References of "Chen, Julian"
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See detailPerennial wildflower strips to enhance natural enemies of insect pests in Belgium
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Chen, Julian et al

Conference (2018, May 14)

Increasing plant diversity at the local scale is expected to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. To test this hypothesis, we sowed perennial wildflower strips within a wheat field and ... [more ▼]

Increasing plant diversity at the local scale is expected to enhance conservation biological control of insect pests. To test this hypothesis, we sowed perennial wildflower strips within a wheat field and found that hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) were more abundant and aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were reduced in wheat in between wildflower strips compared to adjacent monocultures. However, wildflower strips did not affect the other natural enemies, i.e. ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hymenopteran parasitoids. We then compared the abundance and diversity of these natural enemies in five flower mixtures that were different in their functional diversity based on seven plant traits. No significant effect of functional diversity was found. We hypothesised that the presence of some attractive flower species in the mixtures affected the spread of insects in the field. Finally through an RDA analysis, we identified that visual traits (colour, ultra-violet reflectance) and the shape of the corolla are the flower traits that significantly affect the abundance, in wildflower strips, of the wasps that parasitize oilseed rape beetles. This research highlight that perennial wildflower strips can enhance conservation biological control but understanding the interactions between insects and flower traits in fields is needed to compose flower mixtures that support a diversity of natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailSlow releaser of Methyl Salicylate can reduce insecticides for aphid control in the wheat field
Xu, Qingxuan; Xie, Lanfen; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

Conference (2018, May 14)

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See detailEffect of flower traits and hosts on the abundance of parasitoids in perennial multiple species wildflower strips sown within oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2018)

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations ... [more ▼]

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations in agricultural landscapes and, thus, enhance conservation biological control. However, it is important to sow appropriate flower species that attract natural enemies efficiently. The presence of prey and hosts may also guide natural enemies to wildflower strips, potentially preventing them from migrating into adjacent crops. Here, we assessed how seven flower traits, along with the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes spp., Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and true weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae), affect the density of parasitoids of these two coleopterans in wildflower strips sown in an oilseed rape field in Gembloux (Belgium). Only flower traits, not host (i.e. pollen beetles and true weevils) abundance, significantly affected the density of parasitoids. Flower colour, ultraviolet reflectance and nectar availability were the main drivers affecting parasitoids. These results demonstrate how parasitoids of oilseed rape pests react to flower cues under field conditions. Similar analyses on the pests and natural enemies of other crops are expected to help to develop perennial flower mixtures able to enhance biological control throughout a rotation system. [less ▲]

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See detailA push–pull strategy to control aphids combines intercropping with semiochemical releases
Xu, Qingxuan ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2018), 91

Even if insect pest populations can be reduced by increasing plant diversity through intercropping, natural enemies are not always favored in such systems. Alternatively, semiochemical substances have ... [more ▼]

Even if insect pest populations can be reduced by increasing plant diversity through intercropping, natural enemies are not always favored in such systems. Alternatively, semiochemical substances have been tested to enhance biological control, with inconsistent results. Combining both strategies can be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In this work, a 2-year setup involving wheat–pea strip intercropping combined with the release of E-b-farnesene (EBF) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) was tested as a push–pull strategy to simultaneously repel aphids and attract beneficials. Two types of slow-release formulation (i.e., oil and alginate beads) containing EBF or MeSA were deployed with the intercropping. The abundance of aphids was significantly decreased, while hoverfly larvae and mummified aphids increased on both pea plants and wheat tillers by the release of oil-formulated EBF and MeSA. The proportion parasitism of the aphid-parasitism rate [mummies/(aphids + mummies)] was also increased by treating both crops in both years. Releasing EBF through oil rather than alginate beads proved significantly better for attracting natural enemies and reducing aphids. Aphids were negatively correlated with the density of hoverflies (both adults and larvae) and numbers of mummies. All these results showed that combining intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA formulated in oil can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies. Therefore, the combination of both strategies could help farmers reduce the use of insecticides. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining E-β-farnesene and methyl salicylate release with wheat-pea intercropping enhances biological control of aphids in North China
Xu, Qingxuan; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Han, Zongli et al

in Biocontrol Science and Technology (2018), 28(9), 883894

Combining intercropping with the release of semiochemicals may strengthen biological control of aphids as a push-pull strategy that simultaneously repels aphids and attracts their natural enemies. This ... [more ▼]

Combining intercropping with the release of semiochemicals may strengthen biological control of aphids as a push-pull strategy that simultaneously repels aphids and attracts their natural enemies. This hypothesis was tested in the Henan Province of China in 2016 where aphids, their natural enemies and mummies were trapped and observed on crops in three treatments: wheat-pea strip intercropping solely (control), intercropping combined with the release of E-β-farnesene (EBF) and intercropping combined with the release of methyl salicylate (MeSA). Each treatment was repeated four times. The abundance of aphids throughout the growing season (9 weeks between March and May) was significantly decreased and the abundance of natural enemies and mummies were significantly increased in treatments with releases of semiochemicals compared to intercropping solely. The effect was stronger with MeSA than with EBF on the control of Rhopalosiphum padi and pea aphids as well as on the attraction of lacewings and hoverflies. Indeed, lacewings and hoverflies were on average twice more numerous in MeSA than in the other treatments. These results show that combining wheat-pea intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies and that this effect is strengthen with MeSA when compared to EBF. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular characterization and gene silencing of Laccase 1 in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae
Zhang, Yong ULiege; Fan, Jia; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology (2018)

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See detailTranscriptome analysis of the salivary glands of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae
Zhang, Yong; Fan, Jia; Sun, Jingrui et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

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See detailNine facultative endosymbionts in aphids. A review
Guo, Jianqing ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; He, Kanglai et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative ... [more ▼]

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative (or secondary) symbionts have numerous effects on their host aphids such as resistance to heat shock, parasitoids and fungus etc., which may consequently promote a co-evolution between symbionts and hosts. However, this symbiotic relation may be affected by several factors, such as the ability of symbionts to spread from aphids to others within and across populations, and the cost of infections for hosts. Moreover, aphid-symbionts interactions may be affected by aphid living environment such as its host plant, the presence of natural enemies or the temperature. Here we firstly described the functions of nine facultative symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella, PAXS (pea aphid X-type symbiont), Spiroplasma, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus) studied in aphids one by one, and discussed the associations between these symbionts and aphids, plants and environment. We aim to have a better knowledge of the roles the facultative symbionts play in aphid biology, ecology and evolution, which we believe can provide new inspirations for aphid control. [less ▲]

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See detailDo flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2017), 114

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are ... [more ▼]

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesised that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators compared to mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control mixture, with three replicates of each mixture) of low to high functional diversity based on seven traits (i.e., flower colour, ultra-violet reflectance and pattern, blooming start and duration, height and flower class, primarily based on corolla morphology). In both years, flower species in the sown mixtures (i.e., sown and spontaneous flowers) were listed, and the realised functional diversity of each plot was calculated. Over the two years, an increase in functional diversity did not result in an increase in the abundance and richness of aphid predators. Moreover, ladybeetles, representing the majority of trapped predators, were more abundant in mixtures with very low or intermediary functional diversity at sowing, especially in 2014. We hypothesise that certain flower species, which were abundant in certain mixtures (and not in those exhibiting the highest functional diversity), attracted predators and were sufficiently represented to support them. Our results present novel information that could be used to the development of flower mixtures that provide effective ecosystem services, such as pest control. [less ▲]

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See detailAntipredator response of aphids to ladybeetles: Effect of intercropping on aphid dispersal
Xu, Qingxuan; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Lopes, Thomas et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2017), 82(2), 215-225

Dispersal of viruses is intimately tied to their vectors. Aphids are known to invest in costly antipredator behavior when perceiving cues of predators. It is hypothesized that the absconding behavior of ... [more ▼]

Dispersal of viruses is intimately tied to their vectors. Aphids are known to invest in costly antipredator behavior when perceiving cues of predators. It is hypothesized that the absconding behavior of aphids in the presence of predators can increase virus spread in fields. Whereas most of the studies investigating this hypothesis were conducted in monoculture, we studied aphid antipredator behavior in intercropping with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as a model. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important vector of the barley yellow dwarf virus. The effects of two natural aphid enemies, adults and larvae of the seven-spot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linneaus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), on R. padi dispersion was studied under laboratory conditions. Trays composed of 7 × 8 lines of plants were considered. In intercropping, one line of broadbean succeeded one line of wheat. Six treatments were compared: in both wheat monoculture and intercropping, aphids were introduced alone, with ladybeetle larvae or with ladybeetle adults. Aphids and predators were introduced on wheat tillers in the middle of the system (source line) and aphids were counted on every plant after two and 24 hours. Results show that the total number of aphids was higher in intercropping than monoculture in treatments without ladybeetles, while the contrary was observed in the presence of ladybeetle larvae. But after 24 hours, such differences were not observed anymore. However, in receptor lines (other lines than the source one), two hours after the experiment started, aphids were more abundant in monoculture than intercropping in the presence of ladybeetle adults and larvae and after 24 hours, it was still the case in the presence of predatory larvae. These results might be explained by the non-host plant chemical cues and the physical barrier that was broad-bean plants confusing R. padi when searching for their host plants after being dropped from wheat by predators (i.e. associational resistance). This study shows that intercropping can reduce the dispersal of aphids in the presence of predators, in fine potentially limiting virus dispersal, especially shortly after aphids colonize plants. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptome analysis of the salivary glands of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae
Zhang, Yong ULiege; Fan, Jia; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

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See detailWatery Saliva Secreted by the Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae Stimulates Aphid Resistance in Wheat
Zhang, Yong ULiege; Fan, Jia; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017)

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See detailPest regulation and support of natural enemies in agriculture: Experimental evidence of within field wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege et al

in Ecological Engineering (2017), 98

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for ... [more ▼]

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for today’sagriculture. The aim of this study was to assess whether the two strategies of complicating the search ofhost plants by pests by increasing plant diversity, and of supporting their natural enemies by managinghabitats, could be combined simultaneously at the field scale to restore biological pest control and reducechemical insecticide use. In Gembloux (Belgium), wildflower strips (WFS) were sown within wheat cropsin which pests (i.e., aphids), their predators (i.e. aphidophagous hoverflies, lacewings and ladybeetles)and parasitoid wasps were monitored for 10 weeks in the period of May through July 2015 as indicatorsof the ES of pest control. Aphids were significantly reduced and adult hoverflies favoured in wheat inbetween WFS, compared to monoculture wheat plots. No significant differences were observed for adultlacewings, ladybeetles and parasitoids. In all treatments, very few lacewing and ladybeetle larvae wereobserved on wheat tillers. The abundance of hoverfly larvae was positively correlated with the aphid den-sity on tillers in between WFS, showing that increasing food provisions by multiplying habitats withinfields, and not only along margins, can help supporting aphidophagous hoverflies in crops. By enhancingthe ecosystem services of biological pest control, this study shows that increasing both plant diversityand managing habitats for natural enemies may reduce aphid populations, hence insecticide use. Futureresearch should continue this vein of work by quantifying the link between agricultural practices and thedelivery of ecosystem services in order to guide future measures of agricultural policies. [less ▲]

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See detail两种挥发性化学信息素与小麦-豌豆间作协同作用
Xu, Qingxuan ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

Conference (2016, November 10)

Abstract: The concept of pest control has been changed from traditional “kill” to scientific “regulation”. Ecological regulation has become one of the hotspots in the field of sustainable agriculture ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The concept of pest control has been changed from traditional “kill” to scientific “regulation”. Ecological regulation has become one of the hotspots in the field of sustainable agriculture. Intercropping (i.e., the simultaneous growing of two or more species in the same field for a significant period but without necessarily being sown and harvested at the same time), is one way to increase the plant diversity. In addition to intercropping, semiochemicals (i.e., informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interactions) have been widely considered within various Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that releasing semiochemicals has the potential to simultaneously repel pests and attract natural enemies. For instance, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a herbivore-induced plant volatile that is repellent to Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and other cereal aphids, while being attractive to aphid predators such as ladybeetles, lacewings and hoverflies, and increasing parasitism rate. Moreover, the aphid alarm pheromone, which major component is E-β-farnesene (EBF), acts as a repellent for plant herbivores, and attracts predatory beetles, hoverflies and increase parasitism rate. Combining both strategies could be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In a 2 year set-up (March-August 2015, 2016), a wheat-pea strip intercropping combined with the release of EBF or MeSA was tested in Gembloux to improve push-pull strategy by repelling aphids and by attracting beneficials simultaneously. The results showed that the abundance of aphids, lacewings and mummified aphids on both pea plants and wheat tillers were all affected by the release of oil formulated EBF and MeSA. Parasitism rate was also affected by the treatments on both crops in both years. The occurrence of wheat aphids and pea aphids were reduced by 35% and 30%. In the case of wheat and pea, pea aphids peak earlier than wheat ones (in the present study on plants, pea aphids: 17 June 2015 and 3 June 2016, while wheat aphids: 25 June 2015 and 10 June 2016), hence associating these two crops allows natural enemies to quickly move from pea to wheat and controlling pests in the course of their occurrence, in fine protecting both crops. Wheat–pea intercropping combined with EBF oil and MeSA release, enhanced the abundance of predators and parasitoids on the pea, our results strongly support the efficacy of combining intercropping and semiochemical release to attain improved pest control. Key words: Ecological regulation; Methyl salicylate; Aphid alarm pheromone; Push-pull; Green control [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission Efficiency of Cucumber Mosaic Virus by Myzus persicae According to Virus Strain and Aphid Clone from China
Bosquée, Emilie ULiege; Yin, Ronling; Bragard, Claude et al

in Asian Journal of Plant Pathology (2016)

Background: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting vegetables in the fields throughout the world. Transmission efficiency of CMV could depend on the variability of ... [more ▼]

Background: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting vegetables in the fields throughout the world. Transmission efficiency of CMV could depend on the variability of virus strain but also aphid vector species and/or clones. Materials and Methods: By sequence analysis, the coat protein gene of CMV strains from different regions revealed that the CMV isolates used for this study belong to the same group. Both CMV strains and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) aphid clones were investigated for their role in viral dispersion by reciprocal tests on Nicotiana tabacum (L.) using the same clone of Myzus persicae towards different CMV strains or using one CMV strain on different Myzus persicae clones. Results: Virus transmission efficiency was found to be significantly influenced by selected CMV strains (from 5-30% of transmission rate for identical aphid clone) and also by the selected aphid clones (variation from 15-70% of transmission rate for identical virus strain). Conclusion: The CMV transmission efficiency depends on the variability of virus strain but also aphid vector clones. Combining the variability of CMV transmission rates for both aphid and virus sides, the prediction and modeling of virus spreading seems to be difficult to organize and are closely dependent on the variability of each protagonist-aphid and virus. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of slow-release plant infochemicals to control aphids: a first investigation in a Belgian wheat field
Zhou, Haibo; Chen, Longsheng; Liu, Yong et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

Using infochemicals to develop a push–pull strategy in pest control is a potential way to promote sustainable crop production. Infochemicals from plant essential oils were mixed with paraffin oil for slow ... [more ▼]

Using infochemicals to develop a push–pull strategy in pest control is a potential way to promote sustainable crop production. Infochemicals from plant essential oils were mixed with paraffin oil for slow release in field experiments on wheat to control the population density of cereal aphids and to enhance their natural enemies. (Z)-3-Hexenol (Z3H) attracted Metopolophum dirhodum and Sitobion avenae, the predominant species on wheat in Belgium, and may be a useful infochemical for aphid control by attracting aphids away from field plots. Release of (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) or a garlic extract (GE) led to a significant decrease in the abundance of wheat aphids. The main natural enemies of cereal aphids found were lacewings (47.8%), hoverflies (39.4%), and ladybirds (12.8%). Ladybird abundance varied little before the end of the wheat-growing season. Our results suggest that these chemicals can form the basis of a “push–pull” strategy for aphid biological control, with GE and EBF acting as a pestand beneficial-pulling stimulus and Z3H for aphid pulling. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of wheat-based intercropping systems on pests and natural enemies: a review with a special focus on China
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege; Xu, Qingxuan ULiege et al

Conference (2016, April 16)

Intercropping is a farming practice consisting of cultivating at least two plant species simultaneously in the same field, but without necessarily sowing and/or harvesting them at the same time. By ... [more ▼]

Intercropping is a farming practice consisting of cultivating at least two plant species simultaneously in the same field, but without necessarily sowing and/or harvesting them at the same time. By increasing plant diversity at the field scale, intercropping may be an efficient method to control insect pests and support natural enemies on the associated crops. We performed a systematic research of the peer-reviewed literature which studied the effect of intercropping systems on pests and natural enemies, compared to pure stands. The research was restricted to wheat-based systems, as it is an important crop worldwide, and the main one in Northern China. A total of fifty research papers were obtained from the literature search. Results from a vote-counting analysis, using binomial tests, indicated that pest abundance was significantly reduced in intercropping systems compared with pure stands, but their natural enemies were not particularly favoured (i.e., predators and parasitoids). Among these papers, 23 were studies from China. There, wheat was associated with cotton in relay-intercropping, as well as alfalfa, chili peppers, fava bean, garlic, mung bean, oilseed rape and pea in strip-cropping. Aphids were systematically reduced and natural enemies (i.e., predators and parasitoids) significantly favoured in intercropping systems compared to pure stands. This study shows that intercropping is a viable practice to biologically control pests, and potentially support natural enemies, especially in China. Therefore it can be seen as a viable method to reduce insecticide use in wheat production systems. [less ▲]

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See detailWheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-based intercropping systems for biological pest control: a review
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Xu, Qingxuan ULiege et al

in Pest Management Science (2016), 72

BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human health, alternative practices such as intercropping have been studied for their potential to promote biological control. Based on the published literature, this study aimed to review the effect of wheat-based intercropping systems on insect pests and their natural enemies. RESULTS: Fifty original research papers were obtained from a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature. Results from a vote-counting analysis indicated that, in the majority of studies, pest abundance was significantly reduced in intercropping systems compared with pure stands. However, the occurrence of their natural enemies as well as predation and parasitism rates were not significantly increased. The country where the studies took place, the type of intercropping, and the crop that was studied in the association had significant effects on these results. CONCLUSION: These findings show that intercropping is a viable practice to decrease insecticide use in wheat production systems. Nevertheless, other practices could be combined with intercropping to favour natural enemies and enhance pest control. [less ▲]

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