la définition de l'OCDE. La différence entre une commune rurale et une commune urbaine réside dans le nombre d'habitants au kilomètre carré. Lorsqu’une entité compte moins de 150 habitants au km2, cette entité est considérée comme rurale. Le deuxième critère concerne la taille des communes. L’analyse primaire des données souligne d’importantes différences observées au sein des communes de plus de 50.000 habitants (désignées comme grandes communes dans l’étude) comparativement à la moyenne de notre échantillon. Les résultats analysent la compréhension du concept de ville intelligente par les communes wallonnes, la stratégie smart city développée, et finalement, la mise en œuvre et le contrôle des projets smart city développés dans les communes wallonnes. Les résultats présentent les principaux résultats de l’échantillon. Ils développent ensuite les différences significatives entre les communes urbaines et rurales, et entre les communes de moins et de plus de 50.000 habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Sustainability Mobility Controls: The Case of Four Belgian Local Governments
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Qian, Wei

in Social and Environmental Accountability Journal (2018), 38

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how ... [more ▼]

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how institutional influences enable or constrain the development of management controls in Belgian local governments, particularly those pertaining to sustainability mobility strategies. Research Method An exploratory case study method was used for the purposes of this study. Further, the package of mobility controls developed by Belgian local governments is explored with reference to the model proposed by Malmi and Brown (2008). The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in four Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, secondary data from these local governments, including reports on mobility, strategy, urban development and infrastructure, were collected and analysed. Findings The four Belgian local governments plan, implement, and control their sustainability mobility strategies differently, depending on their specific practices and routines, and the interactions between relevant actors. Even if sustainability is a strategic component of their urban development, the understanding of the link between sustainability, management controls, and mobility strategy, differs according to local government challenges. Institutional influences are both enabling and constraining the development of management controls in support of sustainability mobility strategies in local governments. More specifically, political support and regulations enable control planning. However, limits in the support of mobility actors, and weak decision power for mobility managers, constrain the monitoring and updating of control indicators. Contribution/Implications This paper contributes to the literature by exploring both institutional enablers and constraints on the development of management controls for sustainability in the public-sector context. More specifically, it explores how practices, routines, and interactions can enable or constrain the potential contribution of management controls to sustainability transitions of local governments. [less ▲]

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See detailSMARTAINABILITY AND MOBILITY STRATEGY: THE CASE OF BELGIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018)

Abstract Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet ... [more ▼]

Abstract Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet obstacles to define the adapted combination between smart mobility and sustainable mobility. For this propose, this paper aims at understanding the impact of different combinations on the development of mobility strategies in Belgian local governments. The alternative Venn diagrams of urban mobility developed by Lyons (2016) are used as a theoretical lens to explore the link between smartainability and mobility strategy. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory case study was used for the propose of this study. The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in ten Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, documentary analysis with a focus on publicly-available reports on sustainability, smart city strategies and urban mobility were collected before and after the interviews. Further, different mobility projects initiated by start-ups and organisations of local governments have been collected during different mobility meetings in Belgium. Findings: Even if there is different combinations between smart and sustainable mobility, the definition of sustainability as a part of smart mobility contributes to develop mobility strategy. This ““smartainable”” alternative encourages transitions to anticipate future challenges. Citizens are initiated to new solutions and are eager to contribute in the development of mobility strategy. All public, private and civil actors collaborate to face sustainability challenges like pollution and CO2 emission. Mobility strategy is then more oriented towards integrated smart mobility platforms. Research/practical implications: The outcomes for practice of this paper is to identify the best combination between smart and sustainable approaches to facilitate the development of strategies in local governments. Moreover, these exploratory case studies offer new insights for future research on the concept of smartainability in strategic axes of smart city such as mobility. Originality/value: Current researches on urban mobility follow either a sustainable paradigm or a smart paradigm. There is few researches exploring the interdependencies between the two paradigms. In addition, there is no significant researches which explored the link between smartainability and mobility strategy in the context of public sector. Keywords: key word, key word, key word (3-5) Urban mobility, smart city, sustainability, strategy, local governments. JEL Codes: R41, M48, H76. [less ▲]

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See detailChapitre 8: Ville Intelligente - De la Smart City à la démarche Living Lab
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULiege

in Brahy, Rachel; Dumont, Elisabeth; Fontaine, Pierre (Eds.) et al Regards sur la ville - Echanges et réflexions à partir de Liège (2018)

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See detailSmart Cities in Belgium: Barometer and perspectives
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2017, December 14)

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