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See detailDiscovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters: WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b
Barkaoui, K.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Hellier, C. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2019), 157(2),

We present the discovery by the WASP-South transit survey of three new transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b. Follow-up radial velocities obtained with the Euler/CORALIE ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery by the WASP-South transit survey of three new transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-161 b, WASP-163 b and WASP-170 b. Follow-up radial velocities obtained with the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph and high-precision transit light curves obtained with the TRAPPIST-North, TRAPPIST-South, SPECULOOS-South, NITES, and Euler telescopes have enabled us to determine the masses and radii for these transiting exoplanets. WASP-161\,b completes an orbit around its $V=11.1$ F6V-type host star in 5.406 days, and has a mass and radius of $2.5\pm 0.2$$M_{Jup}$ and $1.14\pm 0.06$ $R_{Jup}$ respectively. WASP-163\,b has an orbital period of 1.609 days, a mass of $1.9\pm0.2$ $M_{Jup}$, and a radius of $1.2\pm0.1$ $R_{Jup}$. Its host star is a $V=12.5$ G8-type dwarf. WASP-170\,b is on a 2.344 days orbit around a G1V-type star of magnitude $V=12.8$. It has a mass of $1.7\pm0.2$ $M_{Jup}$ and a radius of $1.14\pm0.09$ $R_{Jup}$. Given their irradiations ($\sim10^9$ erg.s$^{-1}$.cm$^{-2}$) and masses, the three new planets sizes are in good agreement with classical structure models of irradiated giant planets. [less ▲]

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See detailNew transiting hot Jupiters discovered by WASP-South, Euler/CORALIE, and TRAPPIST-South
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Bouchy, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019), 482

We report the discovery of eight hot-Jupiter exoplanets from the WASP-South transit survey. WASP-144b has a mass of 0.44 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], a radius of 0.85 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], and is in a 2.27-d orbit around ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of eight hot-Jupiter exoplanets from the WASP-South transit survey. WASP-144b has a mass of 0.44 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], a radius of 0.85 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], and is in a 2.27-d orbit around a V = 12.9, K2 star which shows a 21-d rotational modulation. WASP-145Ab is a 0.89 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet in a 1.77-d orbit with a grazing transit. The host is a V = 11.5, K2 star with a companion 5 arcsec away and 1.4 mag fainter. WASP-158b is a relatively massive planet at 2.8 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] with a radius of 1.1 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and a 3.66-d orbit. It transits a V = 12.1, F6 star. WASP-159b is a bloated hot Jupiter (1.4 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] and 0.55 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 3.8-d orbit around a V = 12.9, F9 star. WASP-162b is a massive planet in a relatively long and highly eccentric orbit (5.2 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], P = 9.6 d, e = 0.43). It transits a V = 12.2, K0 star. WASP-168b is a bloated hot Jupiter (0.42 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]; 1.5 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 4.15-d orbit with a grazing transit. The host is a V = 12.1, F9 star. WASP-172b is a bloated hot Jupiter (0.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]; 1.6 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 5.48-d orbit around a V = 11.0, F1 star. WASP-173Ab is a massive planet (3.7 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) with a 1.2 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB] radius in a circular orbit with a period of 1.39 d. The host is a V = 11.3, G3 star, being the brighter component of the double-star system WDS23366 - 3437, with a companion 6 arcsec away and 0.8 mag fainter. One of the two stars shows a rotational modulation of 7.9 d. [less ▲]

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See detailActivity induced variation in spin-orbit angles as derived from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements
Oshagh, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Burdanov, Artem ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 619(150),

One of the most powerful methods used to estimate sky-projected spin-orbit angles of exoplanetary systems is through a spectroscopic transit observation known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. So ... [more ▼]

One of the most powerful methods used to estimate sky-projected spin-orbit angles of exoplanetary systems is through a spectroscopic transit observation known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. So far mostly single RM observations have been used to estimate the spin-orbit angle, and thus there have been no studies regarding the variation of estimated spin-orbit angle from transit to transit. Stellar activity can alter the shape of photometric transit light curves and in a similar way they can deform the RM signal. In this paper we discuss several RM observations, obtained using the HARPS spectrograph, of known transiting planets that all transit extremely active stars, and by analyzing them individually we assess the variation in the estimated spin-orbit angle. Our results reveal that the estimated spin-orbit angle can vary significantly (up to 42 degrees) from transit to transit, due to variation in the configuration of stellar active regions over different nights. This finding is almost two times larger than the expected variation predicted from simulations. We could not identify any meaningful correlation between the variation of estimated spin-orbit angles and the stellar magnetic activity indicators. We also investigated two possible approaches to mitigate the stellar activity influence on RM observations. The first strategy was based on obtaining several RM observations and folding them to reduce the stellar activity noise. Our results demonstrated that this is a feasible and robust way to overcome this issue. The second approach is based on acquiring simultaneous high-precision short-cadence photometric transit light curves using TRAPPIST/SPECULOOS telescopes, which provide more information about the stellar active region's properties and allow a better RM modeling. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-166b: a bloated super-Neptune transiting a V = 9 star
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Triaud, A. H. M. J. et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We report the discovery of WASP-166b, a super-Neptune planet with a mass of 0.1 Mjup and a bloated radius of 0.63 Rjup. It transits a V = 9.36, F9V star in a 5.44-d orbit that is aligned with the stellar ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-166b, a super-Neptune planet with a mass of 0.1 Mjup and a bloated radius of 0.63 Rjup. It transits a V = 9.36, F9V star in a 5.44-d orbit that is aligned with the stellar rotation (lambda = -3 +/- 5 degrees). WASP-166b appears to be a rare object within the `Neptune desert'. The planet's low surface gravity and bright host star make it a promising target for atmospheric characterisation. There are variations in the radial-velocity measurements that might result from stellar magnetic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-190b: Tomographic discovery of a transiting hot Jupiter
Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R. et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We report the discovery of WASP-190b, an exoplanet on a 5.37-day orbit around an inflated F6 IV-V star with T_eff = 6400 $\pm$ 100 K, M$_{*}$ = 1.35 $\pm$ 0.05 M_sun and R$_{*}$ = 1.6 $\pm$ 0.1 R_sun. The ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-190b, an exoplanet on a 5.37-day orbit around an inflated F6 IV-V star with T_eff = 6400 $\pm$ 100 K, M$_{*}$ = 1.35 $\pm$ 0.05 M_sun and R$_{*}$ = 1.6 $\pm$ 0.1 R_sun. The planet has a radius of R_p = 1.15 $\pm$ 0.09 R_Jup and a mass of M_p = 1.0 $\pm$ 0.1 M_Jup, making it a mildly inflated hot Jupiter. The orbit is also marginally misaligned with respect to the stellar rotation, with $\lambda$ = 21 $\pm$ 6$^{\circ}$ measured using Doppler tomography. We compare a Rossiter-McLaughlin analysis (involving radial velocity measurements) with the Doppler tomography method, and find that the latter provides a better constraint on $vsini_{*}$ and $\lambda$. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 0.8-4.5$\mu$m broadband transmission spectra of TRAPPIST-1 planets
Ducrot, Elsa ULiege; Sestovic, M.; Morris, B. M. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2018), 156

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system represents an exceptional opportunity for the atmospheric characterization of temperate terrestrial exoplanets with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system represents an exceptional opportunity for the atmospheric characterization of temperate terrestrial exoplanets with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Assessing the potential impact of stellar contamination on the planets' transit transmission spectra is an essential precursor step to this characterization. Planetary transits themselves can be used to scan the stellar photosphere and to constrain its heterogeneity through transit depth variations in time and wavelength. In this context, we present our analysis of 169 transits observed in the optical from space with K2 and from the ground with the SPECULOOS and Liverpool telescopes. Combining our measured transit depths with literature results gathered in the mid/near-IR with Spitzer/IRAC and HST/WFC3, we construct the broadband transmission spectra of the TRAPPIST-1 planets over the 0.8-4.5 $\mu$m spectral range. While planets b, d, and f spectra show some structures at the 200-300ppm level, the four others are globally flat. Even if we cannot discard their instrumental origins, two scenarios seem to be favored by the data: a stellar photosphere dominated by a few high-latitude giant (cold) spots, or, alternatively, by a few small and hot (3500-4000K) faculae. In both cases, the stellar contamination of the transit transmission spectra is expected to be less dramatic than predicted in recent papers. Nevertheless, based on our results, stellar contamination can still be of comparable or greater order than planetary atmospheric signals at certain wavelengths. Understanding and correcting the effects of stellar heterogeneity therefore appears essential to prepare the exploration of TRAPPIST-1's with JWST. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of WASP-174b: Doppler tomography of a near-grazing transit
Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Almleaky, Y. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 480

We report the discovery and tomographic detection of WASP-174b, a planet with a near-grazing transit on a 4.23-d orbit around a V= 11.9, F6V star with [Fe/H] = 0.09 ± 0.09. The planet is in a moderately ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery and tomographic detection of WASP-174b, a planet with a near-grazing transit on a 4.23-d orbit around a V= 11.9, F6V star with [Fe/H] = 0.09 ± 0.09. The planet is in a moderately misaligned orbit with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = 31° ± 1°. This is in agreement with the known tendency for orbits around hotter stars to be misaligned. Owing to the grazing transit, the planet's radius is uncertain with a possible range of 0.8-1.8 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. The planet's mass has an upper limit of 1.3 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. WASP-174 is the faintest hot-Jupiter system so far confirmed by tomographic means. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-147b, 160Bb, 164b and 165b: two hot Saturns and two Jupiters, including two planets with metal-rich hosts
Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Bonfanti, Andrea ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018)

We report the discovery of four transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-147, WASP-160B, WASP-164 and WASP-165 from the WASP survey. WASP-147b is a near Saturn-mass (M[SUB]P[/SUB] = 0.28M[SUB]J[/SUB]) object with a ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of four transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-147, WASP-160B, WASP-164 and WASP-165 from the WASP survey. WASP-147b is a near Saturn-mass (M[SUB]P[/SUB] = 0.28M[SUB]J[/SUB]) object with a radius of 1.11 R[SUB]J[/SUB] orbiting a G4 star with a period of 4.6 d. WASP-160Bb has a mass and radius (M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.28 M[SUB]J[/SUB], R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.09 R[SUB]J[/SUB]) near-identical to WASP-147b, but is less irradiated, orbiting a metal-rich ([Fe/H][SUB]*[/SUB] = 0.27) K0 star with a period of 3.8 d. WASP-160B is part of a near equal-mass visual binary with an on-sky separation of 28.5 arcsec. WASP-164b is a more massive (M[SUB]P[/SUB] = 2.13 M[SUB]J[/SUB], R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.13 R[SUB]J[/SUB]) hot Jupiter, orbiting a G2 star on a close-in (P = 1.8 d), but tidally stable orbit. WASP-165b is a classical (M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.66 M[SUB]J[/SUB], R[SUB]P[/SUB] = 1.26 R[SUB]J[/SUB]) hot Jupiter in a 3.5 d period orbit around a metal-rich ([Fe/H][SUB]*[/SUB] = 0.33) star. WASP-147b and WASP-160Bb are promising targets for atmospheric characterization through transmission spectroscopy, while WASP-164b presents a good target for emission spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailNGTS-4b: A sub-Neptune Transiting in the Desert
West, Richard G.; Gillen, Edward; Bayliss, Daniel et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We report the discovery of NGTS-4b, a sub-Neptune-sized planet transiting a 13th magnitude K-dwarf in a 1.34d orbit. NGTS-4b has a mass M=$20.6\pm3.0$M_E and radius R=$3.18\pm0.26$R_E, which places it ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of NGTS-4b, a sub-Neptune-sized planet transiting a 13th magnitude K-dwarf in a 1.34d orbit. NGTS-4b has a mass M=$20.6\pm3.0$M_E and radius R=$3.18\pm0.26$R_E, which places it well within the so-called "Neptunian Desert". The mean density of the planet ($3.45\pm0.95$g/cm^3) is consistent with a composition of 100% H$_2$O or a rocky core with a volatile envelope. NGTS-4b is likely to suffer significant mass loss due to relatively strong EUV/X-ray irradiation. Its survival in the Neptunian desert may be due to an unusually high core mass, or it may have avoided the most intense X-ray irradiation by migrating after the initial activity of its host star had subsided. With a transit depth of $0.13\pm0.02$%, NGTS-4b represents the shallowest transiting system ever discovered from the ground, and is the smallest planet discovered in a wide-field ground-based photometric survey. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-189b: an ultra-hot Jupiter transiting the bright A star HR 5599 in a polar orbit
Anderson, D. R.; Temple, L. Y.; Nielsen, L. D. et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We report the discovery of WASP-189b: an ultra-hot Jupiter in a 2.72-d transiting orbit around the $V = 6.6$ A star WASP-189 (HR 5599). We detected periodic dimmings in the star's lightcurve, first with ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-189b: an ultra-hot Jupiter in a 2.72-d transiting orbit around the $V = 6.6$ A star WASP-189 (HR 5599). We detected periodic dimmings in the star's lightcurve, first with the WASP-South survey facility then with the TRAPPIST-South telescope. We confirmed that a planet is the cause of those dimmings via line-profile tomography and radial-velocity measurements using the HARPS and CORALIE spectrographs. Those reveal WASP-189b to be an ultra-hot Jupiter ($M_{\rm P}$ = 2.13 $\pm$ 0.28 $M_{\rm Jup}$; $R_{\rm P}$ = 1.374 $\pm$ 0.082 $R_{\rm Jup}$) in a polar orbit ($\lambda = 89.3 \pm 1.4^\circ$; $\Psi = 90.0 \pm 5.8^\circ$) around a rapidly rotating A6IV-V star ($T_{\rm eff}$ = 8000 $\pm$ 100 K; $v_* \sin i_*$ $\approx$ 100 km\, s$^{-1}$). We calculate a predicted equilibrium temperature of $T_{\rm eql}$ = 2641 $\pm$ 34 K, assuming zero albedo and efficient redistribution, which is the third hottest for the known exoplanets. WASP-189 is the brightest known host of a transiting hot Jupiter and the third-brightest known host of any transiting exoplanet. We note that of the eight hot-Jupiter systems with $T_{\rm eff}$ $>$ 7000 K, seven have strongly misaligned orbits, and two of the three systems with $T_{\rm eff}$ $\geq$ 8000 K have polar orbits (the third is aligned). [less ▲]

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See detailA low-density hot Jupiter in a near-aligned, 4.5-day orbit around a $V$ = 10.8, F5V star
Anderson, D. R.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A. et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We report the independent discovery and characterisation of a hot Jupiter in a 4.5-d, transiting orbit around the star TYC 7282-1298-1 ($V$ = 10.8, F5V). The planet has been pursued by the NGTS team as ... [more ▼]

We report the independent discovery and characterisation of a hot Jupiter in a 4.5-d, transiting orbit around the star TYC 7282-1298-1 ($V$ = 10.8, F5V). The planet has been pursued by the NGTS team as NGTS-2b and by ourselves as WASP-179b. We characterised the system using a combination of photometry from WASP-South and TRAPPIST-South, and spectra from CORALIE (around the orbit) and HARPS (through the transit). We find the planet's orbit to be nearly aligned with its star's spin. From a detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we measure a projected stellar obliquity of $\lambda = -19 \pm 6^\circ$. From line-profile tomography of the same spectra, we measure $\lambda = -11 \pm 5^\circ$. We find the planet to have a low density ($M_{\rm P}$ = 0.67 $\pm$ 0.09 $M_{\rm Jup}$, $R_{\rm P}$ = 1.54 $\pm$ 0.06 $R_{\rm Jup}$), which, along with its moderately bright host star, makes it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a lower stellar mass ($M_*$ = $1.30 \pm 0.07$ $M_\odot$) than reported by the NGTS team ($M_*$ = $1.64 \pm 0.21$ $M_\odot$), though the difference is only $1.5$ $\sigma$. [less ▲]

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See detailKPS-1b: The First Transiting Exoplanet Discovered Using an Amateur Astronomerʼs Wide-field CCD Data
Burdanov, Artem ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege

in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2018), 130(989),

We report the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter KPS-1b. This exoplanet orbits a V=13.0 K1-type main-sequence star every 1.7~days, has a mass of 1.090 Mjup and a radius of 1.03 Rjup. The discovery ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter KPS-1b. This exoplanet orbits a V=13.0 K1-type main-sequence star every 1.7~days, has a mass of 1.090 Mjup and a radius of 1.03 Rjup. The discovery was made by the prototype Kourovka Planet Search (KPS) project, which used wide-field CCD data gathered by an amateur astronomer using readily available and relatively affordable equipment. Here we describe the equipment and observing technique used for the discovery of KPS-1b, its characterization with spectroscopic observations by the SOPHIE spectrograph and with high-precision photometry obtained with 1-m class telescopes. We also outline the KPS project evolution into the Galactic Plane eXoplanet survey (GPX). The discovery of KPS-1b represents a new major step of the contribution of amateur astronomers to the burgeoning field of exoplanetology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852
Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Alonso, Roi; Ammerman, Alex et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started ... [more ▼]

We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in October 2015, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1-2.5% dips, named "Elsie," "Celeste," "Skara Brae," and "Angkor", which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips; (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-grey extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale <<1um, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term "secular" dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process. [less ▲]

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See detailStellar parameters for TRAPPIST-1
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Silva Fernandes, Catarina ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2018), 853

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability and internal ... [more ▼]

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability and internal compositions is possible with current and next generation telescopes. Accurate modeling of the star is essential to achieve this goal. We aim to obtain updated stellar parameters for TRAPPIST- 1 based on new measurements and evolutionary models, compared to those used in discovery studies. We present a new measurement for the parallax of TRAPPIST-1, 82.4 $\pm$ 0.8 mas, based on 188 epochs of observations with the TRAPPIST and Liverpool Telescopes from 2013 to 2016. This revised parallax yields an updated luminosity of $L_*=(5.22\pm0.19)\times 10^{-4} L_{\odot}$, very close to the previous estimate but almost twice more precise. We next present an updated estimate for TRAPPIST-1 stellar mass, based on two approaches: mass from stellar evolution modeling, and empirical mass derived from dynamical masses of equivalently classified ultracool dwarfs in astrometric binaries. We combine them through a Monte-Carlo approach to derive a semi-empirical estimate for the mass of TRAPPIST-1. We also derive estimate for the radius by combining this mass with stellar density inferred from transits, as well as estimate for the effective temperature from our revised luminosity and radius. Our final results are $M_*=0.089 \pm 0.006 M_{\odot}$, $R_* = 0.121 \pm 0.003 R_{\odot}$, and $T_{\rm eff} =$ 2516 $\pm$ 41 K. Considering the degree to which TRAPPIST-1 system will be scrutinized in coming years, these revised and more precise stellar parameters should be considered when assessing the properties of TRAPPIST-1 planets. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer
Delrez, L.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Triaud, A. H. M. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 475(3), 3577-3597

The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth ... [more ▼]

The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in 2017 February and March. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive data set. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μmband, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11 per cent at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyse the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope. © 2018 The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailUnmasking the hidden NGTS-3Ab: A hot Jupiter in an unresolved binary system
Günther, M. N.; Queloz, D.; Gillen, E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 478(4), 4720-4737

We present the discovery of NGTS-3Ab, a hot Jupiter found transiting the primary star of an unresolved binary system. We develop a joint analysis of multicolour photometry, centroids, radial velocity (RV ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of NGTS-3Ab, a hot Jupiter found transiting the primary star of an unresolved binary system. We develop a joint analysis of multicolour photometry, centroids, radial velocity (RV) cross-correlation function (CCF) profiles, and their bisector inverse slopes (BIS) to disentangle this three-body system. Data from the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), SPECULOOS and HARPS are analysed and modelled with our new BLENDFITTER software. We find that the binary consists of NGTS-3A (G6V-dwarf) and NGTS-3B (K1Vdwarf) at < 1 arcsec separation. NGTS-3Ab orbits every 1.675 d. The planet radius and mass are Rplanet = 1.48 ± 0.37 RJ and Mplanet = 2.38 ± 0.26MJ, suggesting it is potentially inflated. We emphasize that only combining all the information frommulticolour photometry, centroids and RV CCF profiles can resolve systems like NGTS-3. Such systems cannot be disentangled from single-colour photometry and RV measurements alone. Importantly, the presence of a BIS correlation indicates a blend scenario, but is not sufficient to determine which star is orbited by the third body. Moreover, even if no BIS correlation is detected, a blend scenario cannot be ruled out without further information. The choice of methodology for calculating the BIS can influence the measured significance of its correlation. The presented findings are crucial to consider for wide-field transit surveys, which require wide CCD pixels (> 5 arcsec) and are prone to contamination by blended objects. With TESS on the horizon, it is pivotal for the candidate vetting to incorporate all available follow-up information from multicolour photometry and RV CCF profiles. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets
Grimm, S. L.; Demory, B.-O.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2018), 613

Context. The TRAPPIST-1 system hosts seven Earth-sized, temperate exoplanets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star. As such, it represents a remarkable setting to study the formation and evolution of ... [more ▼]

Context. The TRAPPIST-1 system hosts seven Earth-sized, temperate exoplanets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star. As such, it represents a remarkable setting to study the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets that formed in the same protoplanetary disk. While the sizes of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are all known to better than 5% precision, their densities have significant uncertainties (between 28% and 95%) because of poor constraints on the planet's masses. Aims. The goal of this paper is to improve our knowledge of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary masses and densities using transit-timing variations (TTVs). The complexity of the TTV inversion problem is known to be particularly acute in multi-planetary systems (convergence issues, degeneracies and size of the parameter space), especially for resonant chain systems such as TRAPPIST-1. Methods. To overcome these challenges, we have used a novel method that employs a genetic algorithm coupled to a full N-body integrator that we applied to a set of 284 individual transit timings. This approach enables us to efficiently explore the parameter space and to derive reliable masses and densities from TTVs for all seven planets. Results. Our new masses result in a five- to eight-fold improvement on the planetary density uncertainties, with precisions ranging from 5% to 12%. These updated values provide new insights into the bulk structure of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. We find that TRAPPIST-1 c and e likely have largely rocky interiors, while planets b, d, f, g, and h require envelopes of volatiles in the form of thick atmospheres, oceans, or ice, in most cases with water mass fractions less than 5%. © ESO 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailSPECULOOS: A network of robotic telescopes to hunt for terrestrial planets around the nearest ultracool dwarfs
Delrez, L.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Queloz, D. et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2018), 10700

We present here SPECULOOS, a new exoplanet transit search based on a network of 1m-class robotic telescopes targeting the ∼1200 ultracool (spectral type M7 and later) dwarfs bright enough in the infrared ... [more ▼]

We present here SPECULOOS, a new exoplanet transit search based on a network of 1m-class robotic telescopes targeting the ∼1200 ultracool (spectral type M7 and later) dwarfs bright enough in the infrared (K-mag ≤ 12.5) to possibly enable the atmospheric characterization of temperate terrestrial planets with next-generation facilities like the James Webb Space Telescope. The ultimate goals of the project are to reveal the frequency of temperate terrestrial planets around the lowest-mass stars and brown dwarfs, to probe the diversity of their bulk compositions, atmospheres and surface conditions, and to assess their potential habitability. © 2018 SPIE. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-precision multiwavelength eclipse photometry of the ultra-hot gas giant exoplanetWASP-103 b
Delrez, L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Lendl, M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018), 474(2), 2334-2351

We present 16 occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with archival ... [more ▼]

We present 16 occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with archival data and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive data set, accounting for the contamination from a nearby star. We detect the thermal emission of the planet in both the z' and KS bands, the measured occultation depths being 699±110 ppm (6.4σ) and 3567-350 +400 ppm (10.2σ), respectively. We use these two measurements, together with recently published HST/WFC3 data, to derive joint constraints on the properties of WASP- 103b's dayside atmosphere. On one hand, we find that the z' band and WFC3 data are best fit by an isothermal atmosphere at 2900K or an atmosphere with a low H2O abundance. On the other hand, we find an unexpected excess in the KS band measured flux compared to these models, which requires confirmation with additional observations before any interpretation can be given. From our global data analysis, we also derive a broad-band optical transmission spectrum that shows a minimum around 700 nm and increasing values towards both shorter and longer wavelengths. This is in agreement with a previous study based on a large fraction of the archival transit light curves used in our analysis. The unusual profile of this transmission spectrum is poorly matched by theoretical spectra and is not confirmed by more recent observations at higher spectral resolution. Additional data, in both emission and transmission, are required to better constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-103b. © 2017 The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-precision multi-wavelength eclipse photometry of the ultra-hot gas giant exoplanet WASP-103 b
Delrez, L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Lendl, M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 474(2), 2334-2351

We present sixteen occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103 b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with ... [more ▼]

We present sixteen occultation and three transit light curves for the ultra-short period hot Jupiter WASP-103 b, in addition to five new radial velocity measurements. We combine these observations with archival data and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset, accounting for the contamination from a nearby star. We detect the thermal emission of the planet in both the $z'$ and $K_{\mathrm{S}}$-bands, the measured occultation depths being 699$\pm$110 ppm (6.4-$\sigma$) and $3567_{-350}^{+400}$ ppm (10.2-$\sigma$), respectively. We use these two measurements together with recently published HST/WFC3 data to derive joint constraints on the properties of WASP-103 b's dayside atmosphere. On one hand, we find that the $z'$-band and WFC3 data are best fit by an isothermal atmosphere at 2900 K or an atmosphere with a low H$_2$O abundance. On the other hand, we find an unexpected excess in the $K_{\mathrm{S}}$-band measured flux compared to these models, which requires confirmation with additional observations before any interpretation can be given. From our global data analysis, we also derive a broad-band optical transmission spectrum that shows a minimum around 700 nm and increasing values towards both shorter and longer wavelengths. This is in agreement with a previous study based on a large fraction of the archival transit light curves used in our analysis. The unusual profile of this transmission spectrum is poorly matched by theoretical spectra and is not confirmed by more recent observations at higher spectral resolution. Additional data, both in emission and transmission, are required to better constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-103 b. [less ▲]

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