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See detailUnderstanding the Factors Influencing Public Transport Mode Choice Behavior of Vietnamese Motorcyclists
Nguyen Son Tung, ULiege; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Bui Trung Hiep, ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2021, May 28)

Many previous studies evaluated modal choices of car and public transport users. In contrast, there are very few studies on modal choice in motorcycle dominant countries like Vietnam. Thus, this paper ... [more ▼]

Many previous studies evaluated modal choices of car and public transport users. In contrast, there are very few studies on modal choice in motorcycle dominant countries like Vietnam. Thus, this paper reviews studies on travel mode choice to identify factors influencing mode choice in Vietnam. Most of the frameworks in previous studies divide boundaries between different levels such as the utility function, social-ecological system, socio-demographics, and psychology. These frameworks also list objective factors (gender, age, ethnicity, etc.) and subjective factors (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, etc.) within each level but rarely provide the interactions among them. Therefore, this study discusses the challenges in the travel mode choice and attempts to introduce a model linking objective factors and subjective factors in understanding the modal choices of the Vietnamese population. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-level multi-agent systems for traffic simulation: current trends and future challenges
Gong, Suxia ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Moeinaddini, Mehdi et al

Conference (2021, May 27)

Over the last few decades, multi-agent systems have been intensively deployed to simulate traffic. The transportation community has developed microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic models to achieve a ... [more ▼]

Over the last few decades, multi-agent systems have been intensively deployed to simulate traffic. The transportation community has developed microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic models to achieve a suitable trade-off between accuracy and reasonable computational burden. However, it has been recognized that none of these model types is superior to all others and capable of offering a single solution for largescale dynamic simulation to support traffic management needs. As the attention paid to large-scale traffic simulation continues to rise, the present paper offers a comprehensive review of multi-level multi-agent traffic simulation systems. The search for relevant publications in English was conducted, consulting four databases (Transport Research International Documentation (TRID), Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). Literature is compared in detail based on the research objectives and the design patterns to discuss the current trends and future challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of MCMC-Based Travel Simulation Framework Using Mobile Phone Data
Gong, Suxia ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Future Transportation (2021), 2

An essential step in agent-based travel demand models is the characterization of the population, including transport-related attributes. This study looks deep into various mobility data in the province of ... [more ▼]

An essential step in agent-based travel demand models is the characterization of the population, including transport-related attributes. This study looks deep into various mobility data in the province of Liège, Belgium. Based on the data stemming from the 2010 Belgian HTS, that is, BELDAM, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method combined with a cross-validation process is used to generate sociodemographic attributes and trip-based variables. Besides, representative micro-samples are calibrated using data about the population structure. As a critical part of travel demand modeling for practical applications in the real-world context, validation using various data sources can contribute to the modeling framework in different ways. The innovation in this study lies in the comparison of outputs of MCMC with mobile phone data. The difference between modeled and observed trip length distributions is studied to validate the simulation framework. The proposed framework infers trips with multiple attributes while preserving the traveler’s sociodemographics. We show that the framework effectively captures the behavioral complexity of travel choices. Moreover, we demonstrate mobile phone data’s potential to contribute to the reliability of travel demand models. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile
Diaz Cisternas, Muriel Andrea ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege; Trebilcock, Maureen et al

in Sustainability (2021), 8(13), 4139

Between the ages of 6 and 18, children spend between 30 and 42 h a week at school, mostly indoors, where indoor environmental quality is usually deficient and does not favor learning. The difficulty of ... [more ▼]

Between the ages of 6 and 18, children spend between 30 and 42 h a week at school, mostly indoors, where indoor environmental quality is usually deficient and does not favor learning. The difficulty of delivering indoor air quality (IAQ) in learning facilities is related to high occupancy rates and low interaction levels with windows. In non-industrialized countries, as in the cases presented, most classrooms have no mechanical ventilation, due to energy poverty and lack of normative requirements. This fact heavily impacts the indoor air quality and students’ learning outcomes. The aim of the paper is to identify the factors that determine acceptable CO2 concentrations. Therefore, it studies air quality in free-running and naturally ventilated primary schools in Chile, aiming to identify the impact of contextual, occupant, and building design factors, using CO2 concentration as a proxy for IAQ. The monitoring of CO2, temperature, and humidity revealed that indoor air CO2 concentration is above 1400 ppm most of the time, with peaks of 5000 ppm during the day, especially in winter. The statistical analysis indicates that CO2 is dependent on climate, seasonality, and indoor temperature, while it is independent of outside temperature in heated classrooms. The odds of having acceptable concentrations of CO2 are bigger when indoor temperatures are high, and there is a need to ventilate for cooling. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Determining Factors for the Renovation of the Walloon Residential Building Stock
Ruellan, Guirec ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Sustainability (2021), 13(4), 2221

The issue of energy retrofitting of existing building stock occupies an increasingly prominent place in energy transition strategies in Europe. Adopting models representing the building stock and ... [more ▼]

The issue of energy retrofitting of existing building stock occupies an increasingly prominent place in energy transition strategies in Europe. Adopting models representing the building stock and accounting for occupancy influence on final housing energy use must be developed to advise new policies. In this respect, this study aims to characterize the Walloon residential building stock and to analyze the existing correlations between the stock’s technical data and its occupants’ socioeconomic data. This study uses existing databases on buildings and inhabitants in Wallonia. Several statistical analyses make it possible to highlight the preponderant criteria and existing correlations between these different criteria. This study affirms the importance of accounting for certain socioeconomic categories, such as low-income groups, in a global strategic reflection on energy renovation. Multiple linear regression shows us that each percent increase in the category of households that declare between 10,000–20.000 EUR of income per year corresponds to an increase of 7.22 kWh/m2·y in the average energy efficiency of the built stock. The results highlight the importance of focusing on renovation strategies for particular types of buildings, such as semi-detached houses, which combine unfavorable technical and socioeconomic factors. Thus, the results confirm the interest of a mixed model approach to adapt to effective renovation policy strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilizing thermal comfort and walking facilities to propose a Comfort Walkability index (CWI) at the neighbourhood level
Labdaoui, Kahina ULiege; Mazouz, Saïd; Acidi, Ahmed et al

in Building and Environment (2021)

Many walkability indices have been developed by considering a range of specific indicators. However, comfort indicators at the neighbourhood scale and the effects of thermal comfort have generally not ... [more ▼]

Many walkability indices have been developed by considering a range of specific indicators. However, comfort indicators at the neighbourhood scale and the effects of thermal comfort have generally not been accounted for in such research. To this end, we propose the comfort walkability index (CWI) at the neighbourhood micro-scale. The proposed tool is based on two questionnaires, 330 respondents answered the first questionnaire, to evaluate the relative coefficient for each indicator (Cis). The second questionnaire based on 282 respondents using a simple random sampling technique to assess the scores of the selected factors (Sis). We tested the CWI in two areas in the city centre of Annaba, Algeria, and calculated the physiological Equivalent temperature (PET) using RayMan software on two average summer days from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. when heat and humidity peaks are observed. The results show that over 95% of the suggested indicators were estimated as being very important and necessary. The CWI scores were dependent on PET values and thermal perception. The highest scores of CWI were 40.95% and 25.23% in Colonial centre and Old town respectively, correlated with neutral thermal sensation (20°C-26°C). CWI in the Colonial centre was changing from rarely acceptable comfort quality to uncomfortable level depending on PET scores; however, CWI in Old Town defined a low comfort quality despite the variability of PET scores. This paper highlights the importance of assessing pedestrian comfort facilities at the neighbourhood microscale and heeding the importance of thermal comfort in promoting a satisfying walking experience. [less ▲]

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See detailSocio-cognitive factors in road safety monitoring: Cross-cultural comparison of driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or medication
Meesmann, Uta ULiege; Torfs, Katrien; Cools, Mario ULiege

in IATSS Research (2020), 44(3),

The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between socio-cognitive factors and unsafe traffic behaviour in different cultural settings based on the results of the second edition of ESRA (E ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between socio-cognitive factors and unsafe traffic behaviour in different cultural settings based on the results of the second edition of ESRA (E-Survey of Road users’ Attitudes), conducted in 32 countries in 2018 (ESRA2). The investigation focuses on the topic driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs, and medication (DUI) and related socio-cognitive constructs, such as attitudes , norms , perceived behaviour control , intention , habits , and risk perception . Cultural differences were assessed using the examples of Australia, Belgium, Canada, Egypt, Japan, Nigeria, and Slovenia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to test the dimensions of the underlying socio-cognitive constructs and to define composite scores for the following analyses. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between these socio-cognitive factors and selfreported DUI. The same set of variables was used for all the linear regression models, that is, the cross-national model (32 countries) and the seven national models. In total, 25,459 car drivers (at least a few days a month) were included in this analysis. The results show that ( i ) the considered socio-cognitive factors are able to predict selfreported DUI across different countries; ( ii ) these socio-cognitive factors are also able to predict DUI on a national level; and ( iii ) the impact of socio-cognitive factors on DUI differs across countries. The strongest predictor in all countries was the construct of habits , followed by norms and to a lesser extent attitudes and intentions . Perceived behaviour control and risk perception only showed a significant effect on reported DUI in a few countries. In conclusion, the ESRA2 data offer a unique opportunity to gain valuable insights into cross-cultural differences in traffic safety. Future research should focus on a more in-depth analysis of cultural differences on other road safety topics. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying non-parametric models to explore urban life satisfaction in European cities
Moeinaddini, Mehdi ULiege; Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Aghaabbasi, Mahdi et al

in Cities (2020), 105

Although urban quality of life is one of the important topics in most of the European policies, these policies are not supported by empirical analysis. Furthermore, there are few studies in urban quality ... [more ▼]

Although urban quality of life is one of the important topics in most of the European policies, these policies are not supported by empirical analysis. Furthermore, there are few studies in urban quality of life area that consider a sufficiently large number of cities and related factors and those that focused on European cities applied parametric analysis techniques that cannot handle multicollinearity. To remedy the aforementioned shortcomings, in this study, a large number of factors related to urban quality of life are investigated in different European cities, and to handle multicollinearity, non-parametric analysis techniques are adopted. The data stem from the Eurostat (2015), collecting information on urban quality of life for >40,000 citizens in 112 urban areas. Different non-parametric modeling techniques are applied and the results of the method that yielded the highest overall accuracy, i.e. the C5.0 algorithm, are presented. The results show that from the wide scope of considered factors, five main variables play an important role in urban life satisfaction, i.e. (i) feeling safe in the city, (ii) satisfaction with healthcare services in the city, (iii) satisfaction with the state of streets and buildings in the neighborhood, (iv) satisfaction with public transport in the city, and (v) availability of retail shops. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating on-road crash risk and traffic offences in Vietnam using the motorcycle rider behaviour questionnaire (MRBQ)
Bui Trung Hiep, ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege

in Safety Science (2020), 130

The factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was investigated in Vietnam, a developing country with an extensive motorcycling culture. In addition, we examined which of the ... [more ▼]

The factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was investigated in Vietnam, a developing country with an extensive motorcycling culture. In addition, we examined which of the MRBQ factors, riding information and demographic variables predict motorists’ crash risks and traffic violations. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the MRBQ revealed a clear four-factor structure of 36 items (N = 2.254 riders). This study highlights some critical differences between motorists from Vietnam and other countries. Vietnamese riders without a driver’s licence had lower on-road crash/near-crash rates, and the use of safety equipment paradoxically increased the incidence of crash risks. Furthermore, crash/near-crash liability and offences of Vietnamese motorcyclists rose with riding years (in terms of years already riding a motorcycle). The 36-item version of the MRBQ provided in this paper may be applied to other motorcycling countries. Besides, based on the robust relationships between the MRBQ factors and accident risks, new effective on-road safety strategies can focus on minimizing the common aberrant riding behaviours such as traffic errors, control errors, speed and alcohol-related violations in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing driving anger among Vietnamese motorcyclists
Bui Trung Hiep, ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege

Scientific conference (2020, January 13)

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See detailOpportunities for reinforcing cross-border railway connections: the case of the Liège (Belgium) - Maastricht (the Netherlands) connection
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULiege; Mostert, Martine ULiege; Christmann, Nathalie ULiege et al

in European Planning Studies (2020)

Efficient mobility is an essential driving force for the development of cross-border (CB) regions. The different settings and visions of neighbouring CB entities may lead to unsatisfactory transport ... [more ▼]

Efficient mobility is an essential driving force for the development of cross-border (CB) regions. The different settings and visions of neighbouring CB entities may lead to unsatisfactory transport connections across the border. This case study of a CB connection focuses on this issue and highlights, by means of a comparative analysis, how the differences in six perspectives (the economic context; urban and regional planning in Belgium and the Netherlands; the structure of the rail network; barriers in the exploitation of the railway; the current travel demand by rail; and the governance, public planning and policy context) lead to an unsatisfactory rail connection between Liège (Belgium) and Maastricht (the Netherlands). Based on the results of the analysis, we suggest reinforcing cross-mobility connections through several tools such as (i) the development of a common governance, by including economic and social stakeholders; (ii) the development of joint technical projects in relation to the infrastructure, communication systems and the rolling stock; and (iii) the strengthening of flows between the two sides of the border, especially the home-work flows. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Belgium
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste ULiege; Deuse, Caroline; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2020), 119

To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the prospects of a modal ... [more ▼]

To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the prospects of a modal shift towards conventional and electric bicycles based on a case study analysing the mobility generated by the three main campuses of the University of Liège in Belgium. In the theoretical part of this paper, the known factors and strategies that affect most of the bicycle use in Europe are summarised and the need for a deeper understanding of the elements that promote a modal shift from bus and car users to the use of electric bicycles is highlighted. Consequently, the results of a survey conducted among the university population of the University of Liège (students, PhD students, and staff members; including 1496 questionnaire responses)are presented and analysed in detail. The Net Promoter Score (NPS), as an indicator of the user satisfaction, confirms that the bicycle has the best NPS compared with the main modes of transport (car and bus) and that the electric bicycle has a greater NPS than the conventional bicycle. The importance of many factors affecting the use of cycling is lower if we consider the electric bicycle instead of the conventional bicycle. Considering the current travel patterns in terms of the distances travelled, the potential for the use of conventional bicycles only reaches 23% of the university users, whereas that of electric bicycles reaches 70%. In the pursuit of a modal report, the most imminent factor is the development of safe bike paths, where a potential increase in the bicycle use is acknowledged by 74% of the students, 62% of the staff members, 62% of the car users, and 82% of the bus users. Finally, because the lack of safe cycle lanes remains the major obstacle with respect to the use of both bicycle types, the development and/or improvement of a comfortable and secure infrastructure for cyclists within a radius of 12 km from the main school and work places, especially in the main residential and commercial areas, should be prioritised to promote the use of both types of bicycles. [less ▲]

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See detailProposing a new score to measure personal happiness by identifying the contributing factors
Moeinaddini, Mehdi ULiege; Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Aghaabbasi, Mahdi et al

in Measurement (2020), 151

Different assessment tools and questionnaires have been developed to measure happiness. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), that has 29 items, has been used widely to estimate personal happiness ... [more ▼]

Different assessment tools and questionnaires have been developed to measure happiness. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), that has 29 items, has been used widely to estimate personal happiness. The OHQ is used to quantify personal happiness based on an equal effectiveness assumption for all 29 items. Although the OHQ has been used by several studies, very few studies assess the contribution of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness. The current study attempts to fill this gap by assessing the contribution of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness as a latent variable. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to assess the relationship of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. The significant OHQ items that are extracted from SEM results, are used to develop a new personal happiness measurement score. The SEM factor loading values are used to weight the extracted items. All usual clustering methods are used in this study and the most suitable one based on the higher silhouette value is chosen to cluster the proposed personal happiness index. Finally, the relationships between socio demographic factors and the proposed personal happiness index clusters are tested by Gamm and Pearson Chi-Square tests. The SEM results show that 16 out of the 29 OHQ items have poor associations with personal happiness and can be excluded from the model. Most of the non-significant items (items with low level of association) are negatively worded items and the majority of the significant items are related to personal attitudes. The proposed personal happiness index can help to save time and avoid confusion. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of the Theory of planned behaviour in different cultural settings – international comparison of drunk-driving across 5 countries
Meesmann, Uta ULiege; Torfs, Katrien; Cools, Mario ULiege

Conference (2019, August)

Key-words. driving under the influence; alcohol; theory of planned behaviour; international survey; road safety culture Background. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Ajzen, 1991) is a psychological model ... [more ▼]

Key-words. driving under the influence; alcohol; theory of planned behaviour; international survey; road safety culture Background. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Ajzen, 1991) is a psychological model which is widely used in traffic research to predict e.g. drunk-driving (Moan & Rise, 2011; Rivis et al., 2011, Chan et al., 2010). Some studies question its validity in cross-cultural application especially in developing countries (Nordfjærn et al., 2011). Objectives. The objective of the present study is to validate the TPB model in different cultural settings. The study is based on the results of a spin-off of ESRA (E-Survey of Road users’ Attitudes; Meesmann et al., 2018) in 2017. It investigates cross-cultural differences in self-declared drunk-driving and related behaviour determinants (TPB), such as social norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and habits in Austria, Brazil, Canada, India, Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Methods. In each county a representative sample of the national adult population (N=500) was requested to complete an online survey. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between the behaviour determinants and self-declared drunk-driving. The models were fitted on the whole sample and the national samples separately. Results. The results show that unsafe road safety attitudes, personal and perceived acceptability of drunk-driving, a low self-efficacy to control drunk-driving, unsafe intention and habits were significantly associated with self-declared drunk-driving. The linear regression models of drunk-driving explained a satisfactory amount of variance in all countries but was lower in Nigeria (R2 Nigeria .48 all other countries >.61). Conclusions. The results of this study support the validity of the TPB model in these cross-cultural settings. The intention is to elaborate this investigation to the 32 countries of the ESRA2 survey, which will be conducted in November 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of a survey for wellbeing and interaction assessment by occupants in office buildings with adaptive facades
Attia, Shady ULiege; Garat, S; Cools, Mario ULiege

in Building and Environment (2019), 157

Assessing well-being and occupants satisfaction is a growing concern in façade design practice, as increasing recognition of the value of well-being of occupants in office buildings. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

Assessing well-being and occupants satisfaction is a growing concern in façade design practice, as increasing recognition of the value of well-being of occupants in office buildings. The objective of this study was to develop a validated survey for evaluating the indoor environmental quality in office buildings with adaptive facades to provide feedback to designers and operators and inform the building community at a large. A total of 70 employees completed an initial survey containing 14 questions grouped into six domains (OCAFAS-14). Factor analysis of the responses was performed resulting into a final survey grouped into three domains and containing 15 questions (general feeling, thermal comfort and acoustic comfort) (OCAFAS-15). Statistical analysis indicated that the OCAFAS-15 had good validity, reliability, and internal consistency. The survey succeeded to benchmark well-being, satisfaction and interaction changes of employees in an open-space office with dynamic louvers. The results indicates that the OCAFAS-15 provides a basis for dialogue between occupants and façade engineers regarding the user interaction, façade control adaptation and in particular in tracking of changes of indoor environmental quality, evaluating response of facades to occupants’ requirements, and guiding the operation of adaptive facades. A validated well-being and occupant interaction survey could be particularly useful in benchmarking building with adaptive facades and recognizing and managing occupants’ dissatisfaction in buildings with dynamic facades. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring effective micro-level items for evaluating inclusive walking facilities on urban streets (applied in Johor Bahru, Malaysia)
Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi ULiege; Aghaabbasi, Mahdi et al

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2019), 49

Modern cities try to provide enough facilities for inclusive and pedestrian-friendly streets. Evaluating and designing models that consider a wide range of street users, including disabled people, can ... [more ▼]

Modern cities try to provide enough facilities for inclusive and pedestrian-friendly streets. Evaluating and designing models that consider a wide range of street users, including disabled people, can help urban planners to design these inclusive streets. The results of existing (but limited) studies evaluating street conditions for pedestrians do not include a wide range of street users. Therefore, this paper seeks to propose a new model for evaluating and improving urban streets, focusing on inclusive pedestrian facilities. This study introduces pedestrian mobility indicators using advanced design guidelines, existing literature and expert interviews. These indicators are evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to find underlying patterns. Levels of association between observed and latent variables are tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (SOCFA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to perform the CFA and SOCFA analyses. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 599 participants randomly selected from Setia Tropika residents (Johor, Malaysia). The resultant factor loading values are used as weights in an analytical points-based system, comparing existing facilities to a standard to estimate street facilities and infrastructure levels of service for pedestrians. This pedestrian level of service (PLOS) can be applied to various urban streets around the world, but in this study a street in Malaysia is evaluated using this method to check the accuracy of the proposed PLOS model. Existing street problems and potential improvements can be identified by this model. [less ▲]

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See detailTravel behaviour and social network interactions with the urban environment, a review
de Abreu e Silva, João; Adamos, Giannis; Esztergar-Kiss, Domokos et al

in O. Plaut, Pnina; Shach-Pinsly, Dalit (Eds.) Digital Social Networks and Travel Behaviour in Urban Environments (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULiège)