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See detailLa crise Covid-19, quels impacts sur la transition durable et intelligente de nos territoires ?
Esposito, Giovanni ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Article for general public (2020)

Au Smart City Institute, en cette période complexe, la combinaison des concepts de « territoires durables et intelligents » et de « crise » nous a amené à mener une recherche empirique en Belgique ... [more ▼]

Au Smart City Institute, en cette période complexe, la combinaison des concepts de « territoires durables et intelligents » et de « crise » nous a amené à mener une recherche empirique en Belgique (Wallonie) afin de mieux appréhender les impacts de la crise de la Covid-19 sur la transition durable et intelligente de nos territoires (« Smart Cities/Territories » en anglais). De multiples questions se posent… et notamment, cette crise va-t-elle ralentir ou, au contraire, accélérer cette transition ? Cet article est l’occasion d’évoquer des toutes premières pistes de réponse [less ▲]

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See detailCovid-19 - Quel impact sur nos communes ? Etude exploratoire wallonne
Esposito, Giovanni ULiege; Clement, Jessica ULiege; Naisse, Pauline ULiege et al

Report (2020)

Depuis quelques mois, les différents gouvernements, en Belgique ou ailleurs, ont dû prendre des mesures afin de lutter contre la crise sanitaire provoquée par la Covid-19. Ces mesures ont impacté le mode ... [more ▼]

Depuis quelques mois, les différents gouvernements, en Belgique ou ailleurs, ont dû prendre des mesures afin de lutter contre la crise sanitaire provoquée par la Covid-19. Ces mesures ont impacté le mode de fonctionnement des villes et communes qui ont dû s’adapter. Au Smart City Institute, en cette période complexe, la combinaison des concepts de « territoires durables et intelligents » et de « crise » nous a conduits à mener une recherche empirique en Wallonie afin de mieux appréhender les impacts de la crise de la Covid -19 sur la transition durable et intelligente de nos territoires (« Smart Cities/Territories » en anglais). De multiples questions se posent et notamment, cette crise va-t-elle ralentir ou, au contraire, accélérer cette transition ? Ce rapport est l’occasion d’évoquer des premières pistes de réponse. Bien que nous ne puissions pas encore déterminer la totalité des effets à long terme de cette situation, cette recherche permet de dresser un premier état des lieux. Nos résultats indiquent que durant cette période complexe, les communes wallonnes ont vu en cette crise une opportunité de générer un changement positif, notamment au travers de la transition numérique. Le nouveau contexte induit par la crise sanitaire a créé, sous certains aspects, un terrain favorable au développement de territoires intelligents à travers la Wallonie. De nouvelles solutions numériques qui n’étaient pas envisagées auparavant font désormais partie intégrante de la nouvelle façon de travailler dans les administrations publiques locales. S’il est encore trop tôt pour affirmer qu’elle a effectivement accéléré la transition durable et intelligente du territoire wallon, la crise aura toutefois ouvert de nouvelles perspectives à nos villes et communes. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable Business Models for Circular Economy in Urban Ecosystem
Bleus, Hélène ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2020, June 09)

On one hand, sustainable business models have been recognized has facilitator to foster the transitions towards sustainability. On the other hand, politics and the scientific community have identified ... [more ▼]

On one hand, sustainable business models have been recognized has facilitator to foster the transitions towards sustainability. On the other hand, politics and the scientific community have identified circular economy as the most promising mean to reach sustainability. While challenges regarding sustainability and climate change in urban area will increase, the development of Sustainable Business Model for Circular Economy (SBMfCE) in urban ecosystem is considered as crucial. Although pioneers created SBMfCE in different sectors, scaling up and business case reproductions are still lacking to insure the transition toward sustainability at urban level. The focus is made on one sector in a specific urban area: the built environment in Brussels. In order to give a new momentum to the SBMfCE, this paper analyses through a qualitative research based on institutional isomorphism why SBMfCE are developed at urban level and highlights barriers and enablers faced by actors. Then, it gives some insights linked to normative, coercive and mimetic pressures that could foster SBMfCE. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint conference between the Marketing departments of RWTH Aachen and HEC-Liège
Ferrara, Charlotte ULiege; Delcourt, Cécile ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Scientific conference (2020, January 30)

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See detailMonitoring et évaluation des projets Smart City – étude exploratoire des perceptions des communes wallonnes
Lebas, Audrey ULiege; Diankenda, Julio ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Report (2020)

Au cours des dernières années, l’intérêt autour du concept de Smart City - ou Territoire Durable et Intelligent - n’a cessé de se développer. En Wallonie, cet intérêt se traduit notamment au travers de la ... [more ▼]

Au cours des dernières années, l’intérêt autour du concept de Smart City - ou Territoire Durable et Intelligent - n’a cessé de se développer. En Wallonie, cet intérêt se traduit notamment au travers de la stratégie Digital Wallonia et, en particulier, du programme Smart Région. L’attention autour de la thématique du suivi et de l’évaluation des politiques publiques et des projets Smart City s’est aussi développée, notamment via la publication de différentes recherches (ex. Giffinger, 2007) et projets (ex. CityKeys). En Wallonie, bien que le suivi et l’évaluation rencontrent un certain engouement de manière générale, il n’y a encore aucune publication qui se penche sur le suivi et l’évaluation spécifique aux projets Smart City. Avec ce rapport, nous souhaitons poser les bases de cette réflexion. Pour ce faire, nous formulons deux questions : quelle perception ont les communes wallonnes du monitoring et de l’évaluation des projets ? Quel est l’état d’avancement en matière de monitoring et d’évaluation des projets Smart City en Wallonie au niveau local ? Pour y répondre, nous avons interrogé 25 communes wallonnes. Deux conclusions générales se dégagent. D’une part, bien qu’il y ait un intérêt pour le suivi et l’évaluation de projets, il n’y a généralement pas de culture d’évaluation au sein des communes wallonnes en raison de freins structurels (ex. manque de temps) et contextuels (ex. jeux politiques). D’autre part, il n’y a actuellement que peu de mécanismes de suivi et d’évaluation des projets Smart City mis en place au sein des communes wallonnes et, lorsque c’est le cas, le projet n’est que rarement analysé dans son ensemble (ex. focalisation sur les résultats finaux). [less ▲]

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See detailBaromètre Belge 2019: La Smart City au service de la dynamisation de nos communes
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Basile, Carina ULiege et al

Report (2020)

Après la sortie de son deuxième baromètre wallon de la Smart City en Septembre 2019, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son baromètre Belge 2019. Cette étude, réalisée auprès de 94 ... [more ▼]

Après la sortie de son deuxième baromètre wallon de la Smart City en Septembre 2019, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son baromètre Belge 2019. Cette étude, réalisée auprès de 94 communes belges, illustre le rôle stratégique du développement d’une approche Smart City dans la dynamisation économique, sociale et touristique des communes belges. En partant du point de vue d’élus (bourgmestres, échevins) et de responsables au sein des administrations communales belges, ce baromètre apporte des éléments de réflexion sur : - L’importance accordée à la dynamisation/l’attractivité économique, sociale et touristique de leur territoire ; - Les acteurs stratégiques à attirer ou fidéliser ; - Les images de marque et cultures véhiculées ; - Les actions développées en termes de dynamisation territoriale et de démarches Smart City ; - Et, enfin, les actions Smart City à développer pour renforcer la dynamisation des communes belges. [less ▲]

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See detailAgriculture urbaine : les leçons de la faillite d’Urban Farmers à La Haye
Ancion, Nicolas ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Jijakli, Haissam ULiege

Article for general public (2019)

https://theconversation.com/agriculture-urbaine-les-lecons-de-la-faillite-durban-farmers-a-la-haye-126885 Juillet 2018 : UF002 De Schilde, l’une des plus grandes serres en toiture d’Europe, située à La ... [more ▼]

https://theconversation.com/agriculture-urbaine-les-lecons-de-la-faillite-durban-farmers-a-la-haye-126885 Juillet 2018 : UF002 De Schilde, l’une des plus grandes serres en toiture d’Europe, située à La Haye (Hollande), déclare faillite. Initié en 2016, ce projet était porté par Urban Farmers, une entreprise suisse pionnière dans le domaine de l’agriculture urbaine.En nous appuyant sur des documents disponibles et des interviews réalisées dans le cadre du projet Interreg NWE GROOF, nous avons découvert que la stratégie, la mésentente entre des actionnaires ainsi que des problèmes techniques de production, rendaient compte de cet échec. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance measurement in Smart Cities: an introductory report
Lebas, Audrey ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Report (2019)

ong the different debates surrounding Smart Cities, the topic of performance measurement has gained momentum. Several authors (e.g. Giffinger, 2007) and projects (e.g. CityKeys1) have provided frameworks ... [more ▼]

ong the different debates surrounding Smart Cities, the topic of performance measurement has gained momentum. Several authors (e.g. Giffinger, 2007) and projects (e.g. CityKeys1) have provided frameworks for municipalities to measure and monitor their Smart City performance. While these frameworks are useful and interesting, they often measure the performance of a city with an outside-in approach. This implies that performance is often measured based on pre-defined sets of indicators, which is an asset for comparing territories. In this report, we focus on a more managerial approach – also called an inside-out approach. We aim to guide municipalities to define their own performance measurement system that will allow them to improve their objectives and processes. Hence, we hereby propose an integrative model that is directly derived from the territory’s specificities. The model is constructed using an inductive approach built upon the existing literature on business performance management, public performance management and Smart City performance measurement & management. Note that, given the complexity of performance measurement, this report is only an introductory document. Therefore, the content is not exhaustive and will be completed in future publications from the Smart City Institute. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen and Digital Entrepreneurship in Smart Cities
Manjon Antolin, Miguel ULiege; Aouni, Zineb; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, October)

This paper investigates the relation between the development of smart city initiatives and the number of new firms in the territory. In particular, since smart cities tend to follow sustainable and/or ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the relation between the development of smart city initiatives and the number of new firms in the territory. In particular, since smart cities tend to follow sustainable and/or digital orientations, we pay special attention to the rates of green and digital entrepreneurship. We find evidence of a positive correlation between smart city initiatives and entrepreneurship rates in a sample of Belgian municipalities, particularly in the digital industries and when the level of implementation is high. In contrast, having sustainable and/or digital orientations in smart city initiatives do not seem to make any difference in the types of entrepreneurial initiatives considered (i.e., green and digital). These results support the view that smart cities are mainly associated with technological developments. They also suggest that smart cities may be acting as a local entrepreneurship-supporting policy. [less ▲]

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See detailBaromètre wallon 2019: La Smart City au service de la dynamisation de nos communes
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Basile, Carina ULiege et al

Report (2019)

Le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son baromètre wallon 2019. Cette étude, réalisée auprès de 59 communes wallonnes, illustre le rôle stratégique du développement d’une approche Smart ... [more ▼]

Le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son baromètre wallon 2019. Cette étude, réalisée auprès de 59 communes wallonnes, illustre le rôle stratégique du développement d’une approche Smart City dans la dynamisation économique, sociale et touristique des communes wallonnes. En partant du point de vue d’élus (bourgmestres, échevins) et de responsables au sein des administrations communales, ce baromètre apporte des éléments de réflexion sur : • L’importance accordée à la dynamisation/l’attractivité économique, sociale et touristique de leur territoire ; • Les acteurs clés à attirer ou fidéliser ; • Les images de marque et cultures véhiculées ; • Les actions développées en termes de dynamisation territoriale et de démarches Smart City ; • Et, enfin, les actions Smart City qui ont un lien direct avec la dynamisation des communes wallonnes. [less ▲]

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See detailGuest Editorial - Sustainability Accounting and Control for Smart Cities
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Van Bockhaven, Jonas; Schaltegger, Stefan et al

in Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal (2019), 10(4), 646-653

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See detailWhat makes a city "smart": Evidence from Belgian municipalities
Manjon Antolin, Miguel ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, August)

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See detailExploring the benefits of smart city strategies : Evidence from 213 Belgian municipalities
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Belaid, Fateh

Conference (2019, July 12)

1. Statement of the research problem This article aims to investigate a crucial question, which has raised in the last years in both policy and the economic literature; that is, the various economic ... [more ▼]

1. Statement of the research problem This article aims to investigate a crucial question, which has raised in the last years in both policy and the economic literature; that is, the various economic benefits of Smart-Cities. There is a remarkable agreement among economists about the role of Smart Cities in shaping socioeconomic and environmental aspects at global scale (Albino et al., 2015; Ismagilova, 2019). Currently, despite the growing emphasis on positive correlation between Smart-Cities development and socioeconomic outcomes, our understanding about the underlying causes of this relationship and the revenues streams generated by the Smart-Cities remains thin. This conjecture constitutes the foundation of our study, which aims to shed light on the revenues streams and the various benefits of Smart-Cities based upon 18 domains of the international standard ISO 37120: 2014 in Walloon cities. Facing a variety of challenges, cities tend to develop several smart systems on their territory to foster sustainability, technological transition and quality of life. The smart city approach is identified as a comprehensive commitment to innovate, inspire and push cities generating a positive economic and social transitions. Ideologies such the smart territory, the smart region or nation even the Smart Europe are more and more used by governments. The development of the smart city niche in Europe engenders several economic opportunities for giants and private companies. It also increases entrepreneurial willingness and the number of startups proposing smart city solutions adapted to local realities. But, what is the case of public authorities? The development of top-down smart city projects necessitates heavy financial, human and organizational resources. Public authorities are then exploring possibilities to train their civil servants, to develop public-private partnerships and to involve strategic actors to ensure a successful sustainable and smart transitions. However, the smart city approach is always in an emerging process with only long-term potential benefits for cities. With the support of federal and regional governments, many Belgian cities are developing local initiatives in line with a smart city approach. An emerging dynamic started with pioneer big cities in 2006, and several cities followed the trend since 2014. Five years after the development of the first initiatives, do smart city implemented projects generate noticeable benefits for cities? And if so, what are the different revenue streams? In line with the city planning, public authorities are supposed to develop projects generating a specific form of benefit. The literature of smart cities highlight generally the necessity to reach intangible benefits such as sustainability or quality of life, and not necessarily financial benefits. The profitable side of smart cities is progressively explored by analyzing forms of business models developed by public authorities. However, the effective benefits remain vague. The paper refers to the value proposition business model developed by Ballon (2009) to highlight the main benefits and value elements attended by cities. This model is strengthened by different researches on financial sustainability and business models. Based on the nature of the smart city project, cities can reach different forms of benefits. As example, educative system projects generate intangible benefits, whereas, energy optimization projects generate a cost reduction for the city. The paper aggregates potential benefits into three forms: (i) financial outcome and economic growth; (ii) cost reduction and financial optimization; and (iii) intangible benefits (sustainability, inclusiveness, social cohesion, security, quality of life, etc.).. The remainder of this article is orginized as follows. Section 2 contains our research hypothesis, as well as a description of the data, and the methodology developed to answer them. Section 3 summarizes and discuss the main empirical results, and Section 4 provides conclusions and the related policy implications of this study. 2. Contributions This paper contributes existing literature on the financial aspect of the Smart City in the following important ways. First, it underlines the smart city themes affecting positively and negatively on different forms of benefits that cities aim to reach. As a practical contribution, the findings can help cities to select the right strategic smart city projects if they target a specific form of benefit. In addition, this research stimulated not only to enrich the scant empirical studies investigating the revenue streams of Smart-Cities, but also intends to shed light on a several answered questions concerning this important topic. Accordingly, for example, it is interesting to explore why some categories did not generate any form of benefits? Thus, do cities define realistic and relevant indicators measuring the ROI of such projects? Do they really understand the adequate benefits as well as the time required for reaching them? What are the main factors affecting negatively on the ROI of such projects? And finally, are public authorities aware about all benefits that they can generate by developing an effective smart city approach to reinforce their strategic projects? Conceptual framework and research methodology The research is carried out in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia). The research focuses on Walloon cities due to the increasing importance of developing the regional governmental program labelled “Smart Région – Digital Wallonia” developed to foster regional and local smart city dynamics. Wallonia (Belgium) is composed of 262 cities, 58 of them participated to this research. The sample is significantly representative of Walloon cities in terms of geography (all Walloon provinces are represented) and nature (rural and urban regions). An online survey has been addressed to all mayors and general directors of Walloon cities. Different communication channels have been used to push them to participate to this research (commercial databases, network, private and public partners, etc.). The data collection lasted three months (from October 2017 to January 2018). The majority of respondents are general directors (34%). This is followed by heads of departments and civil servants in charge of smart city projects (smart city managers, project managers, IT managers). Respondents were asked to select the smart city domain that they are currently developing. Only projects that respondents consider to be at an advanced stage of implementation have been retained for this research. Then, they were asked to select on the form of benefits that they notice as a positive consequence of implementing smart city projects. To make the link between the smart city domains and the forms of benefits, a matrix of correlations and 4 multiple regressions are developed (one for each form of benefit). The 18 smart city domains are defined as independent variables in the model (X). The multiple regressions explore the impact of Xs’ variation on the response (Y). The three forms of revenues are defined as responses and dependent variables in the model (Y). Another variable is integrated as a response (Y): No significant benefit to highlight if some domains did not finally engender any benefit for cities. Each variable defined as Y is explored with a multiple regression model to underline significant coefficients allowing to increase the value of Y. All statistical experiments have been realized on Statistica software. 3. Findings Walloon cities are currently implementing at an advanced stage several smart city domains. They are all aware about the positive contribution of the development of a smart city approach on their territory. This approach is perceived differently according to the challenges that they have to face. According to this, they integrate different strategies and focus on different themes to improve. Descriptive statistics highlight that their main priorities are: Smart lighting (59%), energy optimization (52%), governance and citizen participation (50%), digitalization, telecommunications and innovation (41%) and mobility (40%). However, cities are struggling to identify the noticeable benefits and ROI of these projects. The descriptive statistics identify that cities notice: no significant benefits (31%), intangible benefits (31%), cost reduction and financial optimization (29%), financial outcome and economic growth (9%). The matrix of correlations highlight significant correlations observed at p < 0.05. The forms of benefits generated by smart city projects depend on the strategic themes developed by cities. Firstly, financial outcome and economic growth are positively and significantly correlated to the development of digitalization, security, precarious habitat management and water management. Secondly, cost reduction and financial investment are observed in cities implementing projects on smart lighting and security. Thirdly, intangible benefits seem to be generated by projects related to security, urban planning and waste management. Lastly, findings show that five years after developing smart city projects, the development of smart governance through promoting new governance systems and citizen participation do not generate any significant benefit for cities. The four multiple regressions highlight significant coefficients impacting on benefits generated by smart city projects. The first model shows that financial outcome and an economic growth are highly promoted by the development of projects on telecommunications, digitalization and innovation. However, waste management is a significant coefficient impacting negatively on this nature of benefit. The second model identifies three significant coefficients. Cities reduce their costs through setting up smart lighting projects. Contrariwise, projects attending the improvement of healthcare services and risk management impact negatively the willingness of cities to generate a cost reduction. The third model underlines a significant positive impact of security and criminality projects on the development of intangible benefits (quality of life and citizen security). The last multiple regression model points out that urban planning projects implemented by public authorities do not actually generate any noticeable benefit. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart city acceptance and adoption: The case of potential smart citizens
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, July 12)

In the extent literature, several case studies explore interdependencies between smart cities and concepts such smart communities, corporate citizenship and citizen involvement. Thus, citizens are more ... [more ▼]

In the extent literature, several case studies explore interdependencies between smart cities and concepts such smart communities, corporate citizenship and citizen involvement. Thus, citizens are more supposed to accept and adopt transformations in their city if they perceive smart cities as an opportunity to improve their daily life. Conversely, they tend to be more resistant and mistrustful if they perceive any form of uncertainty or risk. The paper explores how do 215 potential smart citizens, who are brought to be future leaders, understand different components of the smart city. A general linear model is developed for the propose of this research to underline a typology of smart citizens based on their willingness to understand, accept and support smart city projects. The findings highlight that citizens build an understanding of smart cities based on what is developed in their city, in Flanders, in Belgium and in Asia. Technological factors seem is be less important comparatively to human and institutional ones. Citizens are more commonly supporting projects improving sustainability, governance, inclusiveness and wellbeing. However, these latter need to be aligned with cultural identities and social expectations. Based on significant factors, the research identifies six profiles of citizens: the local planner, the regional green questioner, the national entrepreneur, the international public supporter, the humanist and the marketer. Each profile is characterized by a different balance between uncertainty, resistance and supportive willingness. This finding demonstrates the importance that public authorities need to decade to the critical thinking, the imaginary and the behavior of different categories of citizens. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the ability of tomorrow’s leaders to support smart city projects
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

in Onrej Dvoulety; Martin Lukes; Jan Misar (Eds.) Proceeding of the The 7th International Conference Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (IMES 2019) (2019, June)

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which strategic actors are transforming together a city. However, a dynamic collaborative model is effective only if communities are accepting and supporting the implemented projects. To explore this supportive willingness, this paper focuses on the image that tomorrow’s leaders, which can be categorized as potential smart citizens, build regarding local smart city projects. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research is developed on a sample composed by 215 tomorrow’s leaders in Belgium. A survey was designed and distributed online asking respondents to select uncertainties, opportunities and threats that they associate to smart city projects developed locally. A factor analysis is proposed to analyze the data. Findings: Smart city projects are perceived as an opportunity to reinforce sustainability, quality of life and city digitalization. As a result, tomorrow’s leaders are more supportive if they have a clear vision of potential benefits and consequences induced by local smart city projects. Research/practical implications: This research offers new insights on scholars developed by Jun and Weare. As for innovative programs, smart city projects need to be aligned to global social expectations and to subgroup-based interest (taking into account the age, the gender and the cultural identity) in order to reinforce the capacity of the ecosystem to accept change and to develop an adequate behavior. Originality/value: The paper proposes an original research in the Belgian context, where smart city policies are focusing on human factors. Thus, these findings help Belgian cities in understanding how citizens think and behave in face of a progressive transforming city. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the ability of tomorrow's leaders to support smart city projects
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, June)

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which strategic actors are transforming together a city. However, a dynamic collaborative model is effective only if communities are accepting and supporting the implemented projects. To explore this supportive willingness, this paper focuses on the image that tomorrow’s leaders, which can be categorized as potential smart citizens, build regarding local smart city projects. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research is developed on a sample composed by 215 tomorrow’s leaders in Belgium. A survey was designed and distributed online asking respondents to select uncertainties, opportunities and threats that they associate to smart city projects developed locally. A factor analysis is proposed to analyze the data. Findings: Smart city projects are perceived as an opportunity to reinforce sustainability, quality of life and city digitalization. As a result, tomorrow’s leaders are more supportive if they have a clear vision of potential benefits and consequences induced by local smart city projects. Research/practical implications: This research offers new insights on scholars developed by Jun and Weare. As for innovative programs, smart city projects need to be aligned to global social expectations and to subgroup-based interest (taking into account the age, the gender and the cultural identity) in order to reinforce the capacity of the ecosystem to accept change and to develop an adequate behavior. Originality/value: The paper proposes an original research in the Belgian context, where smart city policies are focusing on human factors. Thus, these findings help Belgian cities in understanding how citizens think and behave in face of a progressive transforming city. [less ▲]

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See detailLes citoyens et stratégies communales à l’ère de la smart city : Echanges et interactions entre sourds ?
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, June)

Problématique Le concept de la smart city émerge comme une vision incitant à la créativité, à l’innovation et au changement inclusif. Différents écrits soulignent l’importance de la dynamique d’acteurs ... [more ▼]

Problématique Le concept de la smart city émerge comme une vision incitant à la créativité, à l’innovation et au changement inclusif. Différents écrits soulignent l’importance de la dynamique d’acteurs, et principalement le rôle du citoyen dans le développement de sa commune. Dès lors, différentes initiatives sont développées par les communes afin de renforcer les interactions avec l’écosystème. Toutefois, même si des efforts sont observés, est ce que les stratégies communales développées en vue de répondre aux attentes citoyennes reflètent réellement ce dont le citoyen a besoin ? Objet de recherche Depuis 2010, différentes communes belges s’inscrivent dans des politiques de transition durable et intelligente où la qualité de vie et les besoins du citoyen sont au cœur des stratégies communales. C’est dans ce sens que cette recherche explore si les communes entendent ou écoutent réellement le citoyen. La recherche explore, premièrement, la connaissance de la commune de l’ensemble des initiatives locales développées par l’écosystème, deuxièmement, la concordance entre les besoins du citoyen et les projets développés, et troisièmement, la volonté du citoyen à s’impliquer et interagir avec sa commune. Le but est de proposer un aperçu du potentiel impact « excitateur-résonateur » qui peut émerger des interactions entre ces deux parties. Méthodologie Cette recherche a nécessité la réalisation de deux études quantitatives. A cet effet, un recensement a été fait auprès de 123 communes belges et de 438 citoyens de catégories socioprofessionnelles confondues. Le questionnaire adressé aux communes a nécessité six mois de collecte des données. Les résultats descriptifs illustrent les différences entre les communes rurales et urbaines. Le questionnaire adressé aux citoyens est composé de questions ouvertes afin de récolter les impressions du citoyen rural et urbain. Une analyse sémantique des réponses avec un traitement statistique des mots clés a été réalisé pour extraire les principaux résultats. Résultats Un langage de sourd semble se confirmer entre le citoyen et sa commune. Les besoins des citoyens s’articulent autour de la culture, de la cohésion sociale, de l’écologie et du commerce de proximité, tandis que les communes priorisent la numérisation, la mobilité et la participation citoyenne. Par conséquent, 77% des citoyens se sentent peu entendus et pris en compte, même si 98% d’entre eux expriment une volonté de s’impliquer et d’interagir régulièrement (65,30%) par voie numérique avec leur commune. Ces résultats démontrent qu’il existe une relation d’excitateur-résonateur entre le citoyen et sa commune. Même si différentes initiatives sont implémentées pour renforcer la participation citoyenne, le citoyen ne voit pas à ce stade une volonté communale dans ce sens. Une bonne volonté est observée des deux parties, mais des améliorations doivent être conduites afin de développer des projets smart city répondants aux réels défis des gouvernements locaux et des citoyens afin d’assurer une réelle transition perceptible. [less ▲]

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See detailMunicipalities' understanding of the Smart City concept: An exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

in Technological Forecasting and Social Change (2019), 142

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric ... [more ▼]

The Smart City is a fuzzy concept, which integrates numerous characteristics, components and dimensions. These characteristics are challenged in the academic literature, especially the technocentric approach and the central position of private companies. Moreover, the lack of proper conceptualisation pushes cities to claim themselves ‘smart’. Finally, there are few rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application to territories. Therefore, this paper studies how Belgian municipalities understand the concept of Smart Cities in 2016. Based on the groundwork of literature on Smart Cities and the results of a survey of 113 Belgian municipalities, a typology of four understandings of the Smart City (technological, societal, comprehensive and non-existent) is elaborated. The results also show that municipalities with no understanding of the Smart City concept or with a technical understanding are mostly located in small and rural municipalities. This could be a sign of rejection of the phenomenon in this context. Conversely, medium and large-sized municipalities mostly develop a societal or comprehensive understanding. Therefore, this study highlights a dichotomy of understanding and acceptance of the concept of the Smart City between peripheral (rural and small size municipalities) and central municipalities (urban, medium and large size municipalities). [less ▲]

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