References of "Courard, Luc"
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See detailNumerical study on the flexural behaviour of normal- and high-strength concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bar, using different amounts of transverse reinforcement
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Madandoust, Rahmat; Chastre, Carlos et al

in Structures (2021), 34

This study was numerically focused on the non-linear behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforced concrete beams with different amounts of transverse reinforcement. The mid-span ... [more ▼]

This study was numerically focused on the non-linear behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforced concrete beams with different amounts of transverse reinforcement. The mid-span deflection of concrete beam cannot effectively be restricted using higher amount of flexural GFRP bars, owing to their low deformability factor. So, the use of high transverse reinforcement ratio is proposed to decrease the mid-span deflection and crack widths. Following this, the effect of reinforcement is required to carefully assess to better understand the flexural behaviour of concrete beams. The main goal of this study was to numerically evaluate the mid-span deflection, stress distribution and failure mechanism of normal- and high-strength concrete beams with low and high flexural reinforcement ratios (GFRP bar) and different amounts of transverse reinforcement using finite element (FE) analysis. The results revealed a fair agreement between the developed FE models and experimental beams. Besides, the mean value of experimental-to-predicted load ratio was 0.96, with average coefficient of variation of 2.69 %. Moreover, the truss action mechanism generated the diagonal compression in the cracked concrete and tension in the transverse reinforcement, resulted in decreasing the mid-span deflection. In addition, for all specimens with and without transverse reinforcement, the highest stress intensities were observed in the bottom of concrete component at service load. However, by increasing the load from service to ultimate, the use of transverse reinforcement caused to propagate some parts of high stress intensities near to the sides of concrete component. Furthermore, the presence of the transverse reinforcement resulted in distributing the stress intensity in the normal-strength concrete beams more than that in the high-strength concrete beams either at service load or at ultimate load. [less ▲]

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See detailSand and circularity - Aiming at a symbiosis between the Geosphere and the Anthroposphere
Pirard, Eric ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Hubert, Julien ULiege

Conference (2021, November 22)

Natural sands and, in a broader sense fine aggregates under 4 mm, are the building blocks of our modern society. Their role is of utmost importance in the granular assemblage forming the internal ... [more ▼]

Natural sands and, in a broader sense fine aggregates under 4 mm, are the building blocks of our modern society. Their role is of utmost importance in the granular assemblage forming the internal structure of concrete, to ensure both optimal mechanical performance and long term durability. Sand can no longer be considered as a renewable resource as our extraction rate from riverbeds such as the Rhine, far exceeds our annual consumption. Alternative materials have to be sourced either from industrial residues (ex. residual filler fraction from lime operations) or from crushed demolition waste. In this paper, we will review the characteristics of available non-natural sand sources and analyse how they impact on physical properties of granular assemblages. In particular, we will consider the opportunities to achieve optimal mixes of both natural and non-natural sands and how this impacts on compactness, flowability, etc. Particle size distributions and particle shape distributions clearly differentiate natural and non-natural sand fractions but they are not the only ones. Differences in mineralogy, particle porosity and trace elements purity are also important. They have to be carefully analysed before considering the possible, partial or total, substitution of natural sands by crushed materials. As a conclusion the highly celebrated circular economy paradigm also applies to sand resources, but the reality is closer to the one of a spiral economy, where the initial functional value of a natural material is progressively lost. The challenge being to slow down this functional degradation and make sure that future generations will still have access to a unique resource called SAND. [less ▲]

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See detailCoarse recycled materials for the drainage and substrate layers of green roof system in dry condition: parametric study and thermal heat transfer
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Hubert, Julien ULiege

in Journal of Building Engineering (2021)

The replacement of natural materials with recycled materials for green roof systems with drainage and substrate layers has scarcely been evaluated while it can be considered as a potential solution to ... [more ▼]

The replacement of natural materials with recycled materials for green roof systems with drainage and substrate layers has scarcely been evaluated while it can be considered as a potential solution to reduce the overuse of natural resources. Moreover, optimizing green roof layers’ thickness and evaluating the thermal resistance of drainage and substrate layers in dry state have rarely been taken into account. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the green roof layers’ thermal resistance concerning ISO 9869-1 where the drainage and dry substrate layers are substituted with coarse recycled materials. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using WUFI software to optimize the thickness of different layers. As per the results, there was a narrow difference between the Rc-value of the proposed green roof made with coarse recycled materials and that of the control green roof without coarse recycled materials, (5.3%); so, recycled materials are recommended to be used for the rooftops due to their low bulk density and light weight. Moreover, the dry substrate layer’s Rc-value was about twice that of the drainage layer of coarse aggregates due to deeper thickness of the former than the latter; however, considering the same thickness for the coarse aggregates and dry substrate layers, the Rc-value of the coarse aggregates was higher. Meanwhile, by simultaneously increasing the thickness of both layers, the model with an 18-cm substrate layer and a 6-cm drainage layer adequately provided the heat retention capacity required for the green roof system. [less ▲]

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See detailHygrothermal Modeling of Green Roof Made with Substrate and Drainage Layers of Coarse Recycled Materials
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Proceeding of the International Building Simulation Conference (2021, September 03)

The thermal performance of an extensive green roof can be influenced by the initial hygrothermal conditions of substrate and drainage layers. Moreover, coarse recycled materials can affect the thermal ... [more ▼]

The thermal performance of an extensive green roof can be influenced by the initial hygrothermal conditions of substrate and drainage layers. Moreover, coarse recycled materials can affect the thermal resistance of green roof layers, while there is a demand for optimizing their thickness. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to optimize the thickness of green roof layers, once coarse recycled materials were used for substrate and drainage layers: WUFI software has been used for such application, which was suitable for modeling the initial hygrothermal conditions (heat and moisture properties) of green roof layers. According to the results, Rc-value for the green roof without coarse recycled materials was found slightly higher than that of the specimen with coarse recycled materials (4.1%), indicating nearly the same thermal resistance of the former and the latter. The green roof model with 15-cm substrate and 6-cm drainage layer can be regarded as the best appropriate system concerning their better thermal resistance and lower weight. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling hygrothermal conditions of unsaturated substrate and drainage layers for the thermal resistance assessment of green roof: effect of coarse recycled materials
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege

in Energy and Buildings (2021)

Alternative materials exist for green roof layers: secondary resources like coarse or fine recycled aggregates may be used as a substitute to natural materials. For using these new types of materials, it ... [more ▼]

Alternative materials exist for green roof layers: secondary resources like coarse or fine recycled aggregates may be used as a substitute to natural materials. For using these new types of materials, it is needed to assess their heat resistance which is performed according to ISO 9869-1 standard. Moreover, the initial hygrothermal conditions of unsaturated substrate and drainage layers have also to be modelled and assessed for optimizing the layers’ thickness. In this study, the green roofs with unsaturated substrate and drainage layers incorporating coarse recycled materials were tested and assessed. The hygrothermal conditions of unsaturated substrate and drainage layers were simulated using WUFI software. A small difference (4.2%) was observed between the Rc-value of the green roofs with and without coarse recycled materials, confirming that these materials provided a sufficient thermal resistance, similar to soil particles for the substrate layer. Considering a constant thickness for the substrate layer (15 cm), a 6-cm drainage layer with coarse aggregates was considered as the optimum design for green roof systems. Besides, 18-cm unsaturated substrate layer was the optimum design when the drainage layer’ thickness was considered constant (5 cm). The 6-cm drainage layer and 18-cm unsaturated substrate layer were definitely the best design for the roofing systems with the simultaneous change in the substrate and drainage layers’ thickness. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat Transfer Measurement within Green Roof with Incinerated Municipal SolidWaste Aggregates
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Hubert, Julien

in Sustainability (2021), 13(13), 1-12

A green roof is composed of a substrate and drainage layers which are fixed on insulation material and roof structure. The global heat resistance (Rc) within a green roof is affected by the humidity ... [more ▼]

A green roof is composed of a substrate and drainage layers which are fixed on insulation material and roof structure. The global heat resistance (Rc) within a green roof is affected by the humidity content of the substrate layer in which the coarse recycled materials can be used. Moreover, the utilization of recycled coarse aggregates such as incinerated municipal solid waste aggregate (IMSWA) for the drainage layer would be a promising solution, increasing the recycling of secondary resources and saving natural resources. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the heat transfer across green roof systems with a drainage layer of IMSWA and a substrate layer in-cluding recycled tiles and bricks in wet and dry states according to ISO-conversion method. Based on the results, water easily flows through the IMSWAs with a size of 7 mm. Meanwhile, the Rc-value of the green roof system with the dry substrate (1.26 m2 K/W) was 1.7 times more than that of the green roof system with the unsaturated substrate (0.735 m2 K/W). This means that the presence of air-spaces in the dry substrate provided more heat resistance, positively contributing to heat transfer decrease, which is also dependent on the drainage effect of IMSWA. In addition, the Rc-value of the dry substrate layer was about twice that of IMSWA as the drainage layer. No sig-nificant difference was observed between the Rc-values of the unsaturated substrate layer and the IMSWA layer. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of humidity and temperature distribution in green roof with pozzolana as drainage layer: influence of outdoor seasonal weather conditions and internal ceiling temperature
Kazemi, Mostafa ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege

in Science and Technology for the Built Environment (2021)

The outdoor seasonal weather conditions can influence the insulation performance of extensive green roof. In addition, the thermal behavior of extensive green roof can be affected by the thickness of its ... [more ▼]

The outdoor seasonal weather conditions can influence the insulation performance of extensive green roof. In addition, the thermal behavior of extensive green roof can be affected by the thickness of its layers including substrate and drainage layer. On the other hand, the replacement of polyethylene modular panel with porous aggregates as drainage layer can affect the water retention capacity of green roof. Therefore, in this study, the green roofs with pozzolana (porous volcanic gravel) as drainage layer under constant and variable inside temperatures were modeled and subjected to the weather conditions of winter and summer to assess the humidity and temperature variations in the depth of the systems. The results showed that there was a decrease in temperature through the depth of the green roof system for the winter period, while the reverse occurred for the relative humidity. During the winter period, the green roof model with the 10-cm substrate and 8-cm pozzolana was recommended to be used. However, the model with the 8-cm substrate and 6-cm drainage layer had the best insulation performance, particularly for the summer period. Moreover, the internal ceiling temperature fluctuation of system under variable inside temperature was higher than that under constant inside temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of hydrophobic product nature and concentration on carbonation resistance of cultural heritage concrete buildings
Courard, Luc ULiege; Zhao, Zengfeng ULiege; Michel, Frédéric ULiege

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2021), 115

The concrete based patrimony is subjected to different deterioration mechanisms, including steel corrosion induced by carbonation or chloride ion diffusion. Hydrophobic product may be used for protecting ... [more ▼]

The concrete based patrimony is subjected to different deterioration mechanisms, including steel corrosion induced by carbonation or chloride ion diffusion. Hydrophobic product may be used for protecting concrete structures against water ingress. No data are available on the correlation between quality of hydrophobic agent, concrete substrate properties and carbonation resistance. The influence of hydrophobic product and water to cement ratio of concrete substrate on the carbonation resistance has been investigated. The results show that there is a clear effect of hydrophobic treatment on carbonation resistance as well as chloride diffusion, specifically for high active product concentration and high W/C ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailIntra-granular porosity of grinded hardened cement paste and bricks: modeling and experimentation.
Bouarroudj, Mohamed Elkarim ULiege; Remond, Sébastien; Grellier, Adèle ULiege et al

in Materials and Structures (2021), 54(88),

Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) possess high water absorption, due to the porosity of the attached hardened cement paste they contain. Fine particles of RCA are composed of larger amounts of hardened ... [more ▼]

Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) possess high water absorption, due to the porosity of the attached hardened cement paste they contain. Fine particles of RCA are composed of larger amounts of hardened cement paste, which makes their valorization even more difficult in concrete or mortar. One way to valorize these fine particles could be to use them as mineral addition, however their water absorption coefficient has to be determined, which is tricky for powders. The objective of this work is to estimate the remaining intra granular porosity of a ground powder using two different original approaches. The first modelling approach considers that the porous monolith material is composed of series of pores with characteristic volumes. A pore is considered opened due to grinding if it is cut by the surface of the particle and if its size is larger than the smallest inter granular pore. The remaining porosity after grinding is computed from the pore size distribution of the monolith material and the particle size distribution of the powder. The second experimental approach is based on mercury intrusion porosimetry tests performed on the powder. The separation between inter and intra granular porosity allows the estimation of the powder’s remaining porosity. The obtained results show a good agreement between the two approaches in the case of disconnected pores. However, in the case of connected porosity, the experimental approach over estimates the amount of inter-granular porosity. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative hydraulic binder development based on brick fines: Influence of particle size and substitution rate
Grellier, Adèle ULiege; Bulteel, David; Bouarroudj, Mohamed Elkarim ULiege et al

in Journal of Building Engineering (2021), 102263

Brick waste is produced in large quantities by the civil engineering sector without any real valorization. A way of valorization of this material consists of an incorporation of the brick fines in cement ... [more ▼]

Brick waste is produced in large quantities by the civil engineering sector without any real valorization. A way of valorization of this material consists of an incorporation of the brick fines in cement by substituting clinker to produce an alternative hydraulic binder. Blended cement based on brick fines would present the advantage to enhance cement environmental impact by reducing CO2 emission. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the impact of brick fines incorporation with three different particle sizes on fresh and hardened cement paste properties. Potential pozzolanic activity of the three brick fines was investigated as well as their impact on the microstructure and strength of these binders on cement paste samples. The results showed that it was possible to make blended cement based on brick fines. Incorporation rates up to 20% gave good performance compared to the reference cement. The incorporation of brick particle size close to a cement powder seemed the most appropriate. In addition, the brick fines contributed hydraulic performance by their pozzolanic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstitution of limestone filler by waste brick powder in self-compacting mortar: properties and durability
Zhao, Zengfeng ULiege; Grellier, Adèle ULiege; Bouarroudj, Mohamed Elkarim ULiege et al

in Journal of Building Engineering (2021), 42(102898),

The feasibility of using waste brick powder (WBP) in the manufacture of self-compacting mortar has been investigated in this study. The limestone filler was partially or totally (0%, 50% and 100 ... [more ▼]

The feasibility of using waste brick powder (WBP) in the manufacture of self-compacting mortar has been investigated in this study. The limestone filler was partially or totally (0%, 50% and 100%) substituted with WBP. The rheological properties, compressive and flexural strengths, drying shrinkage and durability properties (including carbonation resistance, chloride ion diffusion and sulphate resistance) of self-compacting mortars were evaluated. The WBP-mortars presented a higher yield stress and plastic viscosity than that of WBP-free mortar: the additional water has to be added in order to achieve the equivalent workability. The compressive strength of WBP-mortars slightly decreased after 7 days, but the decreasing trend seemed to be compensated by the pozzolanic activity of WBP and remained equivalent after 28 days. The substitution of limestone filler by WBP didn’t seem to impair the durability behavior of mortars (except for the resistance to carbonation). Therefore, it is possible to manufacture self-compacting mortar by partially or totally substituting limestone filler by WBP. [less ▲]

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See detailRecycling fine particles from construction and demolition wastes: characterization and effects on concrete perfromances
Courard, Luc ULiege; Bouarroudj, Mohamed Elkarim ULiege; Colman, Charlotte ULiege et al

Conference (2021)

Recycling construction and demolition wastes induce the production of coarse aggregates, quite easily valorized in road foundations and concretes but also fine and very fine particles which are ... [more ▼]

Recycling construction and demolition wastes induce the production of coarse aggregates, quite easily valorized in road foundations and concretes but also fine and very fine particles which are characterized by high water absorption level. The fine particles are very often rejected as they are containing polluting materials or because of their fineness and shape. This paper tends to show different ways of using Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA). [less ▲]

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See detailShear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Walls Retrofitted with UHPFRC Jackets
Franssen, Renaud ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege; Mihaylov, Boyan ULiege

in ACI Structural Journal (2021), 118(5), 149-160

Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) possesses outstanding mechanical properties and high durability, and thus can provide effective retrofit solutions for concrete walls and wall ... [more ▼]

Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) possesses outstanding mechanical properties and high durability, and thus can provide effective retrofit solutions for concrete walls and wall-type bridge piers. This self-leveling material can be cast in thin layers around the pier to protect it from corrosive environment and to enhance its shear resistance. However, while this is a promising solution, research has focused mostly on the retrofit of slabs and beams. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper presents results from four large-scale tests of shear-critical concrete walls with and without UHPFRC jackets. The test variables are the thickness of the jacket, the preparation of the concrete surface, and the level of axial load. It is shown that water-jetting of the surface ensures an effective composite action of the concrete and UHPFRC, while a smooth surface results in early debonding. It is also demonstrated that, while the reference reinforced concrete specimen failed in brittle shear, water-jetted walls with 30 mm and 50 mm jackets reached their flexural capacity and exhibited enhanced crack control. In addition to test results, the study also proposes and validates a three-degree-of-freedom kinematic model to accurately describe the deformation patterns of UHPFRC-strengthened walls. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Modelling Approach for UHPFRC Members Including Crack Spacing Formulations
Franssen, Renaud ULiege; Guner, Serhan ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege et al

in Engineering Structures (2021), 238

Ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) possesses excellent mechanical properties and durability. The steel fibers in the concrete result in significant post-cracking tensile resistance ... [more ▼]

Ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) possesses excellent mechanical properties and durability. The steel fibers in the concrete result in significant post-cracking tensile resistance and enhanced crack control. However, while UHPFRC is a promising material for the construction of new (and repair of existing) infrastructure, its application is still limited—in part due to the lack of numerical models with the capacity to simulate its complex behavior. To help overcome this challenge, this study proposes a numerical material modeling approach for the nonlinear finite element analysis of UHPFRC. The approach aims to provide a general applicability to model both shear- and flexure-critical members made from strain-softening or -hardening UHPFRC, while still using simple equations. This objective can be achieved by establishing a comprehensive set of crack spacing formulations and modeling recommendations to capture the unique behavior of UHPFRC. The crack spacing estimates are used together with the Diverse Embedment Model for FRC, which is extended here for the modeling of UHPFRC. When applied to 29 flexure- and shear-critical specimens, the proposed modeling approach accurately simulates the experimental responses with an average of 1.04 and a coefficient of variation of 10.2% for the experimental-to-predicted strength ratios. [less ▲]

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See detailD13 Final report
Muvuna, Jules ULiege; Courard, Luc ULiege

Report (2021)

The project aims to show to 10-18 years old students, and their teachers, the main characteristics of Circular Economy: what is possible to do with wastes, and where materials are usually recycled even in ... [more ▼]

The project aims to show to 10-18 years old students, and their teachers, the main characteristics of Circular Economy: what is possible to do with wastes, and where materials are usually recycled even in the industrial sector? [less ▲]

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See detailRapport scientifique et technique final - Partenaire ULiège-GeMMe
Courard, Luc ULiege; Hubert, Julien ULiege; Zhao, Zengfeng ULiege et al

Report (2021)

Dans ce rapport final, nous avons choisi de présenter les résultats en fonction des produits testés (et non des tâches). Les travaux de recherche présentés dans ce rapport sont exposés en trois chapitres ... [more ▼]

Dans ce rapport final, nous avons choisi de présenter les résultats en fonction des produits testés (et non des tâches). Les travaux de recherche présentés dans ce rapport sont exposés en trois chapitres : 1. le premier chapitre traite des cendres volantes de charbon et des cendres volantes de biomasse ; 2. le deuxième chapitre décrit les travaux de recherche réalisés sur les granulats recyclés de béton, notamment en combinaison avec des fillers calcaires pour la formulation de bétons ; 3. le troisième chapitre porte sur la caractérisation des granulats recyclés de mâchefers d’incinérateur d’ordures ménagères (MIOM) et sur la formulation de bétons. [less ▲]

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See detailHydric and Durability Performances of Compressed Earth Blocks Stabilized with Industrial and Agro By-Product Binders: Calcium Carbide Residue and Rice Husk Ash
Nshimiyimana, Philbert; Courard, Luc ULiege; Messan, Adamah

in Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (2021), 33(6),

This study investigated the hydric and durability performances of compressed earth blocks (CEBs) stabilized with calcium carbide residue (CCR) and rice husk ash (RHA). Dry mixtures were prepared using ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the hydric and durability performances of compressed earth blocks (CEBs) stabilized with calcium carbide residue (CCR) and rice husk ash (RHA). Dry mixtures were prepared using kaolinite-rich earthen material and 0%–25% CCR or 20∶0% to 12∶8% CCR:RHA of the weight of the earth. Moistened mixtures were manually compressed to produce CEBs (295×140×95  mm). Stabilized CEBs were cured at 30°C±5°C and wrapped in plastic bags for 45 days. The cured CEBs were dried and tested for water absorption and other indicators of durability. Unstabilized CEBs immediately degraded in water. The stabilized CEBs were stable in water, with a very low coefficient of capillary absorption (<20  g/cm2⋅min1/2) and excellent durability indicators. They resisted erosion at a standard water pressure (50 kPa) and at a pressure of 500 kPa. The coefficient of surface abrasion improved far higher than the 7  cm2/g recommended for the construction of facing masonry. It also increased after wetting-drying cycles and correlated with the evolution of compressive strength. This correlation can be used as the nondestructive test of stabilized CEBs. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction en terre, ressources secondaires et matériaux bio-sourcés: un avenir pour l’Afrique
Courard, Luc ULiege

in Bulletin des Séances de l'Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer (2021)

Earth is both an ancestral and contemporary material for the construction of dwellings but also civil and religious buildings. As the population, especially across the African continent, continues to grow ... [more ▼]

Earth is both an ancestral and contemporary material for the construction of dwellings but also civil and religious buildings. As the population, especially across the African continent, continues to grow, finding quality, comfortable and sustainable housing is becoming increasingly difficult. The availability and high cost of building materials such as cement, steel or wood are limiting access to housing for a growing share of the population who crowd into slums. Reclaiming earth as a building material is a part of the solution. It is by improving its performance, through the use of secondary resources from industrial or agricultural by-products, that the architect and the engineer can convince the population that earth is and remains a material of the future. This reflection is illustrated specifically from the production of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEB), stabilized with residual lime and rice husk ash. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenging construction industry with C&DW: opportunities and limits
Courard, Luc ULiege; Zhao, Zengfeng ULiege; Hubert, Julien ULiege

in Revista Hormigon (2021), (H59), 33-45

Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) comprises the largest waste stream in the European Union (EU), with relatively stable amounts produced over time and high recovery rates: it is estimated at one ... [more ▼]

Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) comprises the largest waste stream in the European Union (EU), with relatively stable amounts produced over time and high recovery rates: it is estimated at one third of total wastes generated in the EU. Although this may suggest that the construction sector is highly circular, scrutiny of waste management practices reveals that C&DW recovery is largely based on backfilling operations and low-grade recovery, such as using recycled aggregates in road sub-bases. These wastes are usually recovered as secondary raw materials after a recycling process resulting in the production of recycled sands and aggregates. Researches have been performed to show how it is possible to encourage and support the use of these recycled materials: preparation process and selection are fundamental for increasing capability of recycling. Analysis of recycled bricks and tiles sands and fine particles has also been tested as substitution product in concrete design. A quantitative analysis is proposed for five North West European (NWE) countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, where barriers are pointed out. The construction industry will be definitively affected by C&DW recycling for promoting circular economy in the coming years. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal sulfate attack in mortars containing contaminated fine recycled concrete aggregates
Colman, Charlotte ULiege; Bulteel, David; Thiery, Vincent et al

in Construction and Building Materials (2021), 272

Internal sulfate attack can be caused by the gypsum residues present in fine recycled aggregates (FRA). Asopposed to the better known external sulfate attack or Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), the ... [more ▼]

Internal sulfate attack can be caused by the gypsum residues present in fine recycled aggregates (FRA). Asopposed to the better known external sulfate attack or Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), the sulfates inthis context are provided by a gypsum contamination of the aggregates. Mortars made with contami-nated FRA were subjected to different conditions, to assess which parameters had an influence on the sul-fate attack reaction. Their mechanical properties and microstructure are investigated. Results showedthat gypsum content, porosity, temperature and alkalinity influenced the consequences of sulfate attack.However, the gypsum size distribution and cement type did not. [less ▲]

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