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See detailChallenges in the Tea Industry in Burundi: Upgrading and Sustainability Policies
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege

Scientific conference (2020, September)

Annotation: Since its introduction in Burundi in 1963, the tea bush has been a strategic cash crop for the country in terms of foreign exchange export earnings. Tea sector is one of the main employment ... [more ▼]

Annotation: Since its introduction in Burundi in 1963, the tea bush has been a strategic cash crop for the country in terms of foreign exchange export earnings. Tea sector is one of the main employment sectors, providing regular income to more than 60,000 farmers. This article develops the different challenges identified in the tea sector and discusses the upgrading measures to meet demand and maintain its sustainability. The study is based on interviews with the managers of the Burundi Tea Board (OTB), factory managers, 120 tea farmers and secondary data especially experiences from countries that produce and sell tea on international markets. As an integral part of the Global Value Chain (GVC), the results showed that the tea sector faces multiple challenges that could jeopardize its sustainability and competitiveness. Internationally, price volatility is a challenge for Burundian tea given its low production and buyers (price-makers) are more rigorous in terms of quality and certification standards. Upstream, several challenges are worth mentioning: labour shortages, scarcity of land for expansion, high production and transaction costs, old tea bushes, low application of fertilizers, etc. In order to increase productivity, the country needs to replace old tea bushes with high yield varieties and strengthen the training of extension workers and tea growers. To reduce production costs, government should invest in infrastructure and other energy sources must be harnessed. In addition, diversification of supply and systematic adaptation to certification standards are needed to meet demand. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic Constraints to Tea Productivity: A Case of Small-Scale Tea Farmers in Burundi
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in Journal of Applied Economic Sciences (2020), XV(Summer, 2(68)), 389-399

The article identifies and discusses the socio-economic factors that constrain the productivity of the tea bush of the small-scale tea farmers who supply most of the green leaves to the state-owned ... [more ▼]

The article identifies and discusses the socio-economic factors that constrain the productivity of the tea bush of the small-scale tea farmers who supply most of the green leaves to the state-owned factories in Burundi. Despite technical support and fertilizer subsidies from Burundi Tea Board (OTB), the productivity of small-scale tea farmers is still lower than the productivity of stateowned plantations. To investigate the cause of this low productivity, a survey was carried out on a sample of 120 small-scale tea farmers in two communes (Mugongomanga and Bukeye) located in two tea-producing areas (Ijenda and Teza) in Burundi. The results show that the low level of education has a considerable negative impact on the maintenance of plantations in good condition. In addition, the problems of availability of family labour and the high cost of hired labour, the variety and age of the tea bushes and the customs of the country are hindrances to the productivity of smallholder tea growers. In order to maintain the tea as a strategic sector for the country, there should be close and sustained supervision of smallholders and investment in research and development [less ▲]

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See detailCash Crops and Food Security: A Case of Tea Farmers in Burundi
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in Asian Social Science (2020), 16(7), 81-93

Food security is a genuine challenge in developing countries. To combat food insecurity, various means and strategies are being mobilized. The promotion of cash crops in rural areas is one of the main ... [more ▼]

Food security is a genuine challenge in developing countries. To combat food insecurity, various means and strategies are being mobilized. The promotion of cash crops in rural areas is one of the main strategies for improving food security. Accessibility to subsistence staples and stable living conditions for rural farmers are made possible by the relatively high and permanent income from cash crops. This paper addresses the issue of food security by discussing the power of tea crop incomes in a rural tea farming area in Burundi. A survey was conducted in 2019 among 120 smallholder tea farmers in two communes located in the Mugamba natural region of Burundi. The results show that the tea plant contributes significantly to food security for both tea farmers and non-tea farmers. By complementing other livelihood resources, tea incomes improve the food security of smallholder tea farmers. In addition, tea incomes ensure the resilience of smallholder tea farmers during lean seasons and against various shocks. Besides, the perennial nature of the tea plant provides a pension for smallholder tea farmers in their old age. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency Analysis of the Progress of Orange Farms in Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam towards Sustainable Development
Tran Nguyen, Thu Trang ULiege; Le, Hai Ha; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(8), 3170

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development. Improving the efficiency of agricultural production towards sustainable development is one of the country’s national economic development goals. This study aims to measure the efficiency of the orange farms which have created jobs and improved living standards for people in Tuyen Quang province, Vietnam. A comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a structured questionnaire were applied in this research for data collection. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was applied to evaluate the technical, allocative, cost, and scale efficiencies. The main results of this analysis show that the orange farms have high scores for technical and scale efficiencies. On the other hand, the research reveals low levels of cost and allocating efficiencies. This is in line with the fact that though the farms’ owners have extensive experience in orange cultivation and receive periodic technical training, they still have low levels of education and a lack of economic management expertise. The study results also propose optimal input allocation for the orange farmers. The research could provide crucial information to farms’ owners, the local government, and agricultural planners for formulating effective strategies to improve agricultural sustainability [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Value Chain Governance and Relation between Local Actors in the Burundian Tea Sector
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in International Review of Management and Marketing (2019), 9(6), 105-111

In the context of globalization, the success of a firm to sell its products on international and regional markets depends on the type of governance exercised in a given sector. This article mobilizes a ... [more ▼]

In the context of globalization, the success of a firm to sell its products on international and regional markets depends on the type of governance exercised in a given sector. This article mobilizes a theoretical framework of global value chain governance to analyze the type of governance exercised in the tea sector in Burundi. A qualitative analysis of data from a survey of 120 small tea farmers in the Ijenda and Teza areas reveals that control and coordination in the sector is ensured by captive governance. In addition, a stagnation of the price of the green leaf tea over a decade generates a lack of interest in the tea farming out on small farming areas. Only 25% of small tea farmers in Ijenda and 36% in Teza want an extension. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dynamics of Livelihood Vulnerability Index at Farm Household Level: An Empirical Analysis of the Coastal Sandy Zone in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam
Dao Duy Minh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Nguyen Dang, Hao et al

in International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues (2019), 9(4), 77-89

Rural households in Vietnam have been facing various adverse impacts on their livelihoods. By using 28 indicators of sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), this study aims to identify the livelihood ... [more ▼]

Rural households in Vietnam have been facing various adverse impacts on their livelihoods. By using 28 indicators of sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), this study aims to identify the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) of the households in the coastal sandy zone in Thua Thien Hue (TTH). Based on the baseline data in 2007-2008, the study conducted a survey of 110 households living in four districts of the region to have a thorough evaluation of LVI. The results showed that excluding the increase in natural capital index (0.194-0.225), the value of LVI reduced in the dimension of human capital (0.365-0.363), social capital (0.081-0.075), physical capital (0.139-0.048) and financial capital (0.405-0.273). In overall, the value of the LVI index scored 0.244 in 2007-2008 and 0.214 in 2017-2018, respectively. The research findings contribute a deeper understanding of the vulnerable context of household communities that support the issuance of policy intervention, a social project as well as impact assessment of the given factors such as change of vulnerable contexts, structure and process. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of Farming Systems under the Context of Coastal Zone Development: The Case of Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, ULiege; Tran, Cuong Huu; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Agriculture (2019), 9(7(138)), 19

The study was conducted in Xuan Thuy National Park to provide a comparative assessment of different farming systems under the context of the coastal zone development of Vietnam. Based on a sample of 234 ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted in Xuan Thuy National Park to provide a comparative assessment of different farming systems under the context of the coastal zone development of Vietnam. Based on a sample of 234 farmers in this area, SCP (Structure–Conduct–Performance) analysis revealed three farming systems: integrated aquaculture–mangrove (IAM), intensive shrimp (ISH), and rice-based (RB) farming. The evaluation of farm performance among the systems indicated that ISH incurred the highest values of variable cost and sustainable family income. Meanwhile, IAM obtained the lowest production cost due to the availability of allocated natural resources. The imbalance of applying synthesized fertilizers and an overdependence on nitro-based fertilizers were reported in the case of RB systems. In comparison with the other coastal areas of Vietnam, these farming systems achieved a lower level of production efficiency. It is urgent for policy makers to take action to promote sustainable farming practices in accordance with the stringent enforcement of environmental standards to reduce potential impacts and strengthen the coexistence of systems. Additionally, the purpose of securing rural livelihood under coastal development is aligned with the recommended solutions for economic improvement in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailCoffee has given us power to act': Coffee cooperatives and women's empowerment in Rwanda's rural areas: A case study of Karaba coffee cooperative
Ya-Bititi, Gisaro M.; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Orjuela, Camilla et al

in Roelants, Bruno; Eum, Hyungsik; Esim, Simel (Eds.) et al Cooperatives and the World of Work (2019)

Cooperatives bring socio-economic benefits to their members through combining forces with others. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are around 800,000 cooperatives which provide affordable products ... [more ▼]

Cooperatives bring socio-economic benefits to their members through combining forces with others. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are around 800,000 cooperatives which provide affordable products and services and access to resources (UNDESA, 2014). Cooperatives create opportunities and promote income generating activities for many communities by providing goods and services through their daily activities. They provide medical care, access to markets, and job creation. Apart from enabling their members to access economies of scale, cooperatives help to enhance the status of their members to voice their needs and challenges in the community. Access to resources helps cooperative members to improve the quality of life by enhancing social and economic empowerment of women. It is in this context that Karaba coffee farmers joined their organization in order to address their social and economic problems. Cooperatives have empowered their members by creating jobs and other advantages. The potential contribution of women empowerment in development and poverty reduction is supported by global institutions such as the World Bank and other development practitioners. Cooperatives are used as engines of development in homesteads and agricultural activities (Gibson, 2005; UNDESA, 2012). Rwanda’s paid labour force employed as casual workers in agriculture sector and other informal sector constitute 97.3 per cent of active persons with very low salaries (Ansoms, 2008; Birchall, 2003). In addition to housework, most of the women in Rwanda’s coffee producing zones are involved in coffee production. The major concern of this study is to assess the role of cooperatives in empowering rural women in Karaba. The study aims at answering the following questions: (i) To what extent has Karaba coffee cooperative contributed to social and economic empowerment of women? (ii) What is the impact of women empowerment on Rwanda’s rural households? [less ▲]

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See detailTHE CONTRIBUTION OF MICROFINANCE TO THE RESILIENCE STRATEGIES OF SMALLHOLDER TEA FARMERS IN BURUNDI
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in AGROFOR International Journal (2019), 4

Microfinance services are of undeniable importance in the development of agriculture and in improving living standards in rural areas. However, their accessibility in developing countries is problematic ... [more ▼]

Microfinance services are of undeniable importance in the development of agriculture and in improving living standards in rural areas. However, their accessibility in developing countries is problematic. The objective of this article is to assess the contribution of microfinance to improve the living conditions of the population in rural areas of Burundi. An exploratory survey was conducted among 120 smallholder tea farmers in 2018 in two zones (Ijenda and Teza). These smallholder tea farmers are between 30 and 86 years old with a basic level of education. The results of the survey showed that the loans made it possible to carry out small projects and met some urgent needs. However, the level of indebtedness was low due to lack of collateral guarantee and the interest rate was relatively high. In addition, the information collected in Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) revealed a lack of support services within MFIs to enable optimal allocation of credits. To compensate for financial shortfalls, smallholder tea farmers are developing mechanisms for saving in kind and tontine systems with multiple socio-economic roles built up. Credit beneficiaries in MFIs are increasingly losing interest in the MFIs credit systems in favour of tontines. In Ijenda zone, only 37.5% want to renew the credits against 41.4% in Teza zone. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Economic Analysis of Traditional Agriculture Products: The Case of Chicken in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam
Hoang Thanh Long, ULiege; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Asian Social Science (2019), 15(10), 149-158

Agriculture and traditional agriculture products plays a significant role in the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries, including Vietnam. Cost-benefit Analysis and a mixed ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and traditional agriculture products plays a significant role in the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries, including Vietnam. Cost-benefit Analysis and a mixed methodology were applied to evaluate the economic performance of traditional chicken production in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam by region and scale. The data were drawn respectively from 64 sample households in Huong Thuy and Nam Dong district in 2017. The Cost-benefit analysis shows that Huong Thuy tends to have a lower production cost and thus a higher production benefit as compared to those of Nam Dong district. This study also indicates evidence of the importance of veterinary, mortality rate, scale of production and region on the performance of chicken farmer in the province. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Perennial Crop Farm Approach Generates More Profitability? A Case Study in Dak Lak province, Vietnam
Phan Thi Thuy, ULiege; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Asian Social Science (2019), 15(9), 19

Dak Lak Province, Vietnam has been identified as the optimal growing area region of cash crops. However, in recent years, perennial crops have faced some challenges need to have a new approach to maintain ... [more ▼]

Dak Lak Province, Vietnam has been identified as the optimal growing area region of cash crops. However, in recent years, perennial crops have faced some challenges need to have a new approach to maintain production sustainability. This study primarily provides a comparative analysis of the economic performance of crop cultivation by two approaches, mono-crop approaches including mono-coffee farms (MCFs) and mono-pepper farms (MPFs); intercropped approaches comprising intercropped coffee farms (ICFs) and intercropped pepper farms (IPFs). Additionally, this paper identifies the main factors affecting the farmer’s adoption decision on different intercropped farm types. Based on an investigation of 120 selected farms, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant assessments, from January to April 2019, the information about farming operations, costs and profits also were collected. The findings indicated that intercropped farms (include ICFs and IPFs) had a higher reduction of variable costs than mono-crop farms (MCFs and MPFs). Likewise, between two intercropped farm types, ICFs that wasted fewer input costs seem to be more appropriate for the poor and small saving households than that of IPFs. Moreover, ICFs and IPFs generate more profitability, increase by 62 % and 25.7 % as compared with MCFs and MPFs, respectively. Going forward, the study revealed factors influencing farmers’ decision-making on applying different approaches for intercropped farms. These comprise farm profiles (pest and disease status; the age of the tree), farmers’ characteristics (training) and economic factors (profits and other income). The findings devote information to intercropped farms in terms of enhancing economic benefits should be promoted for the coming years. Looking beyond, this empirical evidence is likely a useful contribution to farming management. What’s more, the factors highlighted here demonstrate the need for continued improvement in such farming strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of Credit Access on Agricultural Production and Rural Household’s Welfares in Northern Mountains of Vietnam
Bui Thi Lam, ULiege; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Asian Social Science (2019), 15(7), 119-133

There is a great consensus on the positive impact of credit access on farmers' incomes and consumption, however, its effect on income inequality among different population segments is still a ... [more ▼]

There is a great consensus on the positive impact of credit access on farmers' incomes and consumption, however, its effect on income inequality among different population segments is still a controversial issue. The paper aims to examine these concerns through using the mixed data collected from the sample of 193 households surveyed (demand-side) and in-depth interviewees with the key credit providers (supply-side) in Lao Cai, the sixth poorest province in Vietnam. At the grass root level, it is evident that better credit access not only significantly positive influences on the effectiveness of agricultural production, but also is the driving force for better structural transition within cultivation versus livestock. Besides this, it enhances both on-farm and off-farm income as well as the well-being of rural households. At the community-impact level, surprisingly, the financial development without agriculture-related supports causes to the negative effect on the distribution of agricultural outcomes and prolongs the inequality in the locality. In addition, an alarm regarding latent social issues has been generating from the preferential credit screen under the community-based lending method. Finally, policy implications are discussed to enhance the effectiveness and outreach of credit in the locality. [less ▲]

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See detailGospodarka Polski w porównaniu do Unii Europejskiej w świetle wybranych wskaźników rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Gaziński, Benon; Nieżurawski, Lech et al

in Roczniki Kolegium Analiz Ekonomicznych (2019), Zeszyt 54/2019

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See detailEconomic Analysis of Perennial Crop Systems in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam
Phan Thi Thuy, ULiege; Le Duc Niem; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2019), 11(1),

Dak Lak province, Central Highlands, Vietnam presents an interesting case in perennial crop systems, of which coffee and black pepper are the two premier commodities and contribute a large part to ... [more ▼]

Dak Lak province, Central Highlands, Vietnam presents an interesting case in perennial crop systems, of which coffee and black pepper are the two premier commodities and contribute a large part to economic growth provincially and at the national level. In recent years, in addition to mono-cropping systems, intercropping systems for diversification have developed quickly. This paper focuses on (1) comparing the economic efficiency of mono-coffee systems (MCSes), mono-pepper systems (MPSes), and coffee and pepper intercropping (CPI) by analyzing startup cost, annual cost, and profits; and (2) identifying the main factors affecting farmers’ decisions to convert their crop systems. The study was carried out by investigating 90 perennial crop samples using the three perennial crop systems (MCSes, MPSes, and CPI) in 2017–2018. Additionally, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion (FGD) methods were applied to collect more information about the operations of each system. Another survey with 37 samples (new plantations) was carried out to compute the startup cost. The findings showed evidence that MCSes had the lowest startup and annual costs, whereas MPSes had the highest costs of the three perennial crop systems. MCSes used less manure or compost in the initial setup and overused chemical fertilizer in annual production. Similarly, MPSes had high pesticide-stimulant costs in the production process to sustain crop development. The study indicated that CPI not only had the highest economic efficiency, but also created the best family employment opportunities of the three systems. Additionally, the study found some social factors that strongly influenced farmers’ decisions to shift their cropping system: These included ethnicity, education, training, and crop failure, in addition to economic factors (profits). [less ▲]

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See detailLand and agrarian reform in Rwanda: organic farming perspective
Mizero, Mireille ULiege; KARANGWA, ANTOINE; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in INTERNATIONAL Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2018":Book of Proceedings Published b y University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia (2018, October)

Since 2004, Rwanda is carrying an important land policy and a fundamental program of its farming systems transformation. The pillars of the government plan highlight the changes in land use management and ... [more ▼]

Since 2004, Rwanda is carrying an important land policy and a fundamental program of its farming systems transformation. The pillars of the government plan highlight the changes in land use management and tenure combined with improved inputs utilisation to ensure optimum productivity in the right line of the market-led agriculture. When they mention improved input, someone may understand essentiallyintensive use of commercial seeds, pesticides and chemical fertilizers. However, bio-fertilizers and natural pesticides are being promoted by the crop and livestock intensification program as well as the necessary techniques mobilised in the high quality of organic fertilizers production and use. This article aims to analyse how organic agriculture can coexist with conventional agriculture and allow agriculture operators to benefit of the market liberalisation. The literature review shows that during the agrarian system evolution, Rwandan peasants are involved in the program of land consolidation and agriculture intensification. Their level of performance has been appreciated throughout their active involvement in the commercial circuit. The main conclusion of this article is that organic farming prospects are inherent to optimal biomass valorisation especially crop residue, agro forestry and livestock dejection incorporated in the production systems. The unstructured interviews revealed that the most performing producers are those who own a minimum of 1ha with a recognized land lease and those who are using a mixture of organic manure and chemical fertilizers in potatoes. It has been demonstrated that the farmers who are enthusiastically participate in cooperatives have also an open mind to consolidate their commercial relationship. Moreover, they have constant ability to take advantage of the market, especially in pyrethrum and potatoes cropping system. [less ▲]

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See detailAgrarian and land reforms in Rwanda: Situation and perspectives
Mizero, Mireille ULiege; KARANGWA, ANTOINE; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agris On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics (2018), 10(3), 79-92

Rwanda is a landlocked country of Eastern Africa with 26,338 km2. The total arable land in Rwanda is more or less than 1.8 million ha and Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa. A series of ... [more ▼]

Rwanda is a landlocked country of Eastern Africa with 26,338 km2. The total arable land in Rwanda is more or less than 1.8 million ha and Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa. A series of policy reforms and agrarian strategic plan have been elaborated to transform the economy now oriented towards subsistence agriculture into a knowledge-based service and market-oriented economy. The research question is who has the right to land ownership for its rational use? The purpose of this article is to contribute to land sharing prospects between agricultural operators and investors in Rwanda for the optimisation of land access in the rural areas. This work is the result of deep literature review related to the situation of land issue prevailing from pre-colonial period to the recent 2004 land policy reforms in Rwanda. Crucial challenges before the beginning of the effective agrarian evolution are widely discussed. Agrarian perspectives show that the foreignization of agrarian reforms put Rwandan peasants in uncomfortable position. The changes in land use and tenure in Rwanda have been stimulated by both outside influence and inside adversary forces. The real land reform policy consists in specialization and exploitation of large-scale farms subsequent to land consolidation of small plots registered by individuals whose property certificates are preserved. Meanwhile, the required registration of land holdings does not entitle the land to definitive appropriation but it only provides the rights of use if rational exploitation is guaranteed. Such a rational system may result in expropriation for the inefficient producers.This article emphasize that in the case of Rwanda were population growth rate is high, the redistribution of land has its limits. The land consolidation should not be a rule either. Any agrarian reform must find a point of balance. This equilibrium consists in reducing the pressure on the property assets and promoting rural entrepreneurship. Agriculture program may improve and diversify the mode of land access and improved input acquisition to feed a growing population whereas non-agriculture population is gradually increasing. It has been found that farmers operating in co-operatives are more secure and have advantage for land access than individual farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch on finance for agricultural value chain in mountainous areas of Vietnam: a case study in Laocai province
Bui Thi Lam, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2018)

Based on the observations of farming practices and the comparison of technical efficiency of 160 Seng Cu rice producers in lowland and upland areas of Lao Cai province, the author proposes appropriate ... [more ▼]

Based on the observations of farming practices and the comparison of technical efficiency of 160 Seng Cu rice producers in lowland and upland areas of Lao Cai province, the author proposes appropriate implications for the grass-root and policy-making level in order to improve rice productivity and growers' income as well as foster the sustainable agricultural development. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique agricole commune de la revue à mi-parcours (2003) au bilan de santé (2009)
Ledent, Albert; Burny, Philippe ULiege

Book published by Les Presses universitaires de Liège (Les Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux) (2018)

Le présent ouvrage fait suite à celui paru en 2002: «La politique agricole commune des origines au 3e millénaire», auquel il se réfère fréquemment (LEDENT, BURNY, 2002). Dans le temps, il couvre en partie ... [more ▼]

Le présent ouvrage fait suite à celui paru en 2002: «La politique agricole commune des origines au 3e millénaire», auquel il se réfère fréquemment (LEDENT, BURNY, 2002). Dans le temps, il couvre en partie les périodes de programmation et financières 2000-2006 et 2007-2013. Dès le 29 septembre 2003, la Communauté a adopté une réforme fondamentale de la PAC dite «révision de la PAC à mi-parcours». Cette révision instaure un paiement unique (ou direct) par exploitation de l'Union européenne, indépendant de la production et lié au respect de normes en matière d'environnement, de santé publique, de santé des animaux et des végétaux, de bien-être des animaux et de bonnes conditions agricoles et environnementales ("écoconditionnalité"). La révision renforce la politique de développement rural, qu'elle dote de moyens financiers accrus. En outre, elle opère une réduction des paiements directs ("modulation") attribuables aux exploitations et atteignant au moins 5.000 euros par année, afin d'être en mesure d'accroître le financement du développement rural. Un événement majeur enregistré au début du siècle réside en une vague d'adhésion de 12 pays à l'Union européenne: - au 1er mai 2004 : Chypre, Estonie, Hongrie, Lettonie, Lituanie, Malte, Pologne, République tchèque, Slovaquie, Slovénie; - au 1er janvier 2007: Bulgarie, Roumanie. En élargissant l'Union à tant d'États, on la fait évoluer vers une zone de libre- échange; on s'écarte indubitablement du fédéralisme, auquel aspiraient, rêvaient la plupart des pères fondateurs de l'Europe et bien d'autres citoyens. Cette évolution est appréciée des États-Unis d'Amérique et de certains États membres: Royaume-Uni, Suède, Malte, Danemark, Pays-Bas, République tchèque, ... La réglementation régissant la PAC est particulièrement abondante et complexe bien que la Commission européenne et le Conseil de l'Union européenne (dénommé auparavant Conseil des ministres) s'attachent à sa simplification sur le plan législatif. Le règlement (CE) n°1234/2007 du 22 octobre 2007, dit règlement «OCM unique», portant organisation des marchés dans le secteur agricole et dispositions spécifiques en ce qui concerne certains produits de ce secteur (JO L 299 du 16.11.2007, 149 pages) est le fruit de longs efforts ; il était attendu. À mesure que la législation en matière d'organisation des marchés est modifiée ou complétée, le règlement OCM unique est mis à jour. Le règlement (CE) n° 1782/2003 (voir chapitre 1) prévoit le calcul du paiement unique (aides directes) aux agriculteurs en recourant à la méthode historique ou à la régionalisation du régime de paiement. En vue de l'application de ces méthodes, il est fixé un montant de référence qui est la moyenne sur trois ans (2000, 2001 et 2002) des montants totaux des paiements accordés à un agriculteur. Pour chaque État membre, le total des montants de référence ne peut être supérieur au plafond national. Dans l'application de la méthode historique proprement dite, le montant de référence est spécifique à chaque agriculteur. Au plus tard le 1er août 2004, un État membre pouvait décider de mettre en œuvre le régime du paiement unique prévu à l'échelle régionale. Il devait définir les régions selon des critères objectifs et en respectant le plafond national prévu. L'État membre subdivise celui-ci entre les régions. Chaque plafond régional ainsi obtenu est réparti entre les agriculteurs dont les exploitations sont situées dans la région concernée et en fonction du nombre des hectares admissibles au bénéfice de l'aide de montant uniforme. Les critères historiques prévalent essentiellement dans les anciens pays de l'Union européenne en vue du calcul des aides directes. Ils sont dépassés. En effet: -la période de référence retenue (2000-2002) est éloignée et la technique ainsi que l'économie évoluent rapidement ; - le régime de paiement unique intègre de plus en plus de secteurs productifs ; - la répartition de l'aide directe au revenu entre les agriculteurs se caractérise par l'octroi d'une part importante des paiements à un nombre relativement peu élevé de bénéficiaires (distorsions liées au système). Le bilan de santé de la PAC (voir chapitre 7) s'est efforcé d'atténuer (insuffisamment) cette grave inégalité. Le règlement (CE) n° 73/2009 coule en termes juridiques les propositions introduites à cette fin. Il devient possible de réviser le montant des droits au paiement fondés sur des critères historiques (article 45) ou sur un régime régionalisé (article 46 sq.). Il peut être procédé à un «lissage» des aides directes fondées sur des critères historiques. Le lissage consiste en un rapprochement, en 2010 ou ultérieurement, de la valeur des droits au paiement unique. À cette fin, on prélève sur les montants les plus élevés et relève les plus bas tout en ne permettant pas de créer de nouveaux droits et donc de couvrir des hectares qui n'avaient pas de soutien. Les États membres qui ont accordé le régime de paiement unique sur une base historique peuvent décider d'appliquer ce régime, en 2010 ou ultérieurement, sur une base régionale. Ils répartissent le plafond national entre les régions et peuvent décider que les plafonds régionaux font l'objet de modifications progressives annuelles qui s'opèrent au maximum en trois étapes et selon des critères objectifs et non discriminatoires tels que le potentiel agricole ou les critères environnementaux. Les États membres qui ont initialement préféré le modèle régional peuvent revoir la valeur des droits au paiement sur une période transitoire appropriée. L'octroi du paiement unique peut se faire sur une base exclusivement dérivée de données historiques ou sur une base totalement ou partiellement régionale. À noter que dans le cadre du bilan de santé, les États membres peuvent répartir jusqu'à 50 % des plafonds régionaux applicables entre tous les agriculteurs dont les exploitations sont situées dans les régions concernées, y compris ceux qui ne détiennent pas de droits au paiement. L'adaptation de la valeur des droits au paiement unique va dans le sens de l'équité, qu'elle n'atteint toujours pas. L'opération n'est pas simple ; elle est, cependant, moins délicate, surtout moins dangereuse pour les agriculteurs, que ce qui s'annonce pour l'après 2013 en vue de la fixation du budget pour la période de programmation et financière 2014-2020 et de la fixation du destin de la politique agricole commune, qu'il importe de sauvegarder pour l'Europe et le Monde, le Monde où survivent près d'un milliard de victimes de la sous-nutrition et qui serait peuplé de neuf milliards au moins d'habitants en 2050. Les négociations commerciales multilatérales d'Uruguay (1986-1993) ont conduit à la création de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) et révélé bien des conflits d'intérêt dans le secteur agricole, que l'on s'efforçait de libéraliser (LEDENT, BURNY, 2002, p. 169 à 216). L'accord sur l'agriculture également issu de ces négociations prévoit la poursuite du développement du processus de réforme devant aboutir à des réductions progressives et substantielles du soutien et de la protection de l'agriculture. À cette fin, est créé un Comité de l'agriculture, au sein duquel ont débuté, à partir du 27 mars 2000, des pourparlers, qui, le 14 novembre 2001, ont été intégrés dans le cycle global dit «Millenium Round», décidé à Doha (Qatar). Cette dernière date marque le début du cycle de négociations multilatérales de Doha, qui ont connu bien des épisodes et qui ne sont toujours pas terminées. La crise financière, dont le début se situe en août 2007 (Jacques ATTALl, novembre 2008), et qui sévit en Europe le 6 octobre 2008, est le déclencheur de la crise économique, qui contrarie les pourparlers. La hausse du chômage dans nombre de pays a remis en cause l'objectif de libéralisation des échanges. Au début de 2010, le volontaire et avisé directeur général de l'OMC, Pascal LAMY, s'attache à faire le bilan des négociations et propose de déterminer s'il est possible de les conclure cette année. Le Comité de l'agriculture poursuit, à Genève, ses travaux techniques. Le nouveau commissaire européen au commerce, Karel DE GUCHT déclare le 12 février, à Genève, que: «Un des meilleurs moyens de tenir le protectionnisme à l'écart est de conclure le cycle de Doha le plus tôt possible (Agra Europe n° 3.240 du 22.02.2010, p. 19). Et, il ajoute de sages propos : «Dans ce but, je ferai de mon mieux pour assurer qu'un accord satisfaisant soit trouvé pour toutes les parties» (ibidem), conformément à ses fortes convictions. MM. LAMY et DE GUCHT, dont le rôle est considérable, ne peuvent perdre de vue la position de Olivier DE SCHUTTER, expert de l'ONU pour le droit à l'alimentation, qui a mis en garde les membres de l'OMC contre un accord sur l'agriculture aggravant la faim dans le monde. L'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (OMA, FAO) estime, quant à elle, que la production alimentaire devra augmenter d'au moins 70 % afin de pouvoir nourrir la population de neuf milliards de personnes en 2050. Dès lors, la mission de l'agriculture européenne consiste à produire plus, tout en étant le plus économe possible des ressources naturelles. [less ▲]

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See detailLeaving the Village but Not the Rice Field: Role of Female Migrants in Agricultural Production and Household Autonomy in Red River Delta, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Minh Khué, ULiege; Nguyen Thi, Dien; Le Thi Minh, Chau et al

in Social Sciences (2018), 7(10), 202

The research investigates the impacts of female migrants on household’s farming and its implications on rural household autonomy under the context of economic reform in Vietnam. The different forms of ... [more ▼]

The research investigates the impacts of female migrants on household’s farming and its implications on rural household autonomy under the context of economic reform in Vietnam. The different forms of internal and external household arrangements related to the production and distribution processes of turning land to livelihood are designed to understand the land tenure change under the context of migration. This research focuses on the migration patterns, the volume and usages of remittance to understand the ways in which the different households allocate their resources on farm and non-farm sectors. The findings suggest that female migrants have a greater contribution in agriculture production both in remittance investment and time spending on agricultural maintenance while male migrants increase household earnings by accumulating capital from non-farm business. Migration, therefore, rather than creating agricultural regression, amplifies the autonomy of peasant families and their units of production as they respond to the modernization process [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of food quality from the point of view of consumer health and environmental protection
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Malschi, Dana et al

Conference (2018)

Starting from the premise that consumers play an important role in influencing the pressure that the food sector puts on the environment through their food choices and that these choices are influenced by ... [more ▼]

Starting from the premise that consumers play an important role in influencing the pressure that the food sector puts on the environment through their food choices and that these choices are influenced by their assessment of food quality, this study presents the results of a survey that investigated consumer attitude toward food quality. The objective was to obtain an image of consumer perceptions and knowledge on food quality and habits regarding food quality evaluation. Results show that freshness, taste and price are among the most important quality indicators for tested consumers. Environmental concerns are present in consumer minds, but they have lower importance as food quality evaluation attributes. The findings convey the ideas that investigated consumers pay attention to food quality and that more should be done in order to increase the awareness of environmental impact of food production and consumption. [less ▲]

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