References of "Bruwier, Martin"
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See detailProcedural generation of flood-sensitive urban layouts
Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Zhang, Xiao Wei; Aliaga et al

in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (in press)

Aside from modeling geometric shape, three-dimensional (3D) urban procedural modeling has shown its value in understanding, predicting and/or controlling effects of shape on design and urban planning. In ... [more ▼]

Aside from modeling geometric shape, three-dimensional (3D) urban procedural modeling has shown its value in understanding, predicting and/or controlling effects of shape on design and urban planning. In this paper, instead of the construction of flood resistant measures, we create a procedural generation system for designing urban layouts that passively reduce water depth during a flooding scenario. Our tool enables exploring designs that passively lower flood depth everywhere or mostly in chosen key areas. Our approach tightly integrates a hydraulic model and a parameterized urban generation system with an optimization engine so as to find the least cost modification to an initial urban layout design. Further, due to the computational cost of a fluid simulation, we train neural networks to assist with accelerating the design process. We have applied our system to several real-world locations and have obtained improved 3D urban models in just a few seconds. [less ▲]

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See detailData requirements for computational modelling at the network level
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

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See detailCan we trust laboratory scale models of urban flooding? Uncertainty in laboratory modelling of urban flooding
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Bruwier, Martin ULiege et al

Poster (2019, April 08)

Worldwide, flood losses are particularly severe in urban environments. To support urban flood risk management, accurate risk modelling tools are needed; but such tools remain limited by a lack of reliable ... [more ▼]

Worldwide, flood losses are particularly severe in urban environments. To support urban flood risk management, accurate risk modelling tools are needed; but such tools remain limited by a lack of reliable field validation data. We will focus on the issue of scaling, particularly for lab experiments representing urban flooding at the district level. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainties in laboratory modelling of urban flooding
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Mignot, Emmanuel et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2019, April)

In the first part of this communication, we will discuss the main uncertainties affecting laboratory scale modelling of urban flooding and their relative importance. These include uncertainties in ... [more ▼]

In the first part of this communication, we will discuss the main uncertainties affecting laboratory scale modelling of urban flooding and their relative importance. These include uncertainties in hydrological data, on roughness representation, on exchanges between overland flow and the drainage network, measurement uncertainties as well as the influence of overlooked processes. In a second part, we will focus on the issue of scaling, particularly for lab experiments representing urban flooding at the district level. Laboratory scale models of urban flooding tend to use distinct scale factors (ratio between prototype and model dimensions) along the horizontal and vertical directions (to avoid millimetre-scale water depths in the lab, or giant lab setups hardly possible to fit in a hydraulic lab). This leads to so-called geometrically distorted scale models. It is believed that this strategy ensures improved accuracy and representativeness of the measurements; but specific artefacts also arise from the model distortion. Here, we provide first quantitative insights into the effects of model distortion, based on a recent reanalysis of existing experimental datasets. In the tested configurations, the influence of model distortion on the predicted values of water depth and street discharges is found of the order of 10%. We will conclude with recommendations on the way to go to make the optimal use of laboratory scale modelling for addressing the needs of the flood risk community. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical note: Laboratory modelling of urban flooding: strengths and challenges of distorted scale models
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Mignot, Emmanuel et al

in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (2019), 23

Laboratory experiments are a viable approach for improving process understanding and generating data for the validation of computational models. However, laboratoryscale models of urban flooding in street ... [more ▼]

Laboratory experiments are a viable approach for improving process understanding and generating data for the validation of computational models. However, laboratoryscale models of urban flooding in street networks are often distorted, i.e. different scale factors are used in the horizontal and vertical directions. This may result in artefacts when transposing the laboratory observations to the prototype scale (e.g. alteration of secondary currents or of the relative importance of frictional resistance). The magnitude of such artefacts was not studied in the past for the specific case of urban flooding. Here, we present a preliminary assessment of these artefacts based on the reanalysis of two recent experimental datasets related to flooding of a group of buildings and of an entire urban district, respectively. The results reveal that, in the tested configurations, the influence of model distortion on the upscaled values of water depths and discharges are both of the order of 10 %. This research contributes to the advancement of our knowledge of small-scale physical processes involved in urban flooding, which are either explicitly modelled or parametrized in urban hydrology models. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the Impact of Urban Layout Geometry on Urban Flooding
Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Zhang, Xiao Wei; Aliaga, Daniel G. et al

in Proceedings of GEOProcessing 2019 (2019)

In this paper, we use a procedural generation system to design urban layouts that passively reduce water depth during urban floods. The tool enables designing cities that passively lower flood depth ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we use a procedural generation system to design urban layouts that passively reduce water depth during urban floods. The tool enables designing cities that passively lower flood depth everywhere or in chosen key areas. Our approach integrates a porosity-based hydraulic model and a parameterized urban generation system with an optimization engine so as to find the least cost modification to an initial urban layout. In order to investigate the relationship between urban layout design parameters and flood inundation depth, correlation coefficient method is used. This paper concludes that the most influential urban layout parameters are average road length and the mean parcel area. Keywords-inverse procedural modeling; urban layout design; porosity-based hydraulic model; Pearson correlation; urban flooding. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic design of flood-resilient urban layouts
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Bruwier, Martin ULiege et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2019)

Urban planning is central to flood risk prevention. Flood-sensitive urban planning pursues two goals: reducing flood exposure and vulnerability [1]; but also addressing the influence of urban ... [more ▼]

Urban planning is central to flood risk prevention. Flood-sensitive urban planning pursues two goals: reducing flood exposure and vulnerability [1]; but also addressing the influence of urban characteristics on flood flow severity (flow depths and velocities) [2]. Focusing on the latter, we present here a unique software which automatically optimizes the geometry of urban layouts to enhance flood resilience [3]. The optimized parameters describe the arrangement of the road network, the blocks, the parcels, and the buildings. The proposed approach is particularly innovative since, so far, such automatic urban design tools were developed only for totally different objectives (e.g. optimizing sun exposure or distance to parks); but not in the context of flood risk management. Our automatic urban design system consists of three components: (i) a procedural urban model, (ii) a surrogate for a hydraulic model and (iii) an optimization engine. • Starting from a set of input parameters pi (typical road length, width, curvature …) the procedural urban model generates urban layouts which mimic fairly realistically real-world urban patterns [3]. • To achieve interactive feedback (i.e. getting the results within a few seconds), the system uses a neural network (NN) to approximate the relationship between urban layout and flood flow characteristics. The NN was trained using a relatively fast 2D porosity-based hydraulic model [4], which in turn was calibrated against a detailed shallow-water model [2]. • A Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization is used to adjust iteratively the procedural model parameters pi so as to yield the desired urban layout. The system was tested for optimizing the layout of an urban district of 1 km by 1 km subject to river flooding. The system runs about one minute to find the optimal urban layout. The system tends to improve the flow conveyance through the urban area by increasing the voids in-between the buildings (e.g., increase road width) and by promoting a more “fragmented” urban pattern (e.g., decrease road length). The optimization reduces the flood water depths in the district by up to 20 to 25%. Several real-world examples showcase the operationality of the system for improving flood resilience through flood-sensitive urban design [3]. In practice, such an interactive digital tool can valuably assist urban planners and architects to assess the implications of various design decisions on flooding and end up with improved flood-sensitive urban layouts. The approach should be further developed to accommodate more diverse flooding scenarios (e.g. pluvial floods, coastal floods, etc.). References [1] Mustafa, A. et al. (2018). Effects of spatial planning on future flood risks in urban environments. J. Environ. Manage. 225, 193–204. [2] Bruwier, M. et al. (2018). Influence of urban pattern on inundation flow in floodplains of lowland rivers. Sci. Total Environ. 622-623, 446–458. [3] Mustafa, A. et al. (2019). Procedural Generation of Flood-Sensitive Urban Layouts. Environ Plan B Urban Anal City Sci. In press. [4] Bruwier, M. et al. (2017). Shallow-water models with anisotropic porosity and merging for flood modelling on Cartesian grids. J. Hydrol. 554, C, 693–709. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of hydropower production in a water supply network using CasADi
Pirard, Thomas ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Bruwier, Martin ULiege et al

Conference (2019)

Installation of (micro-)turbines in water supply networks has become an attractive strategy for small hydropower production in urban environment. It has virtually no impact on ecosystems and offers side ... [more ▼]

Installation of (micro-)turbines in water supply networks has become an attractive strategy for small hydropower production in urban environment. It has virtually no impact on ecosystems and offers side-benefits such as leakage reduction by turning excess pressure into hydropower. Our research aims at improving the modelling and optimization of existing tools for sizing and selecting the optimal location of turbines in urban water supply systems. A critical component of the analysis is the hydraulic model of the system. In most existing studies, the flow variables in the water supply network are computed under the assumption of a quasi-steady flow. Here, we opt for an in-house hydraulic model which achieves a more realistic description of time-varying flow. We will present comparisons of the two approach to assess the potential benefits of the unsteady computation. For optimizing the size and location of turbines in the network, most research uses meta-heuristics [1-3]. In this research, we explore an alternative operational strategy, based on the detailed hydraulic computation of the water supply network prior to the installation of turbines, followed by formal optimization techniques. Both the hydraulic model and the optimization technique are implemented in the CasADi framework for nonlinear optimization and optimal control [4]. The operationality of our developments is shown for a range of standard case studies as well as a real-world case study representing the urban water supply system of Liege, Belgium, which includes 3,600 km of pipes and more than 200 hydraulic structures, such as interconnected reservoirs. Monitoring data from around 700 gauges throughout the water supply network are used to provide a deep understanding of the system operation and a validation of the hydraulic model. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of spatial planning on future flood risks in urban environments
Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Environmental Management (2018), 225

Urban development may increase the risk of future floods because of local changes in hydrological conditions and an increase in flood exposure that arises from an increasing population and expanding ... [more ▼]

Urban development may increase the risk of future floods because of local changes in hydrological conditions and an increase in flood exposure that arises from an increasing population and expanding infrastructure within flood-prone zones. Existing urban land use change models generally consider the expansion process and do not consider the densification of existing urban areas. In this paper, we simulate 24 possible urbanization scenarios in Wallonia region (Belgium) until 2100. These scenarios are generated using an agent-based model that considers urban expansion and densification as well as development restrictions in flood-prone zones. The extents of inundation and water depths for each scenario are determined by the WOLF 2D hydraulic model for steady floods corresponding to return periods of 25, 50, and 100 years. Our results show that future flood damages and their spatial distributions vary remarkably from one urbanization scenario to another. A spatial planning policy oriented towards strict development control in flood-prone zones leads to a substantial mitigation of the increased flood damage. By contrast, a spatial planning policy exclusively oriented to infill development with no development restrictions in flood-prone zones would be the most detrimental in terms of exposure to flood risk. Our study enables the identification of the most sensitive locations for flood damage related to urban development, which can help in the design of more resilient spatial planning strategies and localize zones with high levels of flood risk for each scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of anisotropic porosity models with a merging technique
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Proc. River Flow 2018 (2018, September)

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See detailNumerical study of building drag dissipation for- mulations in the integral porosity shallow water model
Özgen, Ilhan; Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Zhao, Jiaheng et al

in Proc. River Flow 2018 (2018, September)

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See detailDesign of experimental urban flood model
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

Conference (2018, June 11)

In this Master class, I presented the detailed design of the experimental model of my PhD research, including the model geometry design, laboratory setup and the measurement techniques. Useful discussions ... [more ▼]

In this Master class, I presented the detailed design of the experimental model of my PhD research, including the model geometry design, laboratory setup and the measurement techniques. Useful discussions were acheived for the model design, which confirms also the deep scientific interest of the PhD project. [less ▲]

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See detailA brief review of urban flood experimental models, with a focus on laboratory model at the district level
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Armanini, Aronne; Nucci, Elena (Eds.) New challenges in hydraulic research and engineering (2018, June)

This communication provides brief review of recent experimental research on urban flooding. It highlights the most studied research questions and proposes a classification of the various experimental ... [more ▼]

This communication provides brief review of recent experimental research on urban flooding. It highlights the most studied research questions and proposes a classification of the various experimental models. The communication will focus on models at the district level, and will identify knowledge gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailHow good are shallow water models at capturing the effect of small-scale obstacles on urban flooding in crossroads?
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Armanini, Aronne; Nucci, Elena (Eds.) New challenges in hydraulic research and engineering (2018, June)

This paper reviews the accuracy of shallow water models to reproduce flow characteristics in flooded crossroads in the presence of a small-scale obstacle. In particular, we identify the potential benefit ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the accuracy of shallow water models to reproduce flow characteristics in flooded crossroads in the presence of a small-scale obstacle. In particular, we identify the potential benefit of using a turbulence model or an anisotropic porosity-based model. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of urban pattern on inundation flow in floodplains of lowland rivers
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Aliaga, Daniel G. et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 622–623

The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2,000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2,000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban procedural model providing locations and shapes of streets and buildings over a square domain of 1 x 1 km². Steady two-dimensional hydraulic computations were performed over the 2,000 urban patterns with identical hydraulic boundary conditions. To run such a large amount of simulations, the computational efficiency of the hydraulic model was improved by using an anisotropic porosity model. This model computes on relatively coarse computational cells, but preserves information from the detailed topographic data through porosity parameters. Relationships between urban characteristics and the computed inundation water depths have been based on multiple linear regressions. Finally, a simple mechanistic model based on two district-scale porosity parameters, combining several urban characteristics, is shown to capture satisfactorily the influence of urban characteristics on inundation water depths. The findings of this study give guidelines for more flood-resilient urban planning. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban flood risk & spatial planning
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, April 10)

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See detailDoes urban flood resilience compete with sustainable urban planning as a whole?
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2018, April), 20

Sustainable urban planning aims at designing the urban fabric so that it meets the needs of an expanding urban population, while synergistically addressing a number of environmental objectives such as ... [more ▼]

Sustainable urban planning aims at designing the urban fabric so that it meets the needs of an expanding urban population, while synergistically addressing a number of environmental objectives such as transport, energy and resource efficiency. Urban densification is a key concept in sustainable urban planning, as it contributes to reduce pressure on environmentally sensitive lands and it makes several services more efficient, including water and energy supply. Similarly, at a local level, intervening spaces in-between buildings should be minimized to enhance heating efficiency. In this communication, we will report on two recent studies focusing on urban flood resilience. Both of them suggest that flood-resilient urban design tends to conflict with the two aforementioned aspects of sustainable urban development. The first study was conducted at the regional level, covering the whole Walloon Region in Belgium (17,000 km2). First, an original agent-based model was used to generate multiple urbanization scenarios with contrasting assumptions on spatial planning policies: urban expansion (sprawl) vs. urban densification, various degrees of ban on new developments in flood-prone areas . . . Next, flood damage modelling was performed along over 1,300 km of river. The results show that the urban densification scenarios lead to systematically higher flood risk estimates, since they promote new developments in the vicinity of existing urban areas mainly located in the lower parts of the river valleys. In a second study, conducted at the district level, we investigated how inundation severity is affected by the arrangement of buildings in floodplains . A set of 2,000 building layouts were synthetized using procedural modelling (Bruwier et al., 2018). Each building layout is characterized by a set of parameters such as the typical street widths, building size . . . Next, the flow characteristics (water depth, flow velocity) were computed for each building layout considering the same flooding scenario. An original porosity-based model was set up for this purpose (Bruwier et al., 2017). The findings of the study reveal that increasing the separation space in-between buildings tends to improve flood-resilience at the district level, thanks to an increased flow conveyance across the urban area. At first sight, the conclusions inferred from the two studies focusing on flood-resilience only (higher future flood risk due to urban densification, benefit of keeping intervening space in-between buildings) seem to diverge from general good-practice in sustainable urban planning. We intend to use this provocative statement to foster discussion with the audience on issues such as: “How can more integrated approaches mitigate such apparent contradictions?”, “How to best modulate sustainable urban planning principles to accommodate urban flood resilience?” [less ▲]

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See detailReview of urban flood experimental models and preliminary design of a laboratory setup of urban flooding
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

In this study, we will investigate a study on an urban flood experimental model. Firstly, a literature review of urban flood experimental models is addressed to summarize the studies in this sector ... [more ▼]

In this study, we will investigate a study on an urban flood experimental model. Firstly, a literature review of urban flood experimental models is addressed to summarize the studies in this sector (Section 2). Next, a strategy of experimental model design will be proposed (section 3.1). Particularly, we are interested in analyzing the influence of model distortion to the flow characteristics (Section 3) and the effect of the interaction between surface flow and underground space (Section 4). [less ▲]

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See detailRésilience urbaine et risque d’inondation : apports du numérique et de l’expérimental
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, December 07)

L’urbanisation croissante et l’intensification des extrêmes hydrologiques accentuent l’importance de la gestion du risque d’inondation. Différents mesures en matière d’aménagement du territoire peuvent ... [more ▼]

L’urbanisation croissante et l’intensification des extrêmes hydrologiques accentuent l’importance de la gestion du risque d’inondation. Différents mesures en matière d’aménagement du territoire peuvent contribuer à maîtriser la vulnérabilité accrue des zones construites, mais leurs effets sont rarement quantifiés de manière objective. Nous montrerons des exemples d’analyse prospective de l’évolution du risque d’inondation pour différents scénarios d’urbanisation. Les nouvelles constructions affectent non seulement la vulnérabilité dans les plaines inondables, mais également les écoulements d’inondation. Une analyse systématique de l’impact hydrologique de choix en matière d’aménagement de la ville sera présentée. Des implications pratiques en matière de résilience des tissus urbains seront mises en évidence. Nous soulignerons également la complémentarité entre modélisation numérique et expérimentale sur cette thématique, ainsi que l’importance des incertitudes qui affectent de façon contrastée les différentes étapes de la modélisation et présentent une hétérogénéité spatiale à ne pas négliger. [less ▲]

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