References of "Cabaraux, Jean-François"
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See detailProceedings of the 5th FARAH-Day
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, October 26)

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See detailChemical composition of spiny cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica f. amyclae) under age and collection period effect in Northern Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; AYADI, Mohamed; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 5th FARAH-Day (2018, October 26)

In Northern Morocco, goat herd is the most dominant. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of the low productivity. Feed improvement is ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, goat herd is the most dominant. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of the low productivity. Feed improvement is necessary. Cactus cladodes represent an available resource that can take their place in goat feeding. In order to introduce them, it is necessary to characterize their chemical composition. This work aims to determine the chemical composition of cactus cladodes according to age and collection period. Twenty four samples of young and old cactus were collected in three places in Tangier in four periods (April to June). In the laboratory, measurement parameters of cladodes were determined and samples were dried in oven at 60°C and subsequently ground and sieved to 1 mm diameter. The studied composition parameters were dry matter, ash, crude protein, ether extract, fibers and phenolic compounds. The chemical composition of these samples was determined by the methods of AOAC (1997). From results, age affected morphological measurements with superiority of mature cladodes (P<0.001). Length and width increased significantly with time (P<0.001). However, thickness and weight were similar in all periods. Nutritional quality of cladodes decreased significantly with ageing. Ash and fibers were lower and protein, moisture, fat and phenolic compounds were higher in young cladodes. Collection period affected moisture, protein, crude fiber, ADF and condensed tannins. Except ADF, these affected parameters decreased by time. In conclusion, cladodes have interesting chemical composition especially young cladodes that allowed them to be incorporated in ruminant feed diet. [less ▲]

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See detailForest and silvopastoral cover changes and its drivers in northern Morocco.
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Ozer, Pierre ULiege et al

in Applied Geography (2018), 101

In northern Morocco, forest and silvopastoral areas have always formed an integral part of goat feeding and consequently of extensive livestock systems. However, it was reported that these areas are now ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, forest and silvopastoral areas have always formed an integral part of goat feeding and consequently of extensive livestock systems. However, it was reported that these areas are now going through a gradual degradation mainly due to overgrazing, resulting in land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Doubts persist about actual goat grazing impacts on forest and silvopastoral cover changes. Detecting and understanding drivers of LULC changes has become a central component of current strategies for managing natural resources to implement appropriate development policies. The objectives of this study were to assess the forest and silvopastoral cover changes and transition among five major land cover classes that took place in the last three decades (1984–2014), to verify the hypothesis that goats act as a main driver of forest and silvopastoral de-gradation, and to explore the perception of stakeholders based on remote sensing data, field surveys, and overall statistics. Between 1984 and 2014, forest and silvopastoral areas declined by 25% (matorral included). Farmers and local institutions all agreed that drought, fire, soil erosion, and population growth are the most striking drivers of forest and silvopastoral decreases. One being utilitarian and the other protectionist, they have con-flicting perceptions about the effect of agricultural expansion, authority policy, deforestation, and overgrazing. The forest cover change is impacted by interaction among different change drivers. The levels of forest de-gradation depend on the intensity of this interaction. The outcomes confirm the alarming decrease in the amount of forest and silvopastoral cover. These results can be used as the first guide for future studies and decision-makers, focusing on the real drivers of forest and silvopastoral degradation, so as to develop targeted intervention to secure sustainable and sufficient resources needed for animal and population well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-temporal behavior of goats in forest pasture of northern Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in FARAH (Ed.) Proceeding of the 5th FARAH-Day (2018)

Grazing is associated with significantly different physical activities compared to confined goats. These activities are rarely studied despite their importance in the management and use of pastoral ... [more ▼]

Grazing is associated with significantly different physical activities compared to confined goats. These activities are rarely studied despite their importance in the management and use of pastoral resources. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatio-temporal movement and the distance travelled by goats in forest pasture of northern Morocco. To accomplish this work, eight goats were equipped with GPS collars, for 3 days during the spring and summer. The grazing area and distance travelled were estimated higher in summer compared to spring. This can be explained by low forage supply in pasture during drought season. The results obtained will be very useful to the enrichment of our database in order to develop a model for the rational management of silvopastoral resources in northern Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet composition of goats in forest pasture of northern Morocco.
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in FARAH (Ed.) Proceeding of the 5th FARAH-Day (2018)

In forest pasture, diet selection of goats is affected by the interaction of several factors such as goat characteristics, climate and existing pastoral species. Understanding the diet composition of ... [more ▼]

In forest pasture, diet selection of goats is affected by the interaction of several factors such as goat characteristics, climate and existing pastoral species. Understanding the diet composition of grazing goat will help to improve their productivity. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forage selection and the diet composition of goats grazing in a silvopastoral area in northern Morocco. Direct observation was used as a technique to evaluate grazing behavior of goats, during three consecutive days for three seasons (autumn, spring and summer). The goats spent more grazing time in autumn and summer. During this period, they performed the highest number of total bites. Intake rate and bite weight of palatable species depended significantly to the pastoral species and the season. The shrub was the most important part of the diet of goats. Goat remains an adapted animal to the seasonality of forest vegetation in northern Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULiege; Douny, Caroline ULiege et al

in Animal Nutrition (2018), 4

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect ... [more ▼]

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Mean ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric (28.1%) and palmitic (22.0%) acids. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All the other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. In conclusion, the use of black soldier fly larvae in the diet of local chicken breed may be an alternative to the use of soy. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of in vitro digestibility of available by-products in the North of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Innovation for Sustainability in Sheep and Goats (2017)

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See detailGrazing behaviour of goats in Rif Mountains of Morocco by using new techniques
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Keli, A.; Chentouf, M. et al

in Innovation for Sustainability in Sheep and Goats (2017)

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See detailEffect of the age and the period on chemical composition of cactus cladodes in Northern Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Innovation for Sustainability in Sheep and Goats (2017)

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See detailProceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2017)

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See detailGoat grazing in northern Morocco: problem or solution?
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by local authority and several authors. Goat cannot only be regarded as a problem for silvopastoral ecosystems. A survey, with local population and local authority, were conducted in several rural communes of northern Morocco, to understand the actual factors of silvopastoral degradation. According to all interviewed persons: agriculture development, authority policy, cannabis cultivation, deforestation, drought, fire, overgrazing, population growth and soil erosion are the most cited drivers of silvopastoral degradation. Local population and local authority have the same perception that soil erosion, drought, fire and population growth are factors of silvopastoral degradation. Goat grazing can be considerate as a solution and not just a problem. In some forest areas, goat grazing contributes to a reduction of burned areas by elimination of inflammable shrubs. Herd mobility, as an ecological rationality, is considered as a response to unexpected variability in pasture production and/or animal nutritional needs. Despite all forms of degradation, silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco continue to play a support of all livestock activities, considered an inevitable source of goats feeding. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the method and the period of oil extraction on in vitro digestibility of olive cake in northern of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Chentouf, Mouad et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its diet. Olive cake is an oil extraction by-product that is widely available and can be a ruminant feed. Olive cake is produced by three methods and for limited period. This work aims to determine the effect of oil extraction method and period on digestibility of olive cake. Twenty-seven samples were collected from 3 mills by each extraction method (mechanical pressure, centrifugation 2 and 3 phases) during three periods (November, December and January). In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor and volatile fatty acid. Extraction method affected digestion kinetics and the digestibility parameters except partition factor and volatile fatty acids. Olive cake obtained by 2 phases method had the highest digestibility. For extraction period, gas production decreased significantly per period. Period had no effect on digestibility parameters except for volatile fatty acids. Two phases olive cake is most suitable for feed but has a reduced shelf life, which requires the development of a suitable conservation mode. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive goat production systems in northern Morocco: production and use of pastoral resources
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Porqueddu, C; Franca, A; Lombardi, G (Eds.) et al Grassland resources for extensive farming systems in marginal lands: major drivers and future scenarios (2017)

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to ... [more ▼]

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to assess pastoral production of pastures at two sites in northern Morocco (Derdara and Loubar) and investigate their use by goats. Concerning biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys were realized during the biomass evaluation period. Pastoral species, mainly Arbutus unedo, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavandula stoechas and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Grazing is practised throughout the year except during rainy days when breeders practice ‘cut and carry’ of the branches. The biomass produced was estimated at 1,455 and 333 kg dry matter ha‑1, respectively, in Derdara and Loubar. Significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. Furthermore, the research showed the appearance of degraded areas dominated by annual species together with species of low pastoral interest – thorny plant species that characterize degraded areas. Due to climate changes and overgrazing, pastoral resources will have availability and quality reduced. The reasonable use of pastures, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to insure their sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 3rd FARAH-Day 2016
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l'Université de Liège (2016)

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See detailEvaluation of chemical composition of 6 available by-products in the North of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016, September)

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based ... [more ▼]

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based essentially on forest rangelands characterized by a variable feed offer. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar to reduce overgrazing and increase livestock productivity. This work aims to characterize the chemical composition of agricultural by-products to be introduced in the diet of goat herd. The studied by-products was residues of watermelon, melon, zucchini, tomato, sunflower and peanut. These samples were collected in the different places in the region of the north of Morocco. In the laboratory, they were dried in oven at 60°C and subsequently ground and sieved to 1 mm diameter. The studied composition parameters were dry matter, ash, total nitrogen and fat. The chemical composition of these samples was determined by the methods of AOAC (1997). The means and the standard error of means were calculated using SAS software. From results, dry matter of by-products varies from 16.4% in watermelon residues and 96.7% in sunflower residues. The sunflower residues has a low mineral content of 3% while the melon residue contains 26.5% of mineral matter. The nitrogenous matter ranges from 2.6% in sunflower residue to 19.5% in watermelon residues. The highest fat content was recorded in melon residues (5.1%). Sunflower residue is lower in fat (1.4%). In conclusion, sunflower and peanut residues drier than the other by-products and contain less mineral matter, fat and nitrogenous matter. These by-products represent a free feed that can take their place in feed calendar in the northern region of Morocco for the goat population. However, to introduce them in the diet, it is necessary to evaluate their nutritional values. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016) (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change and overgrazing. For a sustainable and integrated development of this area, it is essential to establish a resource assessment. This study aims to evaluate the pastoral production (biomass) and investigate the use of pasture in Rif Mountain (Loubar) exclusively used by goat herds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoeches and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a poor floristic diversity (65 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 373 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 63% by shrubs. For biomass production, significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time can explain the low production estimated and appearance of unpalatable species, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. In fact, due to the bad operating practices of pastoral resources, sylvopastoral areas will be less available and of lower quality. The reasonable use of these resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure a better productivity and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailEncore trop d’étables fermées… mieux vaut les ouvrir et casser le vent !
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailThe “FMV small animal husbandry unit” for students and research
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Dawans, Edwin ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Zeippen, Caroline; Bayrou, Calixte; Cabaraux, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3rd FARAH-Day (2016)

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See detailEffet des fibres dans l'alimentation des truies gestantes et des porcs charcutiers sur les émissions d'ammoniac et de gaz à effet de serre
Philippe, François-Xavier ULiege; Laitat, Martine ULiege; Wavreille, José et al

in 48e Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2016)

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either by a control diet (CTD) based on ... [more ▼]

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either by a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain x Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit (LU, equal to 500 kg body weight). Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, NH3 emission was reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g/LU for the gestating sows, P<0.001; 23.2 vs. 45.0 g/LU for the fattening pigs, P<0.001) whereas CH4 emission was increased (41.5 vs. 21.0 g/LU for gestating sows, P<0.001; 37.9 vs. 27.2 g/LU for fattening pigs, P<0.001). The fibre content of the diet had no significant impact on N2O emission (around 1.4 g/LU for gestating sows and 2.1 g/LU for fattening pigs, P>0.05), and on CO2 emission (around 6.0 kg/LU for gestating sows and 9.1 kg/LU for fattening pigs, P>0.05). [less ▲]

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