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See detailÉVOLUTION DE LA TENEUR EN EAU LE LONG D’UNE TOPOSEQUENCE FORESTIERE ARGILO-LIMONEUSE
Deraedt, Deborah ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Degré, Aurore ULiege

in Milieux Poreux et Transferts Hydriques (in press)

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and ... [more ▼]

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and steep slope. The soil water content is monitored at several positions on the toposequence and at different depth. During rain events, peak in soil water content are observed in different depth depending on the position along the toposequence. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropisation des paysages katangais
Bogaert, Jan ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege

Book published by Les Presses Universitaires de Liège - Agronomie - Gembloux (2018)

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See detailQualité des sols, pratiques agricoles et perception des services rendus par les jardins potagers : cas d’études en jardins collectifs.
Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie; Leyh, Romain et al

Report (2018)

Collective gardens were studied in four different areas: The Walloon region, Brussels, Paris and Manchester within the “Urban Soils” project. The study aimed at deciphering relationships between gardener ... [more ▼]

Collective gardens were studied in four different areas: The Walloon region, Brussels, Paris and Manchester within the “Urban Soils” project. The study aimed at deciphering relationships between gardener practices, soil quality and perception of services provided by collective urban gardening. Three questionnaires dedicated respectively to motivation, usage and perceptions were set up and filled with the stakeholders: the garden management on the one side and the gardeners on the other side. Soil samples were taken on a voluntary basis in order to characterize soil fertility and metal contamination. Every case study appeared specific and deeper characterization of sanitary risks was needed in one city. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des risques pour la santé humaine - Jardin collectif « Le coin de terre de Bressoux »
Liénard, Amandine ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege

Report (2018)

As part of the project “Urban soils”, a risk evaluation of human health is realized on the collective garden the “Coin de terre” of Bressoux. This collective garden has previously been characterized ... [more ▼]

As part of the project “Urban soils”, a risk evaluation of human health is realized on the collective garden the “Coin de terre” of Bressoux. This collective garden has previously been characterized (fertility and metal contamination) during the “Urban soils” subvention along with 39 other collective gardens in Wallonia. The methodology applied on the site of the collective garden of Bressoux follows the recommended methodology in Walloon region and is as close to reality as possible. To do so, the data used during the risk evaluation are contents measured on soils, vegetables and fruits sampled on the site. This analysis shows that levels of exposure via soil and dust ingestion, ingestion of fruits and vegetables, dermal exposure, and inhalation of soil particles (dust movements) are considered acceptable for children, adult gardeners and adult visitors for the following elements: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). On the other hand, the results indicate that acceptability thresholds for arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are exceeded for children and adults frequenting the garden and / or consuming vegetables and fruits produced on the garden. On one hand, the comparison of the contents of cadmium and lead measured in vegetables and fruits of the collective garden with the marketing standards set out in European Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 indicates that all leafy vegetables (chard, green cabbage, and lettuce), root vegetables (beetroot, carrot, turnip, and parsnip), tuber vegetables (potatoes), herbs (basil, mint, and parsley), beans, and peppers systematically exceed the standard in cadmium and / or lead. On the other hand, fruit vegetables such as cucumbers, gherkins, zucchini, peppers, and tomatoes as well as fruits (figs, blackberries, plums, grapes, and greengage) do not in any way exceed the marketing standards for cadmium and lead. However, the median concentrations measured on all the productions of the garden are systematically higher than those measured in Belgian food trades by the FASFC. In conclusion, the recommendations advocated to all users of the collective garden of Bressoux in order to respect the precautionary principle are as follows: 1. Avoid eating the vegetables and fruits produced on the site of the Bressoux collective garden except for tomatoes, zucchini, and grapes, only after thorough washing and peeling for zucchini. Make sure to diversify as much as possible the origin of the vegetables and fruits consumed. This recommendation applies to children and adults. 2. Avoid taking small children (under 6 years old) to the site. The main route of exposure to contaminants of children under 6 is ingestion of soil and dust via direct hand-to-mouth contact. 3. For adults and children, be sure to limit soil ingestion by direct hand-to-mouth contact [less ▲]

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See detailTransfert en cadmium et zinc vers l’orge de printemps en sols contaminés et non contaminés de Belgique : évaluation et prédiction
Liénard, Amandine ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege

in Cahiers Agricultures (2018), 27(2),

In the Walloon region (Belgium), agricultural soils close to a former ore smelter were affected by atmospheric deposition contaminated by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). To study the effect of ... [more ▼]

In the Walloon region (Belgium), agricultural soils close to a former ore smelter were affected by atmospheric deposition contaminated by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). To study the effect of these contaminations on the quality of agricultural productions, a study of the transfer from soil to a cereal crop, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was carried out on one of these contaminated areas and an uncontaminated control area. Eighteen barley samples were taken in contaminated areas; 10 were sampled in the control area, and each was subdivided into three subsamples (stem, ear, and seed). A sample was taken from topsoil horizon (0 to 20 cm) at the location of each plant sample. Available and pseudo-total concentrations of trace and major elements as well as pHwater, pHKCl, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen were measured on the soil samples. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were measured in the seed, ear, and stem. The concentrations of Cd and Zn that were measured in the harvested plants in the contaminated zone are 2 to 9 times higher than those measured in the control barleys. There are few relationships between Cd concentration in seeds (CdSeed), Zn concentration in seeds (ZnSeed), and soil properties apart from available and pseudo-total soil levels of Cd and Zn. Using a Cate-Nelson analysis, CdSeed was estimated at 0.027 mg Cd/kg of dry matter (DM) for pseudo-total soil Cd levels ranging from 0 to 1.23 mg/kg, and at 0.118 mg Cd/kg DM for pseudo-total soil Cd levels ranging from 1.24 to 6.87 mg/kg. ZnSeed is estimated to be 19.2 mg/kg of DM for soil ranges from 0 to 131 mg/kg of pseudo-total Zn, and 40 mg/kg of DM for soil ranges from 132 to 570 mg/kg of pseudo-total Zn. However, an estimate of the transfer of Cd and Zn remains complex in these multi-contaminated soils. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Effects of Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Exportation on Soil Organic Matter and Earthworm Communities in Silt Loam Arable Soil
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege et al

in Angeles Munoz, Maria; Zornoza, Raul (Eds.) SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE : EFFECTS ON ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN DYNAMICS, AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (2018)

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See detailChanges of Soil Phosphorus Fractionation According to pH in Red Soils of China: An Incubation Experiment
Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xu, Minggang; Wang, Boren et al

in Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis (2018)

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main problems limiting crop growth in red soils of southern China. The primary objective of this study was to examine P availability as a function of soil acidity ... [more ▼]

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main problems limiting crop growth in red soils of southern China. The primary objective of this study was to examine P availability as a function of soil acidity. Soils were sampled from a long-term fertilization experiment and are referred as low-P (No P fertilization) and high-P (120 kg P2O5 ha–1). Both low-P and high-P treatments were incubated adjusting soil pH to seven levels from 3.0 to 6.5 for 10, 20, 30 and 45 days. The pH, DIP, and Olsen-P were determined after each incubation period, and inorganic P fractions were measured at the end of incubation. For both low-P and high-P treatments, DIP decreased with rising pH value and increased with decreasing soil pH. Olsen-P, Ca-P (Ca2-P, Ca8-P, and Ca10-P) and Al-P increased significantly with soil pH in low-P treatment. In high-P, Olsen- P increased with pH between 3.4 and 5.0 and was stable at higher pH. Moreover, Ca-P and Al-P increased significantly but Fe-P decreased with soil pH increase. The redundancy analysis showed that Ca-P, Al-P, and pH had positive effects on Olsen-P, but Occluded-P showed a negative correlation with Olsen-P in both soils. Our results confirmed that soil P availability was influenced by pH and that the changes in DIP and Olsen-P were linked to changes of inorganic fractions from occluded to Ca- and Al-bound forms. Managing soil acidity is a key issue regard- ing the availability of P in red soils of China and our results suggest that at least a pH of 5.0 should be targeted. [less ▲]

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See detailCould saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils ?
Davin, Marie ULiege; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali ULiege et al

in Chemosphere (2018), 194

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28°C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg.g- 1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailElemental composition of soils and sediments by using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectroscopy: a preliminary study
Alberti, Roberto; Falsone, Gloria; Gironda, M. et al

Poster (2017, December)

Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) provides rapid and low-cost analysis in laboratory and field conditions for a wide range of environmental applications. Its successful application in soils ... [more ▼]

Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) provides rapid and low-cost analysis in laboratory and field conditions for a wide range of environmental applications. Its successful application in soils requires a good instrument calibration and the possibility to implement custom calibrations and methods using known samples as well as reference materials. In the present study two set of samples, one from pedogenized sediments of a basin in Marradi (Italy; n=13) and the other from agricultural land in Meuse valley (Belgium; n=10), were analyzed by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF TRACER 5i made by Bruker) to detect and quantify the element species (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Mn, P, S, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr and Zn). Element concentrations results were compared with analytical results from aqua regia extractions (AQ) followed by ICP-OES analysis. The aim of this work was to verify and find the best instrument setup for the specific matrix, elements and their concentration range with the purpose of using the pXRF technique directly insitu for the screening of sites potentially polluted. A standard factory calibration for soil applications was used for samples from Meuse valley, while a custom calibration for P, S, Ca and Fe quantification with the coefficient correction method was developed and used for pedogenized sediments from Marradi, as well as for Cu and Cr quantification in both sites. Comparing portable XRF and AQ results, elements could be grouped in three classes: 1) elements where the content determined by both methods is not correlated (p>0.05; Al, Si, and K); 2) elements strongly correlated (0.84<r<0.99, p<0.001; P, S, Mn, Fe, Ca, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb); 3) elements with a weaker correlation (0.67<r<0.78, p<0.01; Mg and Sr). A further class of elements (Co, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba) was not evaluable because their concentration was below the detection limit of the pXRF. The measured concentrations and the relationship between pXRF and AQ were obviously affected by the elements form in the soils. The value of macroelements commonly related to the silicate phase measured by portable XRF is higher than that determined by AQ, which does not allow the destruction of Si-O and Al-O bounds (explaining the uncorrelation in the class 1 elements). The elements related to the organic matter (P and S, r2>0.60), carbonates (Ca, r2>0.55) and oxy(hydr)oxides (Fe and Mn) have instead comparable concentrations between pXRF and AQ. Preliminary results showed that portable XRF can quickly provide data for some elucidations of important pedogenic processes involving many elements (class 2) in the studied soils. Alternative methods offer results after expensive and time-consuming analytical procedures. Moreover for environmental and human health purposes, the pXRF should be a valid tool for a rapid screening of heavy metals, such as Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb. A larger set of soil samples and further custom calibration will be tested. [less ▲]

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See detailServices and dis-services of collective gardens in urban areas: a soil perspective
Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Liénard, Amandine ULiege; Schram, Dieneke et al

Conference (2017, November 23)

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See detail10. 1. Impact de la gestion des résidus de cultures sur la fertilité des sols et la production agricole
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie ULiege; Pierreux, Jérome ULiege et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2017, February 22)

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See detailCharacterization of metallic trace elements in soils by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
Rosière, Clément; Godin, Bruno; Liénard, Amandine ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

1. Introduction X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) is undeniably a valuable asset for the simultaneous determination of mineral elements. This is a fast, non-destructive and inexpensive method in ... [more ▼]

1. Introduction X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) is undeniably a valuable asset for the simultaneous determination of mineral elements. This is a fast, non-destructive and inexpensive method in comparison with conventional analysis methods. The recent development of portable spectrometers (pXRF) further increases the potential of the XRF technique in environmental purposes by bringing the device to the field. This work focused on trace elements determination (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and As), most of which are subject to specific regulations, especially for sewage sludge (expect As) and contaminated soil management. In Wallonia, the reference method is based on aqua regia (HCl+HNO3, ISO 11466) digestion followed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) or Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission- or mass- spectrometry (ICP-AES/ICP-MS). It is established that aqua regia digestion-based analysis underestimates the total content of elements because it does not completely digest silicates, while XRF is supposed to measure total content. To assess the performance of a pXRF (S1 Titan 600, Bruker), we compared the prediction values with the values from the aqua regia digestion for some reference values in soils. 2. Material and methods Seventeen soils (mainly agricultural soil), all of which were already evaluated for concentration of some metallic trace elements, were analyzed by pXRF in desktop configuration with XRF cells (Ø 40 mm, Prolene film 4µm) according to a validation process and were compared to their current aqua regia digestion-AAS values. Soil selection was based on results of a principal component analysis (PCA) using metallic trace elements and major elements (Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe) aqua regia contents, followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) to extract samples as diversified as possible. In addition, three inter-laboratory reference materials from BIPEA were subjected to the same protocol to carry out checks on the laboratory experiments. All samples were air-dried, sieved and crushed to 200 µm. Time measurement was set to 30 seconds in dual phase (60 seconds total). In order to assess the validity of the pXRF, the accuracy profile’s method [1] was chosen. Under intermediate precision conditions (5 days and 3 repetitions/day), results were calculated as the mean of 3 successive readings. The accuracy profile allows determining an interval which will contain 95% of the measurements. This interval was then compared to an acceptability interval, which was fixed at ± 20% of the reference value, to vouch for the validity. Reference values of each metallic trace element were calculated as the mean of 5 series of measurements according to an aqua regia digestion-AAS method. For the purpose of improving the trueness, two types of regression were applied between XRF and reference values: a simple linear regression and a FREML regression [2]. The advantage of the latter is that it can take into account errors on both X and Y variables. Dataset was split into one calibration set (2/3) and one validation set (1/3). In addition, the performance of the pXRF was compared to a laboratory wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRF) supposed to give more reliable results and total contents. 3. Results and discussion Strong linear correlations were found in soils for Cu, Zn or Pb (R² > 0.99) between pXRF and aqua regia digestion-AAS. This linear correlation was very poor for Cr, probably due to internal calibration issues. Figure 1 shows the Zn accuracy profile, where the underestimation by pXRF can be seen. A simple slope and y-intercept correction of pXRF data could generally restore the trueness (bias) to improve the accuracy on a larger concentration range. However, concentration levels close to detection limits have a higher degree of random variability. This can be explained by the Horwitz curve where random variability increases with lower concentrations. This emphasizes the need of multiplying the number of measurements/readings. The comparison made of the pXRF with the WDXRF showed that the pXRF underestimates the metallic trace elements content. Indeed, the pXRF results were lower than WDXRF results. But, in terms of prediction of the reference values, the pXRF seems to be only slightly worse than the WDXRF. This shows the power of the portable XRF to predict AAS reference values at a low cost. Figure 1. Zinc Accuracy profile. Red short dotted line: Acceptance limits. Orange long dotted line: Tolerance limits 4. Conclusions S1 Titan XRF is an interesting tool and easy to use for the prediction of metallic trace elements content in soils. However, to predict reference values (aqua regia digestion-AAS) with sufficient accuracy, direct measurements are not suitable and a specific XRF calibration is recommended. A simple linear or FREML regression is adequate to improve the accuracy of the measured values in some cases, depending on the wanted future application. 5. References [1] M Feinberg, M Laurentie 2010. Validation des méthodes d’analyse quantitative par le profil d’exactitude. Cah. Tech. l’INRA No Special, 139, 2010. [2] Analytical Methods Committee (AMC). Fitting a linear functional relationship to data with error on both variables [technical brief no. 10]. R. Soc. Chem. 1(10), 2002. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion de la matière organique du sol, un enjeu important pour limiter la lixiviation du nitrate vers les eaux souterraines
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21

Description of the subject. The nitrate concentration in half of the groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium) has justified their classification as vulnerable zones under the Nitrates Directive ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. The nitrate concentration in half of the groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium) has justified their classification as vulnerable zones under the Nitrates Directive (ND). This vulnerable area has a relatively high diversity of agro-soil environments. Thus, the nitrogen content of agricultural soils can vary locally by a factor 4. Objectives. This study aimed to establish whether the carbon content of a soil is a significant risk factor in nitrate leaching to groundwater. Method. The article is based on measurements of nitrate nitrogen residue (APL) and soil total organic carbon (TOC) at the beginning of the leaching period. The measurements were made in 2012 in 1,500 plots, during inspections organized by the Wallonia Public Service. This was as part of the application of the Program for the Sustainable Management of Nitrogen in Agriculture, the scheme for implementing the ND within the Walloon region. Results. Examination of the results showed both that the APL was positively correlated to the TOC and that plots with “noncompliant” APL results had a significantly higher average TOC than the other plots. Conclusions. Since APL is an environmental indicator of the risk of nitrate leaching, it appears that the TOC may constitute a risk of groundwater contamination by nitrate. It is therefore advisable to improve the inclusion of this parameter in advice regarding nitrogen fertilization and secondly, in the case of summer harvest, to better manage the sowing of catch crops. [less ▲]

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See detailAgro-Environmental Sustainability of the Yuanyang Rice Terraces in Yunnan Province, China
Fullen, Mike; Zhu, Youyong; Wu, Bozhi et al

in Promper, Cathrin; Krecek, Josef; Haigh, Martin (Eds.) et al Ecosystem Services of Headwater Catchments (2017)

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See detailTemporal dynamics of soil microbial communities below the seedbed under two contrasting tillage regimes
Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles ULiege et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2017)

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See detailDiachronical soil surveys: a way to quantify long term diffuse erosion?
Pineux, Nathalie ULiege; Michel, Brieuc ULiege; Legrain, Xavier ULiege et al

in Geoderma Regional (2017), (10), 102-114

Because of high inter-annual variability, representative soil erosion measurements are best carried out over time scales of a few decades. In this paper, a novel approach was tested that relies on ... [more ▼]

Because of high inter-annual variability, representative soil erosion measurements are best carried out over time scales of a few decades. In this paper, a novel approach was tested that relies on diachronic, high-resolution soil mapping. For this purpose, a 116-ha, cropland-dominated watershed was selected in central Belgium. A first augering soil survey was carried out in 1956, with a density of 1.8 observation points /ha. A second survey was carried out in 2015 with a density of 4.5 observations/ha. The results were interpreted in terms of changes in depth of transitions between successive horizons. The results indicate that a great proportion of the soils classified as non-eroded in 1956 were strongly eroded in 2015. Strongly eroded soils represented 52% of the watershed area in 2015 but only 8% in 1956. Some colluvial areas have been subjected to erosion and then covered again by colluvium over the last 60 years. Only the flatter areas close to the watershed boundary appear to remain in the “non eroded soils or soil subject to weak erosion” class. A mean net erosion rate of 37 t/ha.yr is computed within the watershed with this method. The diachronic comparison of the pedological maps over a 60-year time interval in a context of intensive farming is a potential source of information for the calibration of landscape evolution spatial modelling. This method joins the few ones allowing a quantitative spatialization of erosion and deposition phenomena at the catchment scale. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for a Dialogue between Farmers and Scientific Soil Knowledge: Learnings from an Ethno-Geomorphopedological Study in a Philippine’s Upland Village
Richelle, Lola; Visser, Marjolein; Bock, Laurent ULiege et al

in Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (2017), 0(ja),

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