References of "Choquet, Élodie"
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See detailDynamical Evidence of a Spiral Arm-driving Planet in the MWC 758 Protoplanetary Disk
Ren, Bin; Dong, Ruobing; van Holstein, Rob G. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2020), 898

More than a dozen young stars host spiral arms in their surrounding protoplanetary disks. The excitation mechanisms of such arms are under debate. The two leading hypotheses—companion-disk interaction and ... [more ▼]

More than a dozen young stars host spiral arms in their surrounding protoplanetary disks. The excitation mechanisms of such arms are under debate. The two leading hypotheses—companion-disk interaction and gravitational instability (GI)—predict distinct motion for spirals. By imaging the MWC 758 spiral arm system at two epochs spanning ∼5 yr using the SPHERE instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we test the two hypotheses for the first time. We find that the pattern speeds of the spirals are not consistent with the GI origin. Our measurements further evince the existence of a faint "missing planet" driving the disk arms. The average spiral pattern speed is 0°22 ± 0°03 yr[SUP]-1[/SUP], pointing to a driver at ${172}_{-14}^{+18}$ au around a 1.9 M[SUB]☉[/SUB] central star if it is on a circular orbit. In addition, we witness time-varying shadowing effects on a global scale that are likely originating from an inner disk. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst resolved observations of a highly asymmetric debris disc around HD 160305 with VLT/SPHERE
Perrot, Clément; Thebault, Philippe; Lagrange, Anne-Marie et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2019), 626

Context. Direct imaging of debris discs gives important information about their nature, their global morphology, and allows us to identify specific structures possibly in connection with the presence of ... [more ▼]

Context. Direct imaging of debris discs gives important information about their nature, their global morphology, and allows us to identify specific structures possibly in connection with the presence of gravitational perturbers. It is the most straightforward technique to observe planetary systems as a whole. <BR /> Aims: We present the first resolved images of the debris disc around the young F-type star HD 160305, detected in scattered light using the VLT/SPHERE instrument in the near infrared. <BR /> Methods: We used a post-processing method based on angular differential imaging and synthetic images of debris discs produced with a disc modelling code (GRaTer) to constrain the main characteristics of the disc around HD 160305. All of the point sources in the field of the IRDIS camera were analysed with an astrometric tool to determine whether they are bound objects or background stars. <BR /> Results: We detect a very inclined ( 82°) ring-like debris disc located at a stellocentric distance of about 86 au (deprojected width 27 au). The disc displays a brightness asymmetry between the two sides of the major axis, as can be expected from scattering properties of dust grains. We derive an anisotropic scattering factor g > 0.5. A second right-left asymmetry is also observed with respect to the minor axis. We measure a surface brightness ratio of 0.73 ± 0.18 between the bright and the faint sides. Because of the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the images we cannot easily discriminate between several possible explanations for this left-right asymmetry, such as perturbations by an unseen planet, the aftermath of the breakup of a massive planetesimal, or the pericenter glow effect due to an eccentric ring. Two epochs of observations allow us to reject the companionship hypothesis for the 15 point sources present in the field. <P />The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A95">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A95</A>Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programs ID 95.C-0298 and 97.C-0865.Note to the reader: The name of the author "Jean-Charles Ausgereau" was a mistake and has been corrected in "Jean-Charles Augereau" on 3 July 2019. [less ▲]

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See detailReference Star Differential Imaging of Close-in Companions and Circumstellar Disks with the NIRC2 Vortex Coronagraph at the W. M. Keck Observatory
Ruane, Garreth; Ngo, Henry; Mawet, Dimitri et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157

Reference star differential imaging (RDI) is a powerful strategy for high-contrast imaging. Using example observations taken with the vortex coronagraph mode of Keck/NIRC2 in L′ band, we demonstrate that ... [more ▼]

Reference star differential imaging (RDI) is a powerful strategy for high-contrast imaging. Using example observations taken with the vortex coronagraph mode of Keck/NIRC2 in L′ band, we demonstrate that RDI provides improved sensitivity to point sources at small angular separations compared to angular differential imaging (ADI). Applying RDI to images of the low-mass stellar companions HIP 79124 C (192 mas separation, ∆L′ = 4.01) and HIP 78233 B (141 mas separation, ∆L′ = 4.78), the latter a first imaging detection, increases the significance of their detections by up to a factor of 5 with respect to ADI. We compare methods for reference frame selection and find that pre- selection of frames improves detection significance of point sources by up to a factor of 3. In addition, we use observations of the circumstellar disks around MWC 758 and 2MASS J16042165-2130284 to show that RDI allows for accurate mapping of scattered light distributions without self-subtraction artifacts. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Exploration of ɛ Eridani with Keck Ms-band Vortex Coronagraphy and Radial Velocities: Mass and Orbital Parameters of the Giant Exoplanet
Mawet, Dimitri; Hirsch, Lea; Lee, Eve J. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157

We present the most sensitive direct imaging and radial velocity (RV) exploration of ɛ Eridani to date. ɛ Eridani is an adolescent planetary system, reminiscent of the early solar system. It is surrounded ... [more ▼]

We present the most sensitive direct imaging and radial velocity (RV) exploration of ɛ Eridani to date. ɛ Eridani is an adolescent planetary system, reminiscent of the early solar system. It is surrounded by a prominent and complex debris disk that is likely stirred by one or several gas giant exoplanets. The discovery of the RV signature of a giant exoplanet was announced 15 yr ago, but has met with scrutiny due to possible confusion with stellar noise. We confirm the planet with a new compilation and analysis of precise RV data spanning 30 yr, and combine it with upper limits from our direct imaging search, the most sensitive ever performed. The deep images were taken in the Ms band (4.7 μm) with the vortex coronagraph recently installed in W.M. Keck Observatory’s infrared camera NIRC2, which opens a sensitive window for planet searches around nearby adolescent systems. The RV data and direct imaging upper limit maps were combined in an innovative joint Bayesian analysis, providing new constraints on the mass and orbital parameters of the elusive planet. ɛ Eridani b has a mass of {0.78}[SUB]-0.12[/SUB][SUP]+0.38[/SUP] M [SUB]Jup[/SUB] and is orbiting ɛ Eridani at about 3.48 ± 0.02 au with a period of 7.37 ± 0.07 yr. The eccentricity of ɛ Eridani b’s orbit is {0.07}[SUB]-0.05[/SUB][SUP]+0.06[/SUP], an order of magnitude smaller than early estimates and consistent with a circular orbit. We discuss our findings from the standpoint of planet–disk interactions and prospects for future detection and characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by Caltech, the University of Hawai’i, the University of California, and NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the Performance of the NIRC2 Vortex Coronagraph at W. M. Keck Observatory
Xuan, W. Jerry; Mawet, Dimitri; Ngo, Henry et al

in Astronomical Journal (2018), 156

The NIRC2 vortex coronagraph is an instrument on Keck II designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks at mid-infrared bands L‧ (3.4–4.1 μm) and M [SUB] s [/SUB] (4.55–4.8 μm). We analyze ... [more ▼]

The NIRC2 vortex coronagraph is an instrument on Keck II designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks at mid-infrared bands L‧ (3.4–4.1 μm) and M [SUB] s [/SUB] (4.55–4.8 μm). We analyze imaging data and corresponding adaptive optics telemetry, observing conditions, and other metadata over a three-year time period to characterize the performance of the instrument and predict the detection limits of future observations. We systematically process images from 359 observations of 304 unique stars to subtract residual starlight (i.e., the coronagraphic point-spread function) of the target star using two methods: angular differential imaging (ADI) and reference star differential imaging (RDI). We find that for the typical parallactic angle (PA) rotation of our data set (∼10°), RDI provides gains over ADI for angular separations smaller than 0.″25. Furthermore, we find a power-law relation between the angular separation from the host star and the minimum PA rotation required for ADI to outperform RDI, with a power-law index of ‑1.18 ± 0.08. Finally, we use random forest models to estimate ADI and RDI post-processed detection limits a priori. These models, which we provide publicly on a website, explain 70%–80% of the variance in ADI detection limits and 30%–50% of the variance in RDI detection limits. Averaged over a range of angular separations, our models predict both ADI and RDI contrast to within a factor of 2. These results illuminate important factors in high-contrast imaging observations with the NIRC2 vortex coronagraph, help improve observing strategies, and inform future upgrades to the hardware. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the inner disk around HD 141569 A from Keck/NIRC2 L-band vortex coronagraphy
Mawet, Dimitri; Choquet, Élodie; Absil, Olivier ULiege et al

in Astronomical Journal (2017), 153(1), 44

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a ... [more ▼]

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a new image of the third inner disk component of HD 141569 A made in the L' band (3.8 micron) during the commissioning of the vector vortex coronagraph recently installed in the near-infrared imager and spectrograph NIRC2 behind the W.M. Keck Observatory Keck II adaptive optics system. We used reference point spread function subtraction, which reveals the innermost disk component from the inner working distance of $\simeq 23$ AU and up to $\simeq 70$ AU. The spatial scale of our detection roughly corresponds to the optical and near-infrared scattered light, thermal Q, N and 8.6 micron PAH emission reported earlier. We also see an outward progression in dust location from the L'-band to the H-band (VLT/SPHERE image) to the visible (HST/STIS image), likely indicative of dust blowout. The warm disk component is nested deep inside the two outer belts imaged by HST NICMOS in 1999 (respectively at 406 and 245 AU). We fit our new L'-band image and spectral energy distribution of HD 141569 A with the radiative transfer code MCFOST. Our best-fit models favor pure olivine grains, and are consistent with the composition of the outer belts. While our image shows a putative very-faint point-like clump or source embedded in the inner disk, we did not detect any true companion within the gap between the inner disk and the first outer ring, at a sensitivity of a few Jupiter masses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SHARDDS survey: First resolved image of the HD 114082 debris disk in the Lower Centaurus Crux with SPHERE
Wahhaj, Zahed; Milli, Julien; Kennedy, Grant et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc ... [more ▼]

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc in the Lower Centaurus Crux association. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we determined that the debris is likely in the form of a dust ring with an inner edge of 27.7[SUP]+2.8[/SUP][SUB]-3.5[/SUB] au, position angle -74.3°[SUP]+0.5[/SUP][SUB]-1.5[/SUB], and an inclination with respect to the line of sight of 6.7°[SUP]+3.8[/SUP][SUB]-0.4[/SUB]. The disk imaged in scattered light has a surface density that is declining with radius of r[SUP]-4[/SUP], which is steeper than expected for grain blowout by radiation pressure. We find only marginal evidence (2σ) of eccentricity and rule out planets more massive than 1.0 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] orbiting within 1 au of the inner edge of the ring, since such a planet would have disrupted the disk. The disk has roughly the same fractional disk luminosity (L[SUB]disk[/SUB]/L[SUB]∗[/SUB] = 3.3 × 10[SUP]-3[/SUP]) as HR 4796 A and β Pictoris, however it was not detected by previous instrument facilities most likely because of its small angular size (radius 0.4''), low albedo ( 0.2), and low scattering efficiency far from the star due to high scattering anisotropy. With the arrival of extreme adaptive optics systems, such as SPHERE and GPI, the morphology of smaller, fainter, and more distant debris disks are being revealed, providing clues to planet-disk interactions in young protoplanetary systems. The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailFIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument: Results of the Lick observing campaign
Bordwell, Baylee; Duchene, Gaspard; Huby, Elsa ULiege et al

Poster (2015, January 01)

FIRST is a prototype instrument aimed at achieving high dynamic range and angular resolution in ground-based images at visible wavelengths near the diffraction limit. FIRST utilizes an aperture masking ... [more ▼]

FIRST is a prototype instrument aimed at achieving high dynamic range and angular resolution in ground-based images at visible wavelengths near the diffraction limit. FIRST utilizes an aperture masking-like technique that makes use of single-mode fibers and pupil remapping to maximize the area of the telescope mirror in use. While located at Lick observatory in 2011 and 2012, FIRST observed 25 binary systems with the Shane 3m telescope, with separations ranging from 20 to 200 mas, comparable to the 50 mas diffraction limit for our central wavelength. Huby et al. (2013) has reported results for the Capella system that established the utility of FIRST for characterizing stellar binaries using the directly measured spectral flux ratio. Using an improved data analysis pipeline, we obtained closure phase measurements for a majority of the targets observed at Lick, and derived angular separations and spectral flux ratios. From the spectral flux ratios we obtained spectra for the companions over at least 600-850 nm with R~300. Finally, by obtaining results for many binary systems we have better constrained the current performance of FIRST, which has an exciting future ahead at its current location behind SCExAO at the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, where it will eventually become available for general use by the astronomical community. [less ▲]

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See detailFIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument: on-sky results
Huby, Elsa ULiege; Perrin, Guy; Marchis, Franck et al

in Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy IV (2012, September 01)

We present on-sky results obtained with the visible light prototype of the Fibered Imager foR Single Telescope (FIRST) mounted on the 3-m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory and using its Adaptive Optics ... [more ▼]

We present on-sky results obtained with the visible light prototype of the Fibered Imager foR Single Telescope (FIRST) mounted on the 3-m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory and using its Adaptive Optics system. This instrument is dedicated to high angular resolution and high dynamic range imaging. Its principle combines both techniques of single-mode fiber interferometry and pupil remapping. Simulations predict a dynamic range up to 10[SUP]6[/SUP] at /D, or at a few tens of milliarcseconds at 630nm using an 8-m telescope. Laboratory experiments based on a 9-fiber prototype working in the 600nm-900nm spectral band successfully demonstrated the power of the concept. The same prototype has been set-up on the 3-m Shane telescope in July 2010. In this paper, we present the on-sky results obtained in October 2011 with an improved version of the instrument using 18 fibers. They clearly show the detection of the binary star Capella at the diffraction limit of the telescope.λ [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a high-dynamic range imaging instrument for a single telescope by a pupil remapping system
Kotani, Takayuki; Lacour, Sylvestre; Choquet, Elodie et al

in Optical and Infrared Interferometry II (2010, July 01)

We present the laboratory demonstration of a very high-dynamic range imaging instrument FIRST (Fibered Imager foR Single Telescope). FIRST combines the techniques for aperture masking and a single-mode ... [more ▼]

We present the laboratory demonstration of a very high-dynamic range imaging instrument FIRST (Fibered Imager foR Single Telescope). FIRST combines the techniques for aperture masking and a single-mode fiber interferometer to correct wavefront errors, which leads to a very high-dynamic range up to 106 around very near the central object (~ λ/D) at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. Our laboratory experiments successfully demonstrated that the original image can be reconstructed through a pupil remapping system. A first on-sky test will be performed at the Lick Observatory 3- m Shane telescope for operational tests in the summer of 2010. [less ▲]

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